Computer Gaming World
Computer Gaming World was an American computer game magazine published between 1981 and 2006. In 1979 Russell Sipe left the Southern Baptist Convention ministry. A fan of computer games, he realized in spring 1981 there was no magazine dedicated to computer games. Although Sipe had no publishing experience, he formed Golden Empire Publications in June and found investors, he chose the name of Computer Gaming World instead of alternatives such as Computer Games or Kilobaud Warrior because he hoped that the magazine would both review games and serve as a trade publication for the industry. The first issue appeared at about the same as rivals Electronic Games and Softline; the first issues of Computer Gaming World were published from Anaheim and sold for $2.75 individually or $11 for a year's subscription of six issues. These early bi-monthly issues were 40-50 pages in length, written in a newsletter style, including submissions by game designers such as Joel Billings, Dan Bunten, Chris Crawford.
As well, early covers were not always directly related to the magazine's contents, but rather featured work by artist Tim Finkas. In January/February 1986 CGW increased its publication cycle to nine times a year, the editorial staff included popular writers such as Scorpia, Charles Ardai, M. Evan Brooks. CGW survived the video game crash of 1983. In autumn 1987 CGW introduced a quarterly newsletter called Computer Game Forum, published during the off-months of CGW; the newsletter never became popular. Some of CGF's content became part of CGW; the magazine went through significant expansion starting in 1991, with growing page counts reaching 196 pages by its 100th issue, in November 1992. During that same year, Johnny Wilson, became editor-in-chief, although Sipe remained as Publisher. In 1993, Sipe sold the magazine to Ziff Davis—by the magazine was so thick that a reader reported that the December issue's bulk slowed a thief who had stolen a shopping bag containing it—but continued on as Publisher until 1995.
The magazine kept growing through the 1990s, with the December 1997 issue weighing in at 500 pages. In January 1999, Wilson left the magazine and George Jones became editor-in-chief, at a time when print magazines were struggling with the growing popularity of the Internet. Jones had been the editor-in-chief of CNET Gamecenter, had before that been a staffer at Computer Gaming World between 1994 and 1996, he was replaced by Jeff Green in 2002. On August 2, 2006, Ziff Davis and Microsoft jointly announced that Computer Gaming World would be replaced with Games for Windows: The Official Magazine; the final CGW-labeled issue was November 2006, for a total of 268 published editions. With the release of the final CGW issue, Ziff Davis announced the availability of the CGW Archive; the Archive features complete copies of the first 100 issues of CGW, as well as the 2 CGF issues, for a total of 7438 pages covering 11 years of gaming. The Archive was created by Stephane Racle, of the Computer Gaming World Museum, is available in PDF format.
Every issue was processed through Optical Character Recognition, which enabled the creation of a 3+ million word master index. Although Ziff Davis has taken its CGW Archive site offline, the magazines can be downloaded from the Computer Gaming World Museum. On April 8, 2008, 1UP Network announced the print edition of Games for Windows: The Official Magazine had ceased, that all content would be moved online. CGW featured reviews, news, letters and columns dealing with computer games. While console games are touched on, these are the territory of CGW's sister magazine Electronic Gaming Monthly. In 2006, two of the most popular features were "Greenspeak", a final-page column written by Editor-In-Chief Jeff Green, "Tom vs. Bruce" a unique "duelling-diaries" piece in which writers Tom Chick and Bruce Geryk logged their gameplay experience as each tried to best the other at a given game. "Tom vs. Bruce" sometimes featured a guest appearance by Erik Wolpaw of Old Man Murray. For many years, CGW never assigned scores to reviews, preferring to let readers rate their favorite games through a monthly poll.
Scores were introduced in 1994. However, beginning in April 2006, Computer Gaming World stopped assigning quantifiable scores to its reviews. In May of the same year, CGW changed the name of its review section to Viewpoint, began evaluating games on a more diverse combination of factors than a game's content. Elements considered include the communities' reaction to a game, developers' continued support through patches and whether a game's online component continues to grow; the reviews were based on a simple five-star structure, with five stars marking a outstanding game, one star signalling virtual worthlessness. Three games, Postal² by Robert Coffey, Mistmare by Jeff Green, Dungeon Lords by Denice Cook "...form an unholy trinity of the only games in CGW history to receive zero-star reviews." According to MDS Computer Gaming World had a circulation of above 300,000 as of 2006. In this regard, it was behind industry arch-rival PC Gamer. Bruce F. Webster reviewed the first issue of Computer Gaming World in The Space Gamer No.
