A demonstration is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause or people partaking in a protest against a cause of concern. It is different from mass meeting. Actions such as blockades and sit-ins may be referred to as demonstrations. Demonstrations can be nonviolent or violent, or can begin as nonviolent and turn violent depending on the circumstances. Sometimes riot police or other forms of law enforcement become involved. In some cases this may be. In other cases, it may be to prevent clashes between rival groups, or to prevent a demonstration from spreading and turning into a riot; the term has been in use since the mid-19th century, as was the term "monster meeting", coined with reference to the huge assemblies of protesters inspired by Daniel O'Connell in Ireland. Demonstrations are a form of activism taking the form of a public gathering of people in a rally or walking in a march. Thus, the opinion is demonstrated to be significant by gathering in a crowd associated with that opinion.
Demonstrations can promote a viewpoint regarding a public issue relating to a perceived grievance or social injustice. A demonstration is considered more successful if more people participate. Research shows that anti-government demonstrations occur more in affluent countries than in poor ones. Historian Eric Hobsbawm wrote of demonstrations: Next to sex, the activity combining bodily experience and intense emotion to the highest degree is the participation in a mass demonstration at a time of great public exaltation. Unlike sex, individual, it is by its nature collective… like sex it implies some physical action—marching, chanting slogans, singing—through which the merger of the individual in the mass, the essence of the collective experience, finds expression. There are many types including a variety of elements; these may include: Marches. Rallies, in which people gather to listen to speakers or musicians. Picketing, in which people surround an area. Sit-ins, in which demonstrators occupy an area, sometimes for a stated period but sometimes indefinitely, until they feel their issue has been addressed, or they are otherwise convinced or forced to leave.
Nudity, in which they protest naked - here the antagonist may give in before the demonstration happens to avoid embarrassment. Demonstrations are sometimes spontaneous gatherings, but are utilized as a tactical choice by movements, they form part of a larger campaign of nonviolent resistance also called civil resistance. Demonstrations are staged in public, but private demonstrations are possible if the demonstrators wish to influence the opinions of a small or specific group of people. Demonstrations are physical gatherings, but virtual or online demonstrations are possible. Topics of demonstrations deal with political and social issues. With controversial issues, sometimes groups of people opposed to the aims of a demonstration may themselves launch a counter-demonstration with the aim of opposing the demonstrators and presenting their view. Clashes between demonstrators and counter-demonstrators may turn violent. Government-organized demonstrations are demonstrations; the Islamic Republic of Iran, the People's Republic of China, Republic of Cuba, the Soviet Union and Argentina, among other nations, have had government-organized demonstrations.
Sometimes the date or location chosen for the demonstration is of historical or cultural significance, such as the anniversary of some event, relevant to the topic of the demonstration. Locations are frequently chosen because of some relevance to the issue at hand. For example, if a demonstration is targeted at issues relating to foreign nation, the demonstration may take place at a location associated with that nation, such as an embassy of the nation in question. Protest marches and demonstrations are a common nonviolent tactic, they are thus one tactic available to proponents of strategic nonviolence. However, the reasons for avoiding the use of violence may derive, not from a general doctrine of nonviolence or pacifism, but from considerations relating to the particular situation, faced, including its legal and power-political dimensions: this has been the case in many campaigns of civil resistance; some demonstrations and protests can turn, at least into riots or mob violence against objects such as automobiles and businesses and the police.
Police and military authorities use non-lethal force or less-lethal weapons, such as tasers, rubber bullets, pepper spray, tear gas against demonstrators in these situations. Sometimes violent situations are caused by the preemptive or offensive use of these weapons which can provoke, destabilize, or escalate a conflict; as a known tool to prevent the infiltration by agents provocateurs, the organizers of large or controversial assemblies may deploy and coordinate demonstration marshals called stewards. Freedom of assembly in Brazil is granted by art. 5th, item XVI, of the Constitution of Brazil: Constitution of Brazil - Text in English. Freedom of assembly in the Russian Federation is granted by Art. 31 of the Constitution adopted in 1993: Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to gather
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music known as dance music, club music, or dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made for nightclubs and festivals. It is produced for playback by disc jockeys who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In Europe, EDM is more called'dance music', or simply'dance'. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, following the emergence of raving, pirate radios and an upsurge of interest in club culture, EDM achieved widespread mainstream popularity in Europe. In the United States at that time, acceptance of dance culture was not universal. There was a perceived association between EDM and drug culture, which led governments at state and city level to enact laws and policies intended to halt the spread of rave culture. Subsequently, in the new millennium, the popularity of EDM increased globally in Australia and the United States.
