Euronext N. V. is a European stock exchange with registered office in Amsterdam and corporate headquarters at La Défense in Greater Paris which operates markets in Amsterdam, London, Dublin and Paris. With around 1,500 listed companies worth €4.1 trillion in market capitalisation as of end July 2019, Euronext is the largest stock exchange in continental Europe. In addition to cash and derivatives markets, Euronext provides listing market data, market solutions and settlement services, its total product offering includes equities, exchange-traded funds and certificates, derivatives and indices as well as a foreign exchange trading platform. Tracing its origins back to the founding of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company and of the Paris Bourse in 1724 following the financial debacle of the Mississippi bubble, Euronext was founded in 2000 by the merger of the exchanges in Amsterdam and Brussels. Euronext has since grown by developing services and acquiring additional exchanges and has, after being merged with the New York Stock Exchange from 2007 to 2014 as NYSE Euronext, been spun off to once again being a standalone European exchange.

Since its IPO in 2014, Euronext has expanded its European footprint and diversified its revenue streams by acquiring FastMatch, a global FX spot market operator, in 2017, the Irish Stock Exchange in 2018 and Oslo Børs VPS, the owner of the Norwegian stock exchange, in 2019. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was considered the oldest "modern" securities market in the world, it was shortly after the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in 1602 when equities began trading on a regular basis as a secondary market to trade its shares. Prior to that, the market existed for the exchange of commodities. In that year, the States General of the Netherlands granted the VOC a 21-year charter over all Dutch trade in Asia and quasi-governmental powers; the monopolistic terms of the charter granted the VOC complete authority over trade defenses, war armaments, political endeavors in Asia. The first multi-national corporation with significant resource interests was thereby established. In addition, the high level of risk associated with trade in Asia gave the VOC its private ownership structure.

Following in the footsteps of the English East India Company, stock in the corporation was sold to a large pool of interested investors, who in turn received a guarantee of some future share of profits. In the Amsterdam East India House alone, 1,143 investors subscribed for over ƒ3,679,915 or €100 million in today's money; the subscription terms of each stock purchase offered shareholders the option to transfer their shares to a third party. A secondary market arose in the East India House for resale of this stock through the official bookkeeper. After an agreement had been reached between the two parties, the shares were transferred from seller to buyer in the “capital book.” The official account, held by the East India House, encouraged investors to trade and gave rise to market confidence that the shares weren't just being transferred on paper. Thus, speculative trading ensued and the Amsterdam securities market was born. A big acceleration in the turnover rate came in 1623, after the 21-year liquidation period for the VOC ended.

The terms of the initial charter called for a full liquidation after 21 years to distribute profits to shareholders. However, at this time neither the VOC nor its shareholders saw a slowing down of Asian trade, so the States General of the Netherlands granted the corporation a second charter in the West Indies; this new charter gave the VOC additional years to stay in business but, in contrast to the first charter, outlined no plans for immediate liquidation, meaning that the money invested remained invested, dividends were paid to investors to incentivize shareholding. Investors took to the secondary market of the newly constructed Amsterdam Stock Exchange to sell their shares to third parties; these "fixed" capital stock transactions amassed huge turnover rates, made the stock exchange vastly more important. Thus the modern securities market arose out of this system of stock exchange; the voyage to the precious resources in the West Indies was risky. Threats of pirates, misfortune and various macroeconomic factors heightened the risk factor and thus made the trip wildly expensive.

So, the stock issuance made possible the spreading of risk and dividends across a vast pool of investors. Should something go wrong on the voyage, risk was mitigated and dispersed throughout the pool and investors all suffered just a fraction of the total expense of the voyage; the system of privatizing national expeditions was not new to Europe, but the fixed stock structure of the East India Company made it one of a kind. In the decade preceding the formation of the VOC, adventurous Dutch merchants had used a similar method of "private partnership" to finance expensive voyages to the East Indies for their personal gain; the ambitious merchants pooled money together to create shipping partnerships for exploration of the East Indies. They assumed a joint-share of the necessary preparations in return for a joint-share of the profits; these Voorcompagnieën took on extreme risk to reap some of the rewarding spice trade in the East Indies, but introduced a common form of the joint-stock venture into Dutch shipping.

Although some of these voyages predictably failed, the ones that were successful brought promise of wealth and an emerging new trade. Shortly after these expeditions began, in 1602, the many independent Voorcompagnieën merged to form the massive Dutch East India T

Middle Fork Stanislaus River

The Middle Fork Stanislaus River is a 45.7-mile tributary of the Stanislaus River in the central Sierra Nevada and Stanislaus National Forest of eastern California. The river begins at Summit Creek in the Emigrant Wilderness, it flows northwest, receiving the Clark Fork from the right turning southwest, through a deep canyon to its confluence with the North Fork Stanislaus River, forming the Stanislaus River. The river drains a watershed of 332 square miles in Tuolumne County, much of it within the Stanislaus National Forest. There are four dams on the main stem of the Middle Fork – at Donnells, Beardsley Forebay and Sand Bar Flat; the only significant tributary impoundment is Relief Reservoir, formed by Relief Dam on Summit Creek. Middle Fork water is managed by the Spring Gap–Stanislaus hydroelectric project, owned by Pacific Gas and Electric, the Tri-Dam project owned by the Oakdale and South San Joaquin irrigation districts. Tunnels connect the four mainstem reservoirs to take advantage of the hydraulic head created by the Middle Fork's steep drop.

The final tunnel, from Sand Bar Flat, enters the main Stanislaus River about 2 miles below the mouth of the Middle Fork, at the head of New Melones Lake reservoir. As a result, much of the Middle Fork is dewatered during the drier months. Dams on the Stanislaus River List of rivers of California Rivers of the Sierra Nevada Stanislaus River topics

Jimmy Wilde

William James Wilde was a Welsh professional boxer who competed from 1911 to 1923. He held the IBU world flyweight title in the EBU European flyweight title twice. Regarded as the greatest British fighter of all time, he was the first official world flyweight champion and was rated by American boxing writer Nat Fleischer, as well as many other professionals and fans including former boxer, trainer and promoter, Charley'Broadway' Rose, as "the Greatest Flyweight Boxer Ever". Wilde earned various nicknames such as, "The Mighty Atom," "Ghost with the Hammer in His Hand" and "The Tylorstown Terror" due to his bludgeoning punching power. While reigning as the world's greatest flyweight, Wilde would take on bantamweights and featherweights, knock them out; as well as his professional career, Wilde participated in 151 bouts judged as'newspaper decisions', of these the results were: Won 7 and lost 1, with 143 being declared as'no decisions'. Wilde has the longest recorded unbeaten streak in boxing history, having gone 92-0-1.

Jimmy Wilde's birth certificate states that he was born in the Taff Bargoed Valley community of Pentwyn Deintyr), Quakers Yard, Wales, in the county borough of Merthyr Tydfil. His parents moved to the village of Tylorstown in the Rhondda Valley when Wilde was around 6 years old. Wilde was the son of a coal miner and worked in the coal pits himself, he was small enough to crawl through gullies impassable to most of his colleagues. He started boxing at the age of sixteen in fairground boxing booths, where crowds were amazed by his toughness and ability to knock down much larger opponents, most of which were local men weighing around 200 lbs. In 1910, Wilde was a father the same year, he left Tylorstown Colliery in 1913. The record books show that Wilde started boxing professionally in 1911, but it is assumed that he had been fighting professionally for at least four years before that, his claim that he had at least 800 fights is greatly exaggerated, but it was more than the 152 shown in Boxrec and elsewhere.

His listed debut was on 26 December 1910, when he fought Les Williams to a no-decision in three rounds. His first win came on 1 January 1911, when he knocked out Ted Roberts in the third round Managed by Teddy Lewis, reserve captain of the local rugby club, Pontypridd RFC, Wilde went undefeated in 103 bouts, all of which were held in Britain, a remarkable achievement. In the middle of that streak, on 31 December 1912, he won the British 7 stone championship by beating Billy Padden by an eighteenth-round knockout in Glasgow, he lost his undefeated record when he challenged Tancy Lee for the vacant British and Europe Flyweight Championship on 15 January 1915 in London. Wilde was knocked out in the seventeenth round. In 1915, Wilde was hospitalized, requiring an operation for "an internal complaint". After a sixteen-fight knockout streak, on 14 February 1916 he won the British flyweight title by beating Joe Symonds by a knockout in round twelve at the National Sporting Club in London. On 24 April 1916, Wilde beat Johnny Rosner by a knockout in the eleventh round at Liverpool Stadium to win the IBU World Flyweight title.

On 13 May, he had two fights on the same day at Woolwich Dockyard, winning both by knockout, both fights combined lasting less than five rounds. On 26 June Wilde returned to the National Sporting Club to take his revenge on Tancy Lee with an eleventh-round knockout. On 18 December, Wilde became recognised as the first World Flyweight Champion when he defeated Young Zulu Kid of the United States, knocking him out in the eleventh round of their bout at the Holborn Stadium. In late December 1916, after being rejected on two previous occasions due to an old leg problem from a colliery accident and for being underweight, Wilde was accepted into the British Army and while never seeing active service, became an instructor at Aldershot. In 1917, he retained the world title by beating George Clarke by a knockout in four. With that win, he won the European title and recovered the British title, but that would be his last title defence. He kept fighting and winning, in 1919, he beat Joe Lynch, another boxer, a world champion, by decision in 15.

Wilde travelled to the United States for a series of fights, on 6 December 1919, lost to "Little" Jackie Sharkey in a ten-round newspaper decision of the Milwaukee Journal before a crowd close to 8,000 at the Auditorium in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Sharkey was considered a decisive winner, taking eight of the ten rounds according to the newspapermen at ringside. Wilde had been away from the ring for months, was outweighed by Sharkey by seven pounds. Sharkey's blows were said to land more and with greater force. Sharkey's win was at least a minor upset as Wilde led in the early betting 2 to 1; the American newspaper's decisions were questioned by many British boxing journalists. In 1920, Wilde went undefeated in 10 fights, but he lost by a knockout in 17 to former World Bantamweight Champion Pete Herman, who outweighed him by more than a stone, in 1921; the bout was scheduled as a title defence, but Herman had lost his championship to Lynch the month before. Herman regained the Bantamweight title from Lynch in July 1921, leading some to suspect that he had left the title behind with Lynch in America intentionally.

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