48. Webster commented that "I recommend this magazine to computer gamers, just one reason alone will
Esports is a form of competition using video games. Most esports takes the form of organized, multiplayer video game competitions between professional players, individually or as teams. Although organized online and offline competitions have long been a part of video game culture, these were between amateurs until the late 2000s, when participation by professional gamers and spectatorship in these events through live streaming saw a large surge in popularity. By the 2010s, esports was a significant factor in the video game industry, with many game developers designing toward a professional esports subculture; the most common video game genres associated with esports are multiplayer online battle arena, first-person shooter, digital collectible card games, battle royale games and real-time strategy. Popular esports titles include MOBA games such as, League of Legends, Dota 2 and Smite, FPS titles such as Counter-Strike and Call of Duty, CrossFire and Rainbow Six Siege which are in the FPS sub-genre of tactical shooters, Overwatch, in the FPS sub-genre of hero shooter, fighting games such as Street Fighter, Super Smash Bros.
Mortal Kombat and Soulcalibur, Beat'em up such as Dungeon Fighter Online, digital collectible card games such as Hearthstone, Battle royale games such as PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds and Fortnite Battle Royale, RTS titles StarCraft. Tournaments such as the League of Legends World Championship, Dota 2's The International, the fighting games-specific Evolution Championship Series, the Intel Extreme Masters provide live broadcasts of the competition and prize money to competitors. Many competitions use a series of promotion and relegation play with sponsored teams, such as the League of Legends World Championship, but more competitions structured similar to American professional sports, with salaried players and regular season and play-off series, have emerged, such as the Overwatch League; the legitimacy of esports as a sports competition remains in question. By 2019, it is estimated; the increasing availability of online streaming media platforms Panda.tv, YouTube, Twitch have become central to the growth and promotion of esports competitions.
Demographically, Major League Gaming has reported viewership, 85% male and 15% female, with a majority of viewers between the ages of 18 and 34. Despite this, several female personalities within esports are hopeful about the increasing presence of female gamers. South Korea has several established esports organizations, which have licensed pro gamers since the year 2000. Recognition of esports competitions outside of South Korea has come somewhat slower. Along with South Korea, most competitions take place in North America and China. Despite its large video game market, esports in Japan is underdeveloped, this has been attributed to its broad anti-gambling laws which prohibit paid professional gaming tournaments; the global esports market generated US$325 million of revenue in 2015 and was expected to make $493 million in 2016. The global esports audience in 2015 was 226 million people. According to a Newzoo report in April 2017, 42% of the gaming market belongs to the mobile industry, mobile is projected to claim more than 50% the market by 2020.
The esports industry is expanding beyond PC and console, as developer Super Evil Megacorp created Vainglory, the first mobile multiplayer online battle arena game, companies like Skillz bring esports tournaments to mobile games. The earliest known video game competition took place on 19 October 1972 at Stanford University for the game Spacewar. Stanford students were invited to an "Intergalactic spacewar olympics" whose grand prize was a year's subscription for Rolling Stone, with Bruce Baumgart winning the five-man-free-for-all tournament and Tovar and Robert E. Maas winning the Team Competition; the Space Invaders Championship held by Atari in 1980 was the earliest large scale video game competition, attracting more than 10,000 participants across the United States, establishing competitive gaming as a mainstream hobby. In the summer of 1980, Walter Day founded a high score record keeping organization called Twin Galaxies; the organization went on to help promote video games and publicize its records through publications such as the Guinness Book of World Records, in 1983 it created the U.
