A European Commissioner is a member of the 27-member European Commission. Each member within the Commission holds a specific portfolio, the Commission is led by the President of the European Commission. In simple terms they are the equivalent of national ministers; each Commissioner is first nominated by their member state in consultation with the Commission President. The President's team is subject to hearings at the European Parliament, which questions them and votes on their suitability as a whole. If members of the team are found to be inappropriate, the President must reshuffle the team or request a new candidate from the member state or risk the whole Commission being voted down; as Parliament cannot vote against individual Commissioners there is a compromise whereby the worst candidates are removed but minor objections are put aside, or dealt with by adjusting portfolios, so the Commission can take office. Once the team is approved by the Parliament, it is formally put into office by the European Council.
Although members of the Commission are allocated between member states, they do not represent their states. A member state will nominate someone of the same political party as that which forms the government of the day. There are exceptions such as Member of the Commission Burke. Due to the member-state selection procedure, only 9 of the current 27 Members are women and no ethnic minorities have served on a Commission to date. Peter Mandelson was the first gay Commissioner; the first female Commissioners were Christiane Scrivener and Vasso Papandreou in the 1989 Delors Commission. European Parliament President Jerzy Buzek proposed in 2010 that Commissioners be directly elected, by member states placing their candidate at the top of their voting lists in European elections; that would give them individually, the body as a whole, a democratic mandate. Each Member is required to take an oath before the Court of Justice of the European Union the Solemn Declaration before the Court of Justice of the European Union.
As of December 2009, the Charter of Fundamental Rights has gained legal force and Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding has proposed that Commissioners should swear to uphold it also. The second Barroso Commission went to the Court of Justice on 3 May 2010 for the first such oath alongside their usual oath; the oath taken by the members of the Barroso Commission is below: Having been appointed as a Member of the European Commission by the European Council, following the vote of consent by the European Parliament I solemnly undertake: to respect the Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in the fulfilment of all my duties. I formally note the undertaking of each Member State to respect this principle and not to seek to influence Members of the Commission in the performance of their tasks. I further undertake to respect, both during and after my term of office, the obligation arising therefrom, in particular the duty to behave with integrity and discretion as regards the acceptance, after I have ceased to hold office, of certain appointments or benefits.
Until 2004, the larger member states received the smaller states received one. As the size of the body was increasing with enlargement, the larger states lost their second commissioner after the 2004 enlargement with the new Barroso Commission being appointed under the Treaty of Nice. Nice specified that once the number of members reached 27 the number of Commissioners should be reduced to "less than the number of Member States"; the exact number of Commissioners would have to be decided by a unanimous vote of the European Council and membership will rotate between member states. Following the accession of Romania and Bulgaria in January 2007, this clause took effect for the following commission; the failed European Constitution first mandated that the number of Commissioners should equal two-thirds of the member states. This could be changed by a vote in the European Council, in case the number was still too high in the future; the Constitution failed ratification but this change was brought in with the Treaty of Lisbon.
However, as Lisbon was being ratified the Irish electorate voted against it with one reason being the fear of losing a Commissioner. The Irish voted again, in favour for the treaty on a number of conditions. In 2009, in what was known as the 26+1 formula, it was proposed that instead of a commissioner one member state should fill the post of High Representative. An idea floated in 2007 was the creation of junior members for smaller states. In 2004, there was a proposal to create a "super-commissioner" who would be vice president of the Commission and would "be able to intervene in all decisions concerning EU projects that have an impact" on the economic performance of the EU. Another change Lisbon brought, as hinted above, was the creation of the role of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy by merging the
Miraj Senior was one of two Maratha princely states during the British Raj:'Miraj Junior' and Miraj Senior. The two states separated in 1820, it was under the southern division of the Bombay Presidency, forming part of the southern Mahratta Jagirs, the Deccan States Agency. Miraj Senior measured 339 square miles in area. According to the 1901 census, the population was 81,467. In 1901, the state enjoyed revenue estimated at £23,000, paid £800 in tribute to the British Raj; the Raja resided in the town of Miraj, a junction on the Southern Maratha Railway. The State of Miraj was founded before 1750 and was the former capital of the pre-British State of Sangli. In 1820, the state was divided between a Senior and Junior branch; the territory of both branches was scattered among other native states and British districts. The rulers of the Patwardhan dynasty used the title of Raja, were of the same clan that ruled nearby Jamkhandi. Raja Govind Rao Patwardhan, 1st Ruler of Miraj, began as a cavalry commander, distinguished himself in several expeditions against the Nizam of Hyderabad and Hyder Ali of Mysore, established the Maratha ascendancy in southern India and pushed the Maratha conquests to the frontier of Mysore.
Miraj Senior acceded to the Dominion of India on 8 March 1948 and is a part of Maharashtra state. Miraj is famous for its musicians, doctors. In the mid-nineties it had municipal corporation in combination with Sangli and thus lost the edge it had over the neighboring twin city of Sangli for two centuries; the rulers of Miraj state belonged to the Patwardhan dynasty and bore the title'Rao'. 17.. - 1771 Govind Rao 1771 - 1775 Vaman Rao 1777 - 1782 Harihar Rao 1782 - 1801 Chintaman Rao 1801 - 1820 Gangadhar Rao 1820 - 1833 Ganpatrao I 1833 - 1855? Narayanrao I 1855? - 1870 Gangadharrao II 1833 - 1875 Ganpatrao II "Tatya Sahib Patwardhan" 6 June 1875 - 1939 Gangadhar Rao II "Bala Sahib Patwardhan" 11 Dec 1939 – 15 August 1947 Narayan Rao "Tatya Sahib Patwardhan" Maratha Empire List of Maratha dynasties and states Political integration of India List of rulers of Miraj Senior
David Tapuwa Hatendi was a Zimbabwean businessman and banker. Hatendi is Zimbabwe's first black Rhodes Scholar. Hatendi was born on 22 May 1953 in Marandellas, Southern Rhodesia to Frederick Hatendi and Joyce Hatendi. David's father died when he was 14 thus growing up with his mother and 2 sisters and Mary, he attended Peterhouse Boys' School where he played rugby and cricket. He graduated from Peterhouse in 1972. For his tertiary education, Hatendi attended the University of Rhodesia where he graduated with a BSc in 1976. In 1977, David won a Rhodes Scholarship to attend Oxford University, becoming Zimbabwe's first black Rhodes Scholar, he pursued and attained a Doctorate in Politics at the University College, Oxford in 1980. He was involved in various extracurricular activities at University College and the wider Oxford University. David Hatendi was employed by International Finance Corporation. In 1982, Hatendi joined the World Bank after selection into its Young Professionals Programme. From 1991 to 1995, he was an executive director at NM Rothschild.
Hatendi returned to Zimbabwe in 1996 to become the managing director of MBCA Bank Limited, he on became the chief executive officer. He became a trustee for Harare International Festival of the Arts from its inception in 1998. In 2004, David became the chief executive officer of NMB Bank Limited when its former directors – Julius Makoni, James Mushore, Otto Chekeche and Francis Zimuto – fled the country during the banking crisis, he resigned from his post at NMB in 2005 three months after it emerged that the bank had been defrauded of over US$6,3 million. David founded the Hatendi Private Equity Advisors, an investment and consultancy firm, in 2007. In 2009, David Hatendi succeeded David Morgan as the National Secretary to the Rhodes Trust for Zimbabwe, responsible for the Rhodes Scholarship selection process in Zimbabwe. David Hatendi married Angelina Musewe in January 1980 at the University College Chapel, they had 3 children - two sons and one daughter. David was a member of White's, an exclusive gentleman's club in London, of which he was the only black member.
On 12 March 2012, Hatendi was found dead. He passed on in his sleep, it is assumed that he suffered according to Stanley Hatendi. David Hatendi was buried at the cemetery at Peterhouse Boys' School in Zimbabwe on 15 March 2012. Dr Donald Markwell spoke of Hatendi saying "His was a powerful mind, he was a lively and entertaining companion, an immensely warm host. David and Angelina were always a delight to see, both in Oxford and in Harare." List of Zimbabweans List of Rhodes Scholars
Catterline is a coastal village on the North Sea in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It is situated about 5 miles south of Stonehaven. Other noted architectural or historic features in the general area include Fetteresso Castle, Fiddes Castle, Chapel of St. Mary and St. Nathalan and Muchalls Castle. Prehistoric features in the local area include Bronze Age archaeological recoveries at Fetteresso and Spurryhillock; the artist Joan Eardley lived in the village in the 1950s up until her death in 1963. Many of her wild seascapes were painted here. Alongside the commercial enterprise of the local newspaper, the Mearns Leader, Catterline has a local community radio station, Mearns FM. Crawton Catterline Cartie Challenge Catterline Online Catterline Community Web Site Catterline and Dunnottar Community Council
Richard Kotz was a decorated Generalmajor in the Wehrmacht during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross; the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Richard Kotz was captured by American troops in May 1945 and was held until January 1947. Iron Cross 2nd Class 1st Class Prussian Golden Military Merit Cross on 3 May 1918 as deputy officer in the 4. Garde-Regiment zu Fuß Honour Cross of the World War 1914/1918 Iron Cross 2nd Class 1st Class Eastern Front Medal German Cross in Gold Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 21 October 1943 as Oberst and commander of Grenadier-Regiment 389 World War 2 Awards.com Richard Kotz @ Axis Biographical Research at the Wayback Machine
"Entre Nous" is the name of a 2003 song recorded by the French-born singer Chimène Badi. Released as her debut single in January 2003 from the album of the same name on which it features as the first track, it allowed Badi to achieve success in France where it topped the chart, was a top five hit in Belgium and Switzerland. To date, it is her most successful single; as of August 2014, the song was the 15th best-selling single of the 21st century in France, with 584,000 units sold. The song was performed on Badi's 2005 concert at the Olympia and was included on her live album Live à l'Olympia, as sixth track on the second CD; the song was covered by Marc Lavoine and Jean-Baptiste Maunier for Les Enfoirés' 2006 album Le Village des Enfoirés and included in a medley named "Medley Adultes en enfants". It was covered again in 2012, this time sung by Amel Bent, Renan Luce and Hélène Segara CD single"Entre Nous" — 3:22 "Entre Nous" — 3:03Digital download"Entre Nous" — 3:22 "Entre Nous" — 4:34