By the early 2010s, the term "electronic dance music" and the initialism "EDM" was being pushed by the American music industry and music press in an effort to rebrand American rave culture. Despite the industry's attempt to create a specific EDM brand, the initialism remains in use as an umbrella term for multiple genres, including house, trance and bass and dubstep, as well as their respective subgenres. Various EDM genres have evolved for example. Stylistic variation within an established EDM genre can lead to the emergence of what is called a subgenre. Hybridization, where elements of two or more genres are combined, can lead to the emergence of an new genre of EDM. In the late 1960s bands such as Silver Apples created electronic music, intended to be danced to. Other early examples of music that influenced electronic dance music include Jamaican dub music during the late 1960s to 1970s, the synthesizer-based disco music of Italian producer Giorgio Moroder in the late 1970s, the electro-pop of Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Author Michael Veal considers dub music, a Jamaican music stemming from roots reggae and sound system culture that flourished between 1968 and 1985, to be one of the important precursors to contemporary electronic dance music. Dub productions were remixed reggae tracks that emphasized rhythm, fragmented lyrical and melodic elements, reverberant textures; the music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Scientist. Their productions included forms of tape editing and sound processing that Veal considers comparable to techniques used in musique concrète. Dub producers made improvised deconstructions of existing multi-track reggae mixes by using the studio mixing board as a performance instrument, they foregrounded spatial effects such as reverb and delay by using auxiliary send routings creatively. The Roland Space Echo, manufactured by Roland Corporation, was used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo and psychedelic electronic effects, it featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep bass lines and harmonic sounds. Techniques such as a long echo delay were used. Hip hop music has played a key role in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx, his parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, at the point where a track featured a break.
This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was called a break beat. Turntablism has origins in the invention of the direct-drive turntable, by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables; the most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972. In the 1980s and 1990s hip-hop DJs used turntables as musical instruments in their own right and virtuosic use developed into a creative practice called turntablism. In 1974, George McCrae's early disco hit "Rock Your Baby" was one of the first records to use a drum machine, an early Roland rhythm machine, its use of a drum machine was anticipated by Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair", which anticipated the sound of disco, with its rhythm echoed in "Rock Your Baby".
The use of drum machines in "Family Affair" and Timmy Thomas' "Why Can't We Live Together", which used a 1972 Roland rhythm machine, influenced the adoption of drum machines by disco artists. Disco producer Biddu used synthesizers in several disco songs from 1976 to 1977, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest, "Soul Coaxing", and
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Trance is a genre of electronic music that emerged from the British new-age music scene and the early 1990s German techno and hardcore scenes. At the same time trance music was developing in Europe. Trance music is characterized by a tempo lying between 110–150 bpm, repeating melodic phrases, a musical form that distinctly builds tension and elements throughout a track culminating in 1 to 2 "peaks" or "drops". Although trance is a genre of its own, it liberally incorporates influences from other musical styles such as techno, pop, chill-out, classical music, tech house and film music. A trance is a state of hypnotism and heightened consciousness; this is portrayed in trance music by the mixing of layers with distinctly foreshadowed build-up and release. A common characteristic of trance music is a mid-song climax followed by a soft breakdown disposing of beats and percussion leaving the melody or atmospherics to stand alone for an extended period before building up again. Trance tracks are lengthy to allow for such progression and have sufficiently sparse opening and closing sections to facilitate mixing by DJs.
Trance is instrumental, although vocals can be mixed in: they are performed by mezzo-soprano to soprano female soloists without a traditional verse/chorus structure. Structured vocal form in trance music forms the basis of the vocal trance subgenre, described as "grand and operatic" and "ethereal female leads floating amongst the synths". However, male singers, such as Jonathan Mendelsohn, are featured; the "Trance" name may refer to an induced emotional feeling, euphoria, chills, or uplifting rush that listeners claim to experience, or it may indicate an actual trance-like state the earliest forms of this music attempted to emulate in the 1990s before the genre's focus changed. Another possible antecedent is Yuzo Koshiro and Motohiro Kawashima's electronic soundtracks for the Streets of Rage series of video games from 1991 to 1994, it was promoted by the well-known UK club-night "Megatripolis" whose scene catapulted it to international fame. Examples of early trance releases include but are not limited to KLF's 1988 release'What Time Is Love', German duo Jam & Spoon's 1992 12" Single remix of the 1990 song "The Age Of Love", German duo Dance 2 Trance's 1990 track "We Came in Peace".
The writer Bom Coen traces the roots of trance to Paul van Dyk's 1993 remix of Humate's "Love Stimulation". However, Van Dyk's trance origins can be traced further back to his work with Visions of Shiva, being the first tracks he released In subsequent years, one genre, vocal trance, arose as the combination of progressive elements and pop music, the development of another subgenre, epic trance, finds some of its origins in classical music, with film music being influential. Trance was arguably at its commercial peak in the second part of 1990s and early 2000s. Classic trance employs a 4/4 time signature, a tempo of 125 to 150 BPM, 32 beat phrases and is somewhat faster than house music. A kick drum is placed on every downbeat and a regular open hi-hat is placed on the upbeat or every 1/8th division of the bar. Extra percussive elements are added, major transitions, builds or climaxes are foreshadowed by lengthy "snare rolls"—a quick succession of snare drum hits that build in velocity and volume towards the end of a measure or phrase.