S. National Video Game Team; the team was involved in competitions, such as running the Video Game Masters Tournament for Guinness World Records and sponsoring the North American Video Game Challenge tournament. During the 1970s and 1980s, video game players and tournaments began being featured in well-circulated newspapers and popular magazines including Life and Time. One of the most well known classic arcade game players is Billy Mitchell, credited with the records for high scores in six games including Pac-Man and Donkey Kong in the 1985 issue of the Guinness Book of World Records; some of those records would be removed in 2018 amid allegations of fraud. Televised esports events aired during this period included the American show Starcade which ran between 1982 and 1984 airing a total of 133 episodes, on which contestants would attempt to beat each other's high scores on an arcade game. A video game tournament was included as part of TV show That's Incredible!, tournaments were featured as part of the plot of various films, including 1982's Tron.
In the UK, the BBC game show First Class i
EGX is a trade fair for video games held annually in the United Kingdom. The first Eurogamer Expo took place at the Old Truman Brewery as part of the London Games Festival 2008 and was attended by 4,000 people. In 2009, the show took place at The Royal Armouries in Leeds and the Old Billingsgate Market in London at the end of October; the event was held at London's Earls Court for the next five years between 2010 and 2014. After the confirmation of the venue's closure, it was announced that EGX would be moving to Birmingham's National Exhibition Centre as part of a multi-year deal. In 2012, Eurogamer and Rock, Shotgun announced Rezzed, a PC and indie games show spun off from Eurogamer Expo. Rezzed was first held at the Brighton Centre on 6–7 July 2012. In September 2012, Eurogamer announced that Eurogamer Expo would host a Rezzed component. In October 2013, the Eurogamer Expo was renamed to EGX London, Rezzed was renamed EGX Rezzed; the EGX London brand was discontinued in 2014, following the move to Birmingham NEC the show has been called EGX.
Eurogamer is a website focused on video game journalism and other features. It is operated by Gamer Network Ltd. with headquarters in East Sussex. It was formed in 1999 by brothers Nick Loman while they were in secondary school. Gamer Network states that the site has the largest readership of any independent videogames website in Europe, was the first such site to subject its traffic to independent verification by the ABC Electronic system; the site caters to a UK/Ireland audience. Most of its reviews are of PAL releases of games. In February 2015, Eurogamer dropped its 10-point scale review scores system in favour of a "recommendation system," where games would either receive no specific recommendation or awards for being "Recommended," "Essential" or "Avoid." Eurogamer launched on 4 September 1999. Among its founders were Rupert Loman, a Quake and esports community organiser. Eurogamer's current editor is Oli Welsh, who took over the role from Tom Bramwell in September 2014; the editor prior to Bramwell was Kristan Reed.
Contributors to the site include past or present writers from PC Gamer, GamesTM, Rock, Shotgun, such as Kieron Gillen, Jim Rossignol, John Walker, Simon Parkin, Alec Meer, Richard Leadbetter, Dan Whitehead, as well as former GamesIndustry.biz editor Rob Fahey. Eurogamer founder Rupert Loman was interviewed in February 2007 by MCV magazine, he was featured in the Sunday Telegraph on 19 August 2007, speaking about the experience he has gained from choosing to run Eurogamer instead of attending university. At the Games Media Awards, Eurogamer won the categories of Best Games Website – News, Best Games Website – Reviews & Features in 2007; the two awards were consolidated in 2008 and the site went on to win the new award for Best Games Website every year it was awarded, from 2008 to 2013, making it the only website to win the award in its history. Deputy Editor Tom Bramwell won Best Writer in Specialist Digital Media and Eurogamer TV editor Johnny Minkley won Best Games-Dedicated Broadcast on Mainstream TV or Radio in 2007.
News editor Wesley Yin-Poole won Best News Writer in 2014. Rupert Loman was winner of Entrepreneur of the Year 2003 at the Sussex Business Awards and The Observer's "One to Watch" in Media 2007, he was selected as one of 30 "Young Guns" by Growing Business magazine in October 2008. Eurogamer is the principal site of the Gamer Network family of video game-related websites which it has either launched or acquired. Many of its sister sites were started with language/country-specific sites through 2006 to 2012. Eurogamer Germany; this was followed up with Eurogamer France in June 2007, Eurogamer Portugal in May 2008, Eurogamer Netherlands in August 2008, Eurogamer Spain and Eurogamer Italy in October 2008, Eurogamer Romania in March 2009, Eurogamer Czech in May 2009, Eurogamer Denmark in June 2009, Eurogamer Belgium in August 2009, Eurogamer Sweden in April 2010 and Eurogamer Poland in November 2012. In April 2011, Eurogamer Netherlands and Eurogamer Belgium merged to form Eurogamer Benelux. Eurogamer Romania closed down in 2011.
