SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Europe

Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, Asia to the east; the eastern border comprises a long and mixed line of mountain ranges and waterways that would define a subcontinent. However, Europe is accorded the status of a full continent because of its great physical size and the weight of history and tradition, it is the 6th largest continent in the world. Europe is considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which Russia is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2018.

The European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilisation; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia; the Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century.

The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation; the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans.

In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess. The word Europe is derived from her name; the name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia; the same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor."

Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water to the north and south. Islands are grouped with the nearest continental landmass, hence Iceland is considered to be part of Europe, while the nearby island of Greenland is assigned to N

Halsetown

Halsetown is a village near St Ives, England. Halsetown is an industrial village planned by the solicitor and politician James Halse and built in the 1830s. There was a tin mine nearby and a ropewalk; the ecclesiastical parish was created in 1846 and the parish church was dedicated to St John the Evangelist. A mission chapel was opened on 6 November 1878 because the parish church at St Ives, was too far for parishioners to attend; the village is administered by St Ives Town Council. The actor Henry Irving was brought up in the village, fostered by Mrs Penberthy. Media related to Halsetown at Wikimedia Commons

Kanakalatha Mukund

Kanakalatha Mukund is an Indian historian. Kanakalatha Narasimhan was born to Janaki Narasimhan and C. V. Narasimhan, her father was a member of the Indian Civil Service and an Under-Secretary General at the United Nations. She has Hemalatha, she graduated from Barnard College, New York, in the class of 1962. In 1964, she married Jagannathan Mukund. Kanakalatha Mukund has a PhD in economics, she worked at the University of Bombay, Bhopal University, at the Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad till retirement. Her areas of research were the mercantile history of south India and the history of women's traditional rights and occupations. In her research on mercantile networks in Madras and the interaction between local and English traders, Mukund showed that the richest Indian merchants acted as moneylenders as well as brokers of letters of credit and forward agreements between producers such as weavers and the English; the English would pay the weavers in advance who would find their own suppliers.

The Indian traders themselves competed with each other. While in the earlier period of their interaction, the Indian producers were able to resist English attempts to control their supplies, over time, as English power expanded over south India, both the producers and their Indian merchant capitalist began to lose out, so that by 1725, south Indian textile commerce began to collapse. Kanakalatha Mukund. "Keynes on Indian Economic Problems and Policies - A Historical Appraisal". Indian Economic Journal. 32. Kanakalatha Mukund. "Mining in South India in the 17th and 18th Centuries". Indica. 28. Kanakalatha Mukund. "Turmeric Land: Women's Property Rights in Tamil Society Since Early Medieval Times". Economic & Political Weekly. 27. Kanakalatha Mukund. "Indian Textile Industry in 17th and 18th Centuries: Structure and Responses". Economic & Political Weekly. 27. JSTOR 4398913. Kanakalatha Mukund. "Caste Conflict in South India in Early Colonial Port Cities – 1650-1800". Studies in History. Sage. 11. Kanakalatha Mukund.

"Women's Property Rights in South India: A Review". Economic & Political Weekly. 34. Kanakalatha Mukund, ed.. Andhra Pradesh Economy in Transition. Hyderabad: Centre for Economic and Social Studies. Kanakalatha Mukund; the Trading World of the Tamil Merchant: Evolution of Merchant Capitalism in the Coromandel. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-1661-8. Kanakalatha Mukund. Syama Sundari. Traditional Industry in the New Market Economy: The Cotton Handlooms of Andhra Pradesh. Sage. ISBN 8178290111. Kanakalatha Mukund; the View from Below: Indigenous Society and the Early Colonial State in Tamilnadu, 1700-1835. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-2800-0. Kanakalatha Mukund; the World of the Tamil Merchant: Pioneers of International Trade. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-81-8475-612-8