Rapid arpeggios and minor keys are common features of Trance, the latter being universal. Trance tracks use one central "hook", or melody, which runs through the entire song, repeating at intervals anywhere between 2 beats and 32 bars, in addition to harmonies and motifs in different timbres from the central melody. Instruments are removed every 4, 8, 16, or 32 bars. In the section before the breakdown, the lead motif is introduced in a sliced up and simplified form, to give the audience a "taste" of what they will hear after the breakdown; the final climax is "a culmination of the first part of the track mixed with the main melodic reprise". As is the case with many dance music tracks, trance tracks are built with sparser intros and outros in order to enable DJs to blend them together immediately. More recent forms of trance music incorporate other styles and elements of electronic music such as electro and progressive house into its production, it emphasizes harsher basslines and drum beats which decrease the importance of offbeats and focus on a four on the floor stylistic house drum pattern.
The bpm of more recent styles tends to be on par with house music at 120 to 135 beats per minute. However, unlike house music, recent forms of trance stay true to their melodic breakdowns and longer transitions. Trance music is broken into a number of subgenres including acid trance, classic trance, hard trance, progressive trance, uplifting trance. Uplifting trance is known as "anthem trance", "epic trance", "commercial trance", "stadium trance", or "euphoric trance", has been influenced by classical music in the 1990s and 2000s by leading artists such as Ferry Corsten, Armin Van Buuren, Tiësto, Rank 1 and at present with the development of the subgenre "orchestral uplifting trance" or "uplifting trance with symphonic orchestra" by such artists as Andy Blueman, Ciro Visone, Arctic Moon, Sergey Nevone & Simon O'Shine, among others. Related to Uplifting Trance is Euro-trance, which has become a general term for a wide variety of commercialized European dance music. Several subgenres are crossovers with other major genres of electronic music.
For instance, Tech trance is a mixture of trance and tech
Paul van Dyk
Matthias Paul, known professionally as Paul van Dyk is a German DJ, record producer and musician. One of the first true renowned DJs, van Dyk was the first artist to receive a Grammy Award nomination in the newly added category of Best Dance/Electronic album for his 2003 release Reflections, he was named the World's number one DJ in both 2005 and 2006, something only few DJs have achieved. He was the first DJ to be named number one by Mixmag in 2005. By 2008, he had sold over 3 million albums worldwide. A trance producer starting in the early 1990s, van Dyk achieved popularity with his remix of "Love Stimulation" by Humate on the record label MFS in 1993 and with his hit single "For an Angel" but, in recent times, he no longer likes to describe his music as trance, but rather as electronic music. Van Dyk is the radio host of "Vonyc Sessions with Paul" on Dash Radio. Paul van Dyk grew up in East Berlin in a single parent household. While living there, he began training to become a carpenter. Paul van Dyk claims.
Where he grew up there were no record stores at which to buy music, so he kept in touch with the world beyond the Berlin Wall by secretly listening to the popular but forbidden Western radio stations RIAS and SFB and mixtapes smuggled into the country and copied among school friends. Shortly before the fall of the Berlin Wall, van Dyk and his mother were given permission to leave East Germany and moved to Hamburg to live with his aunt. In 1990, van Dyk moved back to Berlin, his first appearance as a DJ was in the Tresor in March 1991. After several more dates, he was given the chance to perform at Andre'Hoche's Dubmission parties in the Turbine club, together with the young resident DJ Kid Paul. With Cosmic Baby, he collaborated as The Visions of Shiva, their single "Perfect Day" was released by the Berlin independent label MFS Records, run by English ex-patriat producer Mark Reeder and manager Torsten Jurk. In February 1993, van Dyk and Kid Paul hosted an installment of the weekly three-hour "HR3 Clubnight" radio show, performing for a nationwide audience on German radio.
The second and final Visions of Shiva single "How Much Can You Take?" was released, van Dyk and Cosmic went their separate musical ways. By late summer, Paul released his first DJ-mix compilation "X-Mix-1 – the MFS Trip" and remixed Humate's trance hymn "Love Stimulation". In 1994, Paul van Dyk released The Green Valley EP, Pump This Party and Emergency 911. Meanwhile, MFS acquired many remixes for Paul. MFS label owner Mark Reeder's close friendship with artists such as New Order gave Paul the opportunity to mix the track "Spooky" from the Republic album, he recorded his debut LP 45 RPM with Johnny Klimek and VOOV. Seven Ways established Paul van Dyk as a trance pioneer and was Paul van Dyk's first real success in Britain. Seven Ways was voted the No. 1 album by readers of DJ Magazine. In early 1997, Paul van Dyk began collaborating with U. S. music producer BT. Together, they produced tracks such as "Flaming June", "Forbidden Fruit" and "Namistai"; the singles "Forbidden Fruit" and "Beautiful Place" did not cause a great impact at first but, with the release of Seven Ways and "Words" appearing at the height of the British superclub phenomenon, van Dyk's own material began to attract attention.
