European Broadcasting Union

The European Broadcasting Union is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950. The organisation is made up of 116 member organisations in 56 countries, 34 associate members from a further 21 countries, it is best known for producing the Eurovision Song Contest. It hosted debates between candidates for the European Commission presidency for the 2014 and 2019 parliamentary elections but is unrelated to the European Union itself. EBU Members are Public Service Media broadcasters whose output is made and controlled by the public, for the public. PSM broadcasters are established by law but are non-partisan and run for the benefit of society as a whole. EBU Members come from as far north as Iceland and as far south as Egypt, from Ireland in the west and Azerbaijan in the east, every nation from geographical Europe in between. Associate Members are from countries and territories beyond Europe, such as Canada, Mexico and China. Associate Members from the United States include ABC, CBS, NBC, CPB, NPR, APM and the only individual station, Chicago-based classical music radio WFMT.

Membership is for media organisations whose countries are within the European Broadcasting Area, as defined by the International Telecommunication Union, or who are members of the Council of Europe. Members benefit from: Access to world-class content ranging from exclusive sports rights to exchanges for news and children's programs. A voice in Brussels and on international platforms lobbying for PSM and ensuring the optimal legal and technical framework. Opportunities for sharing and collaborating through conferences, working groups and dedicated advice and guidance. A centre for learning and sharing new technology and innovation with a team of experts providing strategic advice and guidance; the EBU's highest-profile production is the Eurovision Song Contest. The EBU organises the Eurovision Dance Contest, the Junior Eurovision Song Contest, the Eurovision Young Dancers competition, other competitions which are modeled along similar lines. Radio collaborations include Euroclassic Notturno – an overnight classical music stream, produced by BBC Radio 3 and broadcast in the United Kingdom as Through the Night – and special theme days, such as the annual Christmas music relays from around Europe.

The EBU is a member of the International Music Council. Most EBU broadcasters have group deals to carry major sporting events including the FIFA World Cup and the inaugural European Championships. Another annually recurring event, broadcast across Europe through the EBU is the Vienna New Year's Concert. Eurovision Media Services is the business arm of the EBU and provides first-class media services for many media organisations and sports federations around the world; the theme music played. It is well known to Europeans as it is played before and after the Eurovision Song Contest and other important events; the EBU was a successor to the International Broadcasting Union, founded in 1925 and had its administrative headquarters in Geneva and technical office in Brussels. It fostered programming exchanges between members and mediated technical disputes between members that were concerned with frequency and interference issues, it was in effect taken over by Nazi Germany during the Second World War and when the conflict ended in the eyes of the Allies it was a compromised organisation that they could not trust.

In the spring of 1946, representatives of the Soviet radio committee proposed forming a new organisation. It was considered necessary to have an organisation that could implement the “Copenhagen Wavelength Plan” but there was disagreement among broadcasters and a fear expressed by the BBC that a new association might be dominated by the USSR and its proposal to give each of its constituent states one vote. France proposed; the United Kingdom felt. On 27 June 1946, the alternative International Broadcasting Organisation was founded with 26 members and without British participation; the following day the IBU met in General Assembly and an attempt failed. For a period of time in the late 1940s both the IBU and IBO vied for the role of organising frequencies but Britain decided to be in involved in neither; the BBC failed to find suitable working arrangements with them. However, for practical purposes, the IBO rented the IBU technical centre in Brussels and employed its staff; the BBC proposed a new solution based on the IBO changing its constitution so there will be only one member per ITU country, thus ensuring a Western majority over the USSR and its satellite states.

In August 1949 a meeting took place in Stresa, Italy but it resulted in disagreement between delegates on how to resolve the problems. One proposal was for the European Broadcasting Area to be replaced by one that would exclude Eastern Europe, the Levant and North Africa. After Stresa, a consensus emerged among the Western Europeans to form a new organisation and the BBC proposed it be based in London. Meetings in Paris on 31 October and 1 November 1949 sealed the fate of the IBU and IBO, but it was decided not to allow West Germany to be a founder of the new organis


Hemiconcavodonta is an extinct genus of bivalve in the extinct family Praenuculidae. The genus is one of three genera in the subfamily Concavodontinae. Hemiconcavodonta is known from late Ordovician, Caradoc epoch, fossils found in South America; the genus contains a single accepted species, Hemiconcavodonta minuta. Hemiconcavodonta minuta is a bivalve, first described in 1999 by Teresa M. Sánchez from fossils from sediments of the late Middle Ordovician, Caradocian-aged Don Braulio Formation; the formation outcrops on the flank of Sierra de Villicum in the Argentina precordillera. The shells of Hemiconcavodonta minuta are ovate to rounded and moderately inflated; the small shells have an umbo positioned subcentrally on the posterior edge of the shell and nine to ten teeth in the hinge structure. H. minuta ranges in shell length from 3.0 to 6.3 millimetres and has a height between 2.0 and 3.0 millimetres. As a member of Concavodontinae, the hinge displays the chevroning of teeth typical of the subfamily.

