Europasaurus is a basal macronarian sauropod, a form of quadrupedal herbivorous dinosaur. It lived during the Late Jurassic of northern Germany, has been identified as an example of insular dwarfism resulting from the isolation of a sauropod population on an island within the Lower Saxony basin. In 1998, a single sauropod tooth was discovered by private fossil collector Holger Lüdtke in an active quarry at Langenberg Mountain, between the communities of Oker, Harlingerode and Göttingerode in Germany; the quarry had been active for more than a century. The quarry exposes a nearly continuous, 203 m thick succession of carbonate rocks that range in age from the early Oxfordian to late Kimmeridgian stages and have been deposited in a shallow sea with a water depth of less than 30 m; the layers exposed in the quarry are oriented nearly vertically and overturned, a result of the ascent of the adjacent Harz mountains during the Lower Cretaceous. Known as a classical exposure among geologists, the quarry had been extensively studied, visited by students of geology for decades.

Although rich in fossils of marine invertebrates, fossils of land-living animals had been rare. The sauropod tooth was the first specimen of a sauropod dinosaur from the Jurassic of northern Germany. After more fossil material was found, including bones, excavation of the bone-bearing layer commenced in April 1999, conducted by a local association of private fossil collectors. Although the quarry operator was cooperative, excavation was complicated by the near-vertical orientation of the layers that limited access, as well as by the ongoing quarrying; the sauropod material could not be excavated directly from the layer but had to be collected from lose blocks that resulting from blasting. The exact origin of the bone material was therefore unclear, but could be traced to a single bed. An excavation conducted between July 20–28 of 2000 rescued ca. 50 t of bone-bearing blocks containing vertebrate remains. Fossils were prepared and stored in the Dinosaur Park Münchehagen, a private dinosaur open-air museum located close to Hanover.

Due to the good preservation of the bones, consolidating agents had to be applied only and preparation could be conducted comparatively as bone would separate from the surrounding rock. Bones of simple shape could sometimes be prepared in less than an hour, while the preparation of a sacrum required a workload of three weeks. By January 2001, 200 single vertebrate bones had been prepared. At this point, the highest bone density was found in a block measuring 70 x 70 cm, which contained ca. 20 bones. By January 2002, preparation of an larger block had revealed a partial sauropod skull – the first to be discovered in Europe. Before complete removal of the bones from the block, a silicon cast was made of the block to document the precise three-dimensional position of the individual bones. Part of the Europasaurus fossil material got damaged or destroyed by arson fire in the night from the 4th to the 5th of October, 2003; the fire destroyed the laboratory and exhibition hall of the Dinosaur Park Münchehagen, resulting in the loss of 106 bones, which account for 15% of the bones prepared at the time.

Furthermore, the fire affected most of the still unprepared blocks, with firefighting water hitting the hot stone causing additional crumbling. Destroyed specimens include DFMMh/FV 100, which included the best preserved vertebral series and the only complete pelvis. In 2006, the new sauropod taxon was formally described as Europasaurus holgeri; the given etymology for the genus name is "reptile from Europe", the specific name honours Holger Lüdtke, the discoverer of the first fossils. Given the comparatively small size of the bones, it was assumed that they stem from juvenile individuals; the 2006 publication, established that the majority of specimens were adult, that Europasaurus was an island dwarf. The number of individual sauropod bones had increased to 650 and include variously articulated individuals. From these specimens, the holotype was associated individual; the holotype includes multiple cranial bones, a partial braincase, multiple mandible bones, large amounts of teeth, cervical vertebrae, sacral vertebrae and ribs from the neck and torso.

At least 10 other individuals were referred to the same taxon based on overlap in material. A large-scale excavation campaign commenced in the summer of 2012, with the goal to excavate Europasaurus bones not only from lose blocks but directly from the rock layer. Access to the bone-bearing layer required the removal of some 600 tons of rock using excavators and wheel loaders, the constant pumping out of water from the base of the quarry. Excavations continued in spring and summer 2013; the campaign resulted in the discovery of new fish and crocodile remains, as well as valuable information of the bone-bearing layer. By 2014, around 1300 vertebrate bones had been prepared from bed 83, the majority of which stemming from Europasaurus. A minimum number of 20 individuals was identified based on jaw bones. Europasaurus is a small sauropod, measuring only 6.2 m as an adult. This length was estimated based off a partial femur, scaled to the size of a nearly complete Camarasaurus specimen. Younger individuals are known, from sizes of 3.7 m (1

Jeffrey Lewis (composer)

Jeffrey Lewis is a Welsh composer, who lives in Llanfairfechan. Lewis was born in Neath, where he began learning the organ, he studied at the University of Wales, under Alun Hoddinott. He taught at Leeds College of Music and the University of Wales, under William Mathias. Early performances included Fanfares with Variations and the Chamber Concerto with the BBC Welsh Orchestra under John Carewe, and, at the 1967 Cheltenham Festival, his Two Cadenzas for piano and Epitaphium - Children of the Sun for narrator, chamber choir, flute and percussion. BBC commissions included the orchestral works Mutations I, Scenario, Praeludium and Limina Lucis. Other works include a Piano Concerto, Duologue for violin and piano, Scena for violin and piano, Teneritas for flute and piano, Sonante for clarinet and piano, Cantus for clarinet and piano, a Piano Trio, a Wind Quintet, several mixed ensemble pieces including Time-Passage, Epitaph for Abelard and Heloise and Litania, piano works including Tableau, Threnody, Musica Aeterna and Sereno, organ works including Mutations II, Momentum and Esultante, Dreams and Lullabies for harp, Silentia Noctis for high voice and piano, many choral works, notably Carmen Paschale, Hymnus Ante Somnum, Sequentia ad Sancte Michaele, Westminster Mass, Recordatio and a sequence of eleven Sacred Chants.