"By the time they realised I was a German, it was too late!" van Dyk said. Van Dyk remixed a well known early-90s track, Age of Love, in 1997. In 1998, 45 RPM was re-released in the UK and in the US. To mark the event, in homage to the defunct E-Werk, Paul released a remix of "For An Angel". Van Dyk took up a residency at Sheffield's Gatecrasher and declared himself anti-drugs, which led to home-made "No E, Pure PvD" T-shirts a sly note to journalists that his surname contained no "E". In 1998, Paul remixed British trance duo Binary Finary's famous "1998" single, a successful version that took Binary Finary to the top of the German Dance charts. In mid-1998, Van Dyk took a controlling share in the new label Vandit Records. In 2000, Paul flexed his skills with his melodic, dancefloor-friendly Out There and Back, which included the hit single "Tell Me Why", a collaboration with Saint Etienne, it included the European hit We Are Alive, a remixed version of the Jennifer Brown song Alive. His first mix album The Politics of Dancing was followed by a world tour and a DVD release Global and the Mexican film Zurdo, for which van Dyk composed the soundtrack and won a Mexican Oscar for his work.
Reflections derived from van Dyk's trips to India, was a more melancholy affair, includes the single "Nothing But You", a collaboration with Hemstock & Jennings. It was nominated for a Grammy in the category of Best Electronic Album; the same song was used on the soundtrack of the game FIFA 2004. The mix album The Politics of Dancing 2 was preceded by a single "The Other Side," featuring Wayne Jackson, his original productions from Reflections have been synced into major motion pictures such as Into the Blue, Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants, television's Entertainment Tonight and MTV Cribs, international ad campaigns for Motorola, HBO, Land Rover, Ski Vail and most for Jeep. Paul van Dyk released his fifth studio album, In Between, worldwide on 14 August 2007; the album, which he created over a three-year period, debuted at number No. 115 on the Billboa
The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic, starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall cut off West Berlin from all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989, its demolition began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, accompanied by a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses; the Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. GDR authorities referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart; the West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border, which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.
Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin. Between 1961 and 1989 the Wall prevented all such emigration. During this period over 100,000 people attempted to escape and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136 to more than 200 in and around Berlin. In 1989 a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany that resulted in the demise of the Wall. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.
The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990. After the end of World War II in Europe, what remained of pre-war Germany west of the Oder-Neisse line was divided into four occupation zones, each one controlled by one of the four occupying Allied powers: the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union; the capital of Berlin, as the seat of the Allied Control Council, was subdivided into four sectors despite the city's location, within the Soviet zone. Within two years, political divisions increased between the other occupying powers; these included the Soviets' refusal to agree to reconstruction plans making post-war Germany self-sufficient, to a detailed accounting of industrial plants and infrastructure - some of, removed by the Soviets. France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Benelux countries met to combine the non-Soviet zones of Germany into one zone for reconstruction, to approve the extension of the Marshall Plan.
Following World War II, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin headed a group of nations on his Western border, the Eastern Bloc, that included Poland and Czechoslovakia, which he wished to maintain alongside a weakened Soviet-controlled Germany. As early as 1945, Stalin revealed to German communist leaders that he expected to undermine the British position within the British occupation zone, that the United States would withdraw within a year or two, that nothing would stand in the way of a united communist Germany within the bloc; the major task of the ruling communist party in the Soviet zone was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties, which in turn would be presented as internal measures. Property and industry was nationalized in the East German zone. If statements or decisions deviated from the described line and punishment would ensue, such as imprisonment and death. Indoctrination of Marxism-Leninism became a compulsory part of school curricula, sending professors and students fleeing to the West.
The East Germans created an elaborate political police apparatus that kept the population under close surveillance, including Soviet SMERSH secret police. In 1948, following disagreements regarding reconstruction and a new German currency, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade, preventing food and supplies from arriving in West Berlin; the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and several other countries began a massive "airlift", supplying West Berlin with food and other supplies. The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the Western policy change. Communists attempted to disrupt the elections of 1948, preceding large losses therein, while 300,000 Berliners demonstrated for the international airlift to continue. In May 1949, Stalin lifted the blockade; the German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949. By a secret treaty, the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs accorded the East Ge