The teeth have a concavity in the chevron which faces away from the center of the hinge and the umbo. However the teeth of Hemiconcavodonta are unique in the subfamily with only the posterior teeth being concavodont, while the anterior teeth are convexodont thus facing towards the hinges center; the genus name is in reference to the tooth structure being both concavodont and convexodont. The overall small size of H. minuta shells is the basis for the etymology of the specific name. A solitary fossil from the same location as H. minuta has the same convexodont/concavodont tooth structure as H. minuta. However the placement of the umbo and anterior adductor muscle plus tooth size in the solitary fossil do not match H. minuta and thus Sánchez did not place the specimen into H. minuta

Type 63 anti-aircraft gun

The Type 63 and Type 65 are Chinese self-propelled anti-aircraft gun based on the Soviet T-34/76 or T-34/85 medium tank chassis. The Type 63 is a T-34-76 Obr.1943 produced by UralVagonZavod converted into an anti-aircraft vehicle, armed with Chinese twin 37 mm Type 61 AA guns. The related Type 65 variant was instead based on the T-34-85 chassis. None of the original Type 63's survive today; the Type 65 retained the hull from the T-34/85 but the turret was replaced by an open-top box turret armed with twin Type 61 37mm anti-aircraft guns. The guns were loaded manually with 5-round clips. While the Type 65 was on par with contemporary anti-aircraft systems, such as the M42 Duster, due to the lack of hydraulic elevation systems, the guns had to be elevated manually; because of this, the Type 65 was ineffective against fast moving, low flying aircraft, while it proved somewhat effective in the ground support anti-armour role, it was ineffective against then-modern main battle tank armour of the Vietnam War.

The modification was made by bolting a steel plate over the opening in the hull for the turret with 27 bolts. The plate was reinforced with a vertical steel beam welded to the hull floor and the bottom of the roof plate. A twin 37mm Type 61 anti aircraft gun was removed from its 4-wheeled carriage and it's traversing gearbox was bolted to the middle of the steel plate. A turret was bolted to the floor of the anti aircraft gun mount; the only ammunition stowage was one located on each side of the outside of the hull. A travel lock made from channel iron is located on the engine deck of the tank. Both Type 63 and Type 65 were supplied to the NVA by China during the Vietnam War; the NVA were supplied with several examples of the tank from China and used them during the Vietnam War, but only a small number were available due to the lack of adequate anti-aircraft equipment. It remained in service with the post-war People's Army of Vietnam, as well as the PLA, with the last numbers being retired in 1990.

One example of the Type 65 was captured by the ARVN 4th Infantry Regiment during the 1972 Easter Offensive. This vehicle was turned over to the United States military and shipped to Bayonne, New Jersey in the Summer of 1975. From there it was shipped to Aberdeen Proving Ground, it was placed on display at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds where it remained until the early 2010s, when it was transferred to the Air Defense Artillery Museum in Fort Sill, Oklahoma. There is disagreement over the origin of the tank. While many sources claim it is of Chinese manufacture, it may be a single Vietnamese improvised vehicle, it was crudely made, with basic materials, common of improvised fighting vehicles, little information on the vehicle exists in Chinese military archives, though recent studies indicate that such a vehicle was in service with the People's Liberation Army. The vehicle captured by the ARVN 4th Infantry Regiment is the only known example; this vehicle did have the number "045" painted on the at least left and both sides of the turret, which suggests there may have been more examples manufactured, but no other vehicles are known.

Similar Vietnamese SPAAGs exist, including a T-34 hull with a 57mm anti-aircraft gun mounted in turret with a similar design missing the hull machine gun. However, recent studies have confirmed the existence of both Type 63 and Type 65. Many sources state that the armament are paired "Type 63" anti-aircraft guns, however the Type 65 is the more armament, as the Type 63 AA gun is not mentioned in any sources beyond references to this self-propelled anti-aircraft gun; this could be due to the limited information on Chinese military equipment available in the United States during the Cold War. People's Republic of China - Remained in service until 1990. North Vietnam - A handful of examples supplied from China in the 1960's. Passed on to unified Vietnam. South Vietnam - At least one captured from the Vietnamese People's Army. Vietnam - Small numbers retained after the Vietnam War. Hogg, Ian. Twentieth-Century Artillery. Friedman/Fairfax Publishers. ISBN 1-58663-299-X Dougherty, Martin J.. The World's Worst Weapons.

Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-905704-36-1