In November 2012, Eurogamer launched their first non-European site, Brasilgamer,In February 2018, Gamer Network was acquired by ReedPOP for an undisclosed sum. Other sites under the Gamer Network include: GamesIndustry.biz, which reports on the global video games industry, launched in May 2008. USgamer, a site following the same principles as the main Eurogamer website but helmed by American staff, launched around 2013. VG247, a video game news site started between Gamer Network and Patrick Garrett in 2008. Mod DB, a database for video game modifications launched in 2002, acquired by Gamer Network in 2015. Rock, Shotgun, a British-based website principally devoted to personal computer video games; the site was acquired into the Gamer Network in May 2017. Eurogamer has hosted the Digital Foundry channel since 2007. Digital Foundry evaluates video game hardware and software from a technical level comparing performances of the same game across different platforms. In February 2018, ReedPOP, a subsidiary of Reed Exhibitions that runs the PAX conventions, acquired the Gamer Network and its network of sites as to expanding into digital news and editorial content, as well as EGX, the largest video game convention in the United Kingdom.
No immediate changes were expected at other sites on the Gamer Network. Eurogamer.net GamesIndustry.biz
Martindale-Hubbell is an information services company to the legal profession, founded in 1868. The company publishes the Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory, which provides background information on lawyers and law firms in the United States and other countries, it published the Martindale Hubbell Law Digest, a summary of laws around the world. Martindale-Hubbell is owned by consumer website company Internet Brands. Martindale's Directory was first published in 1868 by James B. Martindale, a lawyer and businessman, he wrote in the Preface: "The object of the work is to furnish to Lawyers, Wholesale Merchants, Real Estate Agents, all others who may have need of business correspondents away from home, the address of one reliable law firm, one reliable bank, one reliable real estate agent in each city and town in the United States. In view of constant and rapid changes occurring among Law firms, by reason of death, election of office, an occasional degeneracy, making the best list of necessity short-lived, in view of the continual changes being made in the commercial laws of the several States, we will revise this work once a year, publish it annually, on the first of every January."In 1870, the first edition of Hubbell's Legal Directory appeared.
As stated in the Introduction: "... The vast and extending relations of business, the immense territory over which this business must be transacted, the difficulties that occur in obtaining reliable correspondents and information respecting the collection of debts in the different States, seem to create a necessity for a work of this character..."By 1896, Martindale's Directory included basic information that still appears in the modern "Practice Profile" listings, ratings and a section on foreign lawyers and firms. The Law Digests of all the States and Provinces constituted a new and valuable feature, being the substance of the law adapted to the comprehension of business men, not mere copies of statutes, as had been the case with most similar publications; the same year, the twenty sixth volume of the Hubbell's Legal Directory appeared, containing 1,600 pages of finely printed information. In 1916, Martindale's American Law Directory contained the following: In Part I - tabulated laws, collection rates, lawyers of the U.
S. of Canada, of Newfoundland, lawyers of fourteen largest cities, Canons of Professional Ethics. In Part II - foreign attorneys, diplomatic service of the U. S. Tariff of American Consular Fees, U. S. Consular Service. Part III - Law Digests of the U. S. and Canada, Law Digest of Newfoundland, Cuba Law Digest, English Law Digest, French Law Digest, German Law Digest, Mexico Law Digest, the Netherlands Law Digest, U. S. Bankruptcy Law Digest, U. S. Patent Law Digest, U. S. Trademark Law Digest, U. S. Court Calendar and Court Calendar of States. In 1930, the Martindale Company purchased the publishing rights to Hubbell's Legal Directory, which consisted of a digest of the collected laws of each state. Through the combination of the Martindale's Directory and Hubbell's Legal Directory, the first edition of the Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory was produced in 1931 as a two-volume set. Volume I consisted of, other than lawyers listings, lawyers in America, lawyers of Canada and the Colony of Newfoundland, selected list of foreign lawyers, list of patent attorneys and a biographical section.
Volume II contained the Law Digests, which included a topical index, Digests of the Laws of the States and Possessions of the USA, Digests of the Laws of Canada, Digests of the Laws of 40 Foreign Countries, United States Patent and Trademark Law Digests, Court Calendars and Uniform Acts and recommended for adoption by the National Conference on Uniform State Laws and Proceedings. The Preface to the Law Digest commenced with the words: "No feature of the modern directory is of more value to the law office than the section, devoted to the synopses of laws of the several states and foreign jurisdictions."In 1951, a digest was added for the new country of Israel. Meanwhile, internal conditions as well as difficulties of communication with Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania had made it necessary to withdraw publication of law digests for these countries; these law digests were again published in the 1990s. Throughout the years Martindale Hubbell Law Digest, revised and published annually, has been considered as an incomplete encyclopaedia of comparative law in English.
In 1963, Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory was published in four volumes. Volumes I, II and III contained in the geographical section a roster as complete as possible of the Bar of the U. S. and Canada with ratings and other information, listings of the U. S. Government lawyers located at Washington, D. C. grouped by Agencies etc.. A special section contained names of lawyers registered before the United States Patent Office. A similar section for Canada was included. In another part of the Directory was presented a selected list of lawyers in other countries. Volume IV contained digests of the laws and court calendars for the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and digests of the U. S. Copyright and Trademark laws; some of the Uniform and Model Acts were included as well as were digests of the laws of the Dominion of Canada, of the Canadian Provinces and of 53 countries or jurisdictions, including Germany, the Un
Quake (video game)
Quake is a first-person shooter video game developed by id Software and published by GT Interactive in 1996. Owing to its popularity, it would become the first game in the Quake series. In the game, players must find their way through various maze-like, medieval environments while battling a variety of monsters using an array of weaponry; the successor to id Software's Doom series, Quake built upon the technology and gameplay of its predecessors. Unlike the Doom engine before it, the Quake engine offered full real-time 3D rendering and had early support for 3D acceleration through OpenGL. After Doom helped to popularize multiplayer deathmatches in 1993, Quake added various multiplayer options. Online multiplayer became common, with the QuakeWorld update and software such as QuakeSpy making the process of finding and playing against others on the Internet easier and more reliable. Quake features music composed by his band, Nine Inch Nails; the overall atmosphere is dark and gritty, with lots of stone textures and a rustic, capitalized font.
In Quake's single-player mode, players explore and navigate to the exit of each Gothic and dark level, facing monsters and finding secret areas along the way. There are switches to activate or keys to collect in order to open doors before the exit can be reached. Reaching the exit takes the player to the next level. Before accessing an episode, there is a set of three pathways with easy and hard skill levels; the fourth skill level, "Nightmare", was "so bad that it was hidden, so people won't wander in by accident". Quake's single-player campaign is organized into four individual episodes with seven to eight levels in each; as items are collected, they are carried to the next level, each more challenging than the last. If the player's character dies, he must restart at the beginning of the level; the game may be saved at any time. Upon completing an episode, the player is returned to the hub "START" level, where another episode can be chosen; each episode starts the player from scratch, without any collected items.
Episode one has the most traditional ideology of a boss in the last level. The ultimate objective at the end of each episode is to recover a magic rune. After all of the runes are collected, the floor of the hub level opens up to reveal an entrance to the "END" level which contains the final boss of the game. In multiplayer mode, players on several computers connect to a server, where they can either play the single-player campaign together in co-op mode, or play against each other in multiplayer; when players die in multiplayer mode, they can respawn, but will lose any items that were collected. Items that have been picked up respawn after some time, may be picked up again; the most popular multiplayer modes are all forms of deathmatch. Deathmatch modes consist of either free-for-all, one-on-one duels, or organized teamplay with two or more players per team. Teamplay is frequently played with one or another mod. Monsters are not present in teamplay, as they serve no purpose other than to get in the way and reveal the positions of the players.
The gameplay in Quake was considered unique for its time because of the different ways the player can maneuver through the game. For example: bunny hopping or strafe jumping can be used to move faster than normal, while rocket jumping enables the player to reach otherwise-inaccessible areas at the cost of some self-damage; the player can start and stop moving jump unnaturally high, change direction while moving through the air. Many of these non-realistic behaviors contribute to Quake's appeal. Multiplayer Quake was one of the first games singled out as a form of electronic sport. A notable participant was Dennis Fong who won John Carmack's Ferrari 328 at the Microsoft-sponsored Red Annihilation tournament in 1997. In the single-player game, the player takes the role of the protagonist known as Ranger, sent into a portal in order to stop an enemy code-named "Quake"; the government had been experimenting with teleportation technology and developed a working prototype called a "Slipgate". The sole surviving protagonist in "Operation Counterstrike" is Ranger, who must advance, starting each of the four episodes from an overrun human military base, before fighting his way into other dimensions, reaching them via the Slipgate or their otherworld equivalent.
After passing through the Slipgate, Ranger's main objective is to collect four magic runes from four dimensions of Quake. The single-player campaign consists of 30 separate levels, or "maps", divided into four episodes, as well as a hub level to select a difficulty setting and episode, the game's final boss level; each episode represents individual dimensions that the player can access through magical portals that are discovered over the course of the game. The various realms consist of a number of gothic and lava-filled caves and dunge
Mendeley is a desktop and web program produced by Elsevier for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online. It combines Mendeley Desktop, a PDF and reference management application available for Windows, macOS and Linux, it provides Mendeley for Android and iOS, with Mendeley Web, an online social network for researchers. Mendeley requires the user to store all basic citation data on its servers—storing copies of documents is at the user's discretion. Upon registration, Mendeley provides the user with 2 GB of free web storage space, upgradeable at a cost. Since its 1.19 release in 2018, Mendeley encrypts its local database using a proprietary algorithm. It is further no longer possible to export collections of annotated files, such as for scientific collaboration, leading to a vendor lock-in situation. Mendeley, named after the biologist Gregor Mendel and chemist Dmitri Mendeleyev, was founded in November 2007 by three German PhD students and is based in London.
The first public beta version was released in August 2008. The company's investors include some people involved with Last.fm, Warner Music Group, as well as academics from Cambridge and Johns Hopkins University. Mendeley won several awards in 2009: Plugg.eu "European Start-up of the Year 2009", TechCrunch Europas "Best Social Innovation Which Benefits Society 2009", The Guardian ranked it #6 in "Top 100 tech media companies". On September 23, 2013, Mendeley announced iPad apps that are free to install. Mendeley was purchased by the Elsevier publishing company in 2013; the deal price was speculated to be €50 million, following earlier speculation that it was between $69 million and $100 million. The sale led to debate on scientific networks and in the media interested in Open Access, upset members of the scientific community who felt that the program's acquisition by publishing giant Elsevier, known for implementing restrictive publishing practices, the high prices of their journals, publicly supporting the SOPA bill, was antithetical to the open sharing model of Mendeley.
David Dobbs, in The New Yorker, suggested Elsevier's reasons for buying Mendeley could have been to acquire its user data and/or to "destroy or coopt an open-science icon that threatens its business model."In 2012, Mendeley was one of the repositories for green Open Access recommended by Peter Suber. The recommendation was revoked in 2013. In 2018, an update to Mendeley resulted in some users losing PDFs and annotations stored in their accounts. After a number of weeks, Elsevier announced a potential fix for this problem. Since its 1.19 release in 2018 Mendeley encrypts its local database using a proprietary algorithm, making it difficult for users to export their data from the application and creating a vendor lock-in situation. Mendeley is available either as a premium payable version or a basic version, free but requires registration. Mendeley Desktop, based on Qt, runs on Windows and Linux. Automatic extraction of metadata from PDF papers. Back-up and synchronization across multiple computers and with a private online account.
PDF viewer with text highlighting and full-screen reading. Full-text search across papers. Smart filtering and automatic PDF file renaming. Citations and bibliographies in Microsoft Word, OpenOffice.org, LibreOffice. Import of documents and research papers from external websites via browser bookmarklet. BibTeX export/file sync. Private groups to collaboratively tag and annotate research papers. Public groups to share reading lists. Social networking features. Usage-based readership statistics about papers and publications. IPhone app. iPad app. Android app. Comparison of reference management software Metadata discovery Citation Style Language COinS Official website