Lewis's music is characterised by rhythmic energy and harmonic complexity alternating with extreme stillness. However, he has achieved this simplicity through a process of constant refinement of his compositional technique, rather than any rejection of his earlier complexity. In 2005 Ivan March in Gramophone magazine described the CD release of Epitaph for Abelard and Heloise and Musica Aeterna as "...a disc not to be missed by anyone who cares about communicative 20th-century music." Henshall, Dalwyn: “Memento Mori - An appreciation of Jeffrey Lewis’s recent orchestral music.” Jones, David: Notes for CD ASC CS CD43 – Jeffrey Lewis: Threnody, Teneritas, Trilogy Jones, David: Notes for CD CAMEO 2037 – Jeffrey Lewis: Epitaph for Abelard and Heloise, Musica Aeterna Jones, David: “A glimpse of infinity: time and stillness in the music of Jeffrey Lewis” Tommis, Colin: “Y Gitar Gymreig – Jeffrey Lewis” Article about Jeffrey Lewis, A Glimpse of Infinity, in Musical Times, Winter 2004 Welsh Music Information Centre

Libby Kennedy

Libby Kennedy is a fictional character from the Australian soap opera Neighbours, played by Kym Valentine. She made her first appearance during the episode broadcast on 3 October 1994. Valentine auditioned for the role when she was 15, upon being cast as Libby, she relocated from Sydney to Melbourne, where the show is filmed. Libby was introduced along with her parents and brothers during a period of low ratings for the show. Valentine departed on 5 November 2004, returning for a single episode on 27 July 2005, before returning on 12 November 2007. Libby's storylines have included being involved in a motorbike accident, the loss of her husband Drew Kirk, giving birth to Ben Kirk, marrying Daniel Fitzgerald and subsequently separating from him. In 2008, Valentine was forced to take sick leave for one month and executive producer, Susan Bower, made the decision to temporarily recast McLeod's Daughters actress Michala Banas in the role for a month. Valentine took temporary leave from Neighbours in 2010 due to ill health.

A few months Valentine took indefinite leave from Neighbours to focus on her health and Libby made an off-screen departure on 26 May 2011. Valentine reprised the role for a three-week guest appearance in June 2014. In 1994, Neighbours' storyliners decided to introduce the "solid" Kennedy family, they felt that they needed to take the show back to its roots when it seemed that all the houses on Ramsay Street were populated with misfits and distant relatives. The show was suffering from low ratings, the Kennedys were brought in to "bring a fresh burst of energy". Alan Fletcher and Jackie Woodburne were cast as Karl Kennedy and Susan Kennedy, with Benjamin McNair and Jesse Spencer cast as brothers Malcolm Kennedy and Billy Kennedy; the role of the Kennedy's daughter went to actress Kym Valentine. She first auditioned for the role of Libby, she recalled: "I'd been in Home and Away, in a sitcom called My Two Wives, but Neighbours was a much bigger thing. For starters, it is filmed in Melbourne, so getting the part meant that I had to move there.

I didn't know anyone at all, so it was pretty terrifying."Valentine began working on Neighbours when she was 17. She admitted that leaving her family behind in Sydney was the hardest part about joining the show, but she "seized" the role of Libby and was determined to be a success; the Kennedys were described as a believable family, Valentine thought it down to the actors' close bond off-screen. She said they were "like a surrogate family to me, still are." Discussing her longevity in 2000, Valentine explained that she stayed with Neighbours as it provided her with work, she felt she was still learning and being challenged by the role. Upon her introduction to Neighbours, Libby was described as an opinionated girl who makes a stand on "any and every issue." She is as her political views frustrate her father. She wants to go into a government job, but she studies journalism at university instead; the teenage Libby was said to be bright, inquisitive and "prim and proper." Her "wise beyond her years" side has followed her into adulthood and Libby is now a "passionate and idealistic" woman.

She is hard working, honest and focused on her career and life goals. Libby has a humorous and quirky side; the BBC said "there's no keeping. She loves a good laugh."On Valentine's return to the Neighbours set in January 2011, she decided to cut her long hair off in favour of a short hairstyle. It was revealed that Libby would return with a new attitude to life, she learnt the "art of Zen" and now refuses to judge anyone. Valentine said that Libby wants "to detach from negativity." She added "She looks at her situation – single mum, still living with her parents – and starts to focus on her career at the school." Valentine decided to depart Neighbours in 2004, so she could pursue other acting roles and spend time with her daughter. However, she did make a brief return in 2005 for the show's 20th anniversary episode, "Friends for Twenty Years". In 2007, Neighbours suffered a decline in ratings and plans were made to take storylines "back to basics", so they would be less controversial and focus more on relationships and family dynamics.

It was announced that Valentine would be reprising her role of Libby. Of her comeback Valentine said "I felt like I was coming home and it was easy to slip back into the role of Libby, she's like an old friend. Plus she was older and the writers were able to do a lot more with her so it was a great time to return." Valentine intended to return to Neighbours for a brief time. On 4 July 2008, Valentine collapsed on a flight home from New York and was diagnosed with pneumonia and a collapsed lung. Valentine was told that she needed to rest for a month and that she could not return to work on Neighbours. reported that Libby would be written out of scenes for a week. However, as the character was involved in too many storylines, executive producer, Susan Bower, realised that she could not be written out of the show and she took the decision to temporarily recast the role of Libby. Bower asked her to take over the role. Banas only had four days to research Libby's history on the show and learn the scripts before she began filming.

Banas told the Herald Sun, " It was crazy, a whirlwind. I spent the first week of filming stressing about it – am I doing this right, is this what Libby would do, am I making the right choices? I felt this real sense of responsibility to the character and to the show. I just wanted to do the best job I could for ever