click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

European Communities Act 1972 (UK)

The European Communities Act 1972 known as the ECA 1972, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC, the Coal and Steel Community. The Treaty of Accession was signed by the Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath and the President of the European Commission Franco Maria Malfatti in Brussels on 22 January 1972; the Act provided for the incorporation into UK law of the whole of European Community law and its acquis communautaire: its Treaties and Directives, together with judgments of the European Court of Justice. By the Act, Community Law became binding on all legislation passed by the UK Parliament. Arguably the most significant statute to be passed by the Heath government of 1970–1974, the Act was one of the most significant UK constitutional statutes passed; the act was at the time of its repeal amended from its original form, incorporating the changes wrought by the Single European Act, the Maastricht Treaty, the Amsterdam Treaty, the Nice Treaty, the Treaty of Lisbon.

On 13 July 2017, the Brexit Secretary, David Davis, introduced what became the European Union Act to Parliament which makes provision for repealing the 1972 Act on "exit day", when enacted defined as 29 March 2019 at 11 p.m. but postponed by EU decision first to either 22 May 2019 or 12 April 2019 to 31 October 2019, again to 31 January 2020. The Act was repealed on 31 January 2020 by the European Union Act 2018, although its effect was'saved' under the provisions of the European Union Act 2020; the latter Act is in effect from 31 January 2020 until the end of the Brexit implementation period. When the European Communities came into being in 1958, the UK chose to remain aloof and instead join the alternative bloc, EFTA; the British government regretted its decision, in 1961, along with Denmark and Norway, the UK applied to join the three Communities. However, President Charles de Gaulle saw British membership as a Trojan horse for US influence, vetoed it; the four countries resubmitted their applications in 1967, the French veto was lifted upon Georges Pompidou succeeding de Gaulle in 1969.

In 1970, accession negotiations took place between the UK Government, led by Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath, the European Communities and various European leaders. Despite disagreements over the CAP and the UK's relationship with the Commonwealth, terms were agreed. In October 1971, after a lengthy Commons debate, MPs voted 356-244 in favour of joining the EEC. For the Treaty to take effect upon entry into the Communities on 1 January 1973, for the UK to embrace the EEC Institutions and Community law, an Act of Parliament was required. Only three days after the signing of the Treaty, a European Communities Bill of just 12 clauses was presented to the House of Commons by Geoffrey Rippon; the European Communities Act came into being, Edward Heath signed the Treaty of Accession in Brussels on 22 January 1972. Denmark and Ireland joined the Community on the same day, 1 January 1973, as the UK; the European Communities Bill was introduced the House of Commons for its first reading by Geoffrey Rippon, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster on 26 January 1972.

On 17 February 1972, the House of Commons voted narrowly by 309-301 in favour of the Bill at its second reading, after three days of intense debate. Just before the vote the Prime Minister Edward Heath argued his case in the debate with the following words; the Bill passed on to Committee Stage before its third reading. During this discussion in the House of Commons, MPs pointed out that the Government had structured the European Communities Bill so that Parliament could debate the technical issues about how the treaty enactment would occur but could not debate the treaty of accession itself and decried this sacrifice of Parliament's sovereignty to the Government's desire to join the European project. On 13 July 1972, the House of Commons voted 301-284 in favour of the Bill in its third and final reading before passing on to the House of Lords. Before the vote took place, Geoffrey Rippon argued in the House of Commons before the vote: The Bill passed to the House of Lords; the Act received Royal Assent on 17 October, the UK's instrument of ratification of the Treaty of Accession was deposited the next day with the Italian government as required by the Treaty.

Since the Treaty specified its effective date as 1 January 1973 and the Act specified only "entry date" for its actions, the Act and the Treaty took effect 1 January 1973, when the United Kingdom became a member state of the European Communities along with Denmark and the Republic of Ireland. The European Communities Act was the instrument whereby the UK Parliament effected the changes required by the Treaty of Accession by which the UK joined the European Union (then known as the Eu

Reader (academic rank)

The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship. In the traditional hierarchy of British and other Commonwealth universities, reader are academic ranks above senior lecturer and below professor, recognising a distinguished record of original research. Reader is similar to a professor without a chair, similar to the distinction between professor extraordinarius and professor ordinarius at some European universities and chaired professor in Hong Kong and "professor name" and chaired professor in Ireland. Readers and professors in the UK would correspond to full professors in the US; the promotion criteria applied to a readership in the United Kingdom are similar to those applied to a professorship: advancing from senior lecturer to reader requires evidence of a distinguished record of original research.

In Denmark and Norway, docent was traditionally a title ranking between associate professor and professor, was identical to a readership in the United Kingdom, although today, the title is used somewhat differently. The traditional Danish/Norwegian docent title is translated as reader. There would only be one professor for each institute or discipline, other academics at the top academic level would be appointed as docents. In Norway all docents became full professors when the docent rank was abolished in 1985. In Sweden and countries influenced by Sweden, docent is the highest academic title below that of Professor, but it is not an academic position in itself, but is more like a degree; the Swedish docent title is translated as either reader or associate professor in the sense of a title above senior lecturer. Several UK universities have dispensed with the reader grade. In the few UK universities that have adopted North American academic titles, readerships have become assimilated to professorships.

At some universities in Commonwealth countries, such as India, New Zealand, South Africa and Malaysia, in Ireland, the title associate professor is used in place of reader, ranks above senior lecturer and below professor. This associate professor title should not be confused with the associate professor title used in the North American system. About half as many people hold the full professor title in Commonwealth universities as compared to U. S. universities. S. full professor rank. The table presents a broad overview of the traditional main systems, but there are universities which use a combination of those systems or other titles. Note that some universities in Commonwealth countries have adopted the American system in place of the Commonwealth system; this rank was the highest academic rank reached by Alan Turing, Chaim Weizmann, Mary Cartwright

Muggleswick

Muggleswick is a village and civil parish in County Durham, England. It is situated a few miles to the west of Consett; the population was 130 at the 2001 Census reducing to 113 at the 2011 Census. The village has a number of farms and domestic dwellings as well as the Church of England church accepted as dedicated to All Saints, village hall. Amenities other than that consist of the phone box with its adjacent litter bin. Agriculture is sheep farming with some cattle and hay. There are the ruins of a priory, once a hunting lodge for the Prior of Durham, a listed building; these are located near to the church. In the United Kingdom Census 2001 the population of the village was 130 with 66 male and 64 femaleA significant area of the south and west of the village is taken up by Muggleswick Common, an area of upland moorland used for grouse rearing and sheep grazing; this area consists predominantly of heather with encroaching bracken. The Common is part of the Muggleswick and Edmundbyers Commons and Blanchland Moor Site of Special Scientific Interest, designated as such by Natural England for its habitat diversity and the presence of a range of plant and bird species of national and international importance.

To the east, the village is bordered by the Derwent Gorge and Horsleyhope Ravine SSSI. This area has been classified as such due to the range of plant species and areas that have remained free from human interference. Media related to Muggleswick at Wikimedia Commons

Montgomeryshire Yeomanry

The Montgomeryshire Yeomanry was a Welsh auxiliary unit of the British Army first formed in 1803. It provided volunteers to the Imperial Yeomanry during the Second Boer War and formed three regiments for service during World War I, it was broken up and converted to infantry and artillery in 1920. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the 1790s a number of English and Welsh counties formed units of Yeomanry Cavalry and Volunteer Infantry for home defence and internal security duties. Further units were formed after the Napoleonic Wars broke out in 1803, including the Montgomeryshire Volunteer Legion, raised in the Welsh county of Montgomeryshire; this consisted of four combined cavalry and infantry Troops, at Montgomery, Welshpool and Abermule. The infantry element of the legion was short-lived, after they had been disbanded the unit was renamed the Montgomeryshire Yeomanry Cavalry. Further troops were raised at Berriew and Llanfyllin. Like many other Yeomanry regiments, the Montgomeryshire was disbanded in 1828 when the government withdrew payment for drills and periods of service.

However, when this pay was restored in 1831 the regiment was reformed with its four original troops. Others were added and disbanded at various times during the century at Llangedwyn and Caersws, with the regimental headquarters at Welshpool; the Caersws Troop was disbanded in 1889, the six remaining Troops reorganised as three Squadrons in 1893. The Commanding Officer from 26 January 1844 was Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 6th Baronet of Wynnstay, a former officer in the 1st Life Guards, he was Lt-Col of the st Denbighshire Rifle Volunteer Corps. Williams-Wynn became the regiment's Honorary Colonel, he was succeeded in command by his nephew, Sir William Granville Williams, 4th Baronet of Bodelwyddan, who in turn was followed on 2 February 1889 by his cousin, Sir Herbert Williams-Wynn, 7th Baronet of Wynnstay. Sir Herbert was awarded a CB in 1902By 1899 the Montgomeryshire Yeomanry and the Denbighshire Hussars together constituted the 15th Yeomanry Brigade. Following a string of defeats during Black Week in early December 1899, the British government realised that it would need more troops than just the regular army to fight the Second Boer War mounted troops.

On 13 December, the War Office decided to allow volunteer forces to serve in the field, a Royal Warrant was issued on 24 December that created the Imperial Yeomanry. The Royal Warrant asked standing Yeomanry regiments to provide service companies of 115 men each for one year. In addition to this, many British citizens volunteered to join the new force; the Montgomeryshire Yeomanry raised two companies for the first contingent of the IY, which both landed in South Africa on 6 April 1900 and served with other Welsh Yeomanry companies in the 9th Battalion, IY: 31st Company 49th CompanyWhen the first contingent returned home in 1901 after their one-year term of service, enough veterans of the 31st and 49th stayed on to reform the companies, while the Montgomeryshire Yeomanry raised two further companies for the second contingent. Captain Robert Williams-Wynn, younger brother of the CO, went to South Africa with 31st Company. During the campaign he was twice Mentioned in Dispatches and was afterwards promoted to Major and awarded the DSO.

The Imperial Yeomanry were equipped as mounted infantry. The concept was considered a success and before the war ended the existing Yeomanry regiments at home were converted into Imperial Yeomanry, with an establishment of HQ and four squadrons with a machine gun section; this included the Montgomeryshire Imperial Yeomanry, which raised an additional squadron at Rhayader. In 1906 Major Robert Williams-Wynn, DSO, was promoted to command the regiment in succession to his brother, who became its Honorary Colonel the following year; the regiment was based at Welshpool at this time. The Imperial Yeomanry were subsumed into the new Territorial Force under the Haldane Reforms of 1908. and the regiment was titled the Montgomeryshire Yeomanry with the following organisation: RHQ at Brook Street, Welshpool A Squadron at Llanfyllin, with detachments at Meifod, Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant, Llanfihangel-yng-Ngwynfa, Trefonen, Llanfair Caereinion, Llansantffraid-ym-Mechain B Squadron at Welshpool, with detachments at Guilsfield, Castle Caereinion, Four Crosses, Berriew and Forden C Squadron at Newtown, with detachments at Church Stoke, New MiIls, Montgomery, Bettws Cedewain, Cemmaes Road and Llangurig D Squadron at Llandrindod Wells, with detachments at Llanidloes, Builth Wells, Llanbister, Bowling Green Lane and Hay-on-Wye When war was declared on 4 August 1914, the Montgomeryshire Yeomanry mobilised at Brook Street Drill Hall with Brevet Colonel Robert Williams-Wynn, DSO, in command.

It formed part of the South Wales Mounted Brigade. In accordance with the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 which brought the Territorial Force into being, the TF was intended to be a home defence force for service during wartime and members could not be compelled to serve outside the country. However, on the outbreak of war on 4 August 1914, many members volunteered for Imperial Service. Therefore, TF units were split

MS Helliar

Helliar is a ferry owned by Clipper Group and operated by Northlink Ferries. Built by Spanish shipyard Astilleros de Huelva in 1997 as Lehola for Estonian Shipping Co Ltd she has served a number of owners and operators as RR Triumph and Triumph before her sale to Clipper Group and being renamed Clipper Racer. In 2011, she was chartered to renamed Helliar. Lehola was built by Astilleros de Huelva, Spain as yard number 569, she was ordered on 30 September 1994 and her keel was laid on 20 October 1995. Lehola was launched on 13 November 1996 and completed on 15 October 1997, she was registered with Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, being transferred to Det Norske Veritas on 27 November 2007. From 1997 to 2005, Lehola was owned by Estonia Shipping Co Ltd. In 2005, she was renamed RR Triumph. In 2007, she was sold to Clipper Group Ltd and renamed Triumph, being renamed Clipper Racer in 2008. In 2011, she was chartered to Northlink Ferries. On 17 January, she was renamed Helliar at a ceremony in Orkney Islands. In late 1997, Lehola was put into service with Estonia Shipping Co Ltd on the TallinnHelsinkiCopenhagenArhus route.

In August 1998 she was chartered to Czar Peter Line and put into service on the MoerdijkKronstadt route. In February 1999 she was chartered to Delom and put into service on the MarseilleTunisSète route. In October 2000, she was returned to Estonia Shipping Co Ltd and put into service on the Kiel – Tallinn route until 31 December 2004. In January 2005, she was chartered to P&O Ferries and entered service on the Zeebrugge – Hull and Rotterdam – Hull routes. On 11 July 2005, Lehola was sold to Elmira Shipping, Greece, she was reflagged to Malta, her homeport changing from Tallinn to Valletta. She was chartered to P&O Ferries and P&O Irish Sea. In July 2005 she was put into service on the LiverpoolDublin route, her charter to P&O Irish Sea ended on 11 February 2007 and she was chartered to Baleària, Spain that month. On 30 October 2007, RR Triumph was sold to remaining under the Maltese flag. In December 2007 she was renamed Triumph. From 1 February to 23 March 2008 she was chartered to Condor Ferries and put into service between Portsmouth and the Channel Islands.

In April 2008 she was chartered to the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company and put into service on the Heysham – Douglas route. On 5 June 2008 she was put into service on Seatruck's Liverpool – Dublin route. On 12 July 2008, she was renamed Clipper Racer. In April 2009 she was chartered to Baleària. In May 2010, she was chartered to Italian ferry operator SNAV and put into service on the Naples - Palermo route. On 5 October, a contract was signed for the chartering of Clipper Racer to Northlink Ferries. On 5 January 2011, she was renamed Helliar. In 2012 she was again reflagged - this time to the Isle of Man. In April 2012 Helliar was again chartered to the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company to cover the refit of Ben-my-Chree before returning to Northlink the following month. Clipper Racer is 122.32 metres long. She has a draught of 6.20 metres. She is powered by two Wärtsilä 9R32 diesel engines; the engines develop 3,700 kilowatts each. She has a GT of 7,606, NRT of 2,282 and DWT of 5,758. On board there are 1,055 lane metres of trailer space, giving capacity to carry up to 63 trailers.

Arrow, built as Varbola. Clipper Ranger, built as Lembitu. Hildasay, built as Leili. Current position of Helliar

Sultana (steamboat)

Sultana was a Mississippi River side-wheel steamboat, which exploded on April 27, 1865, in the worst maritime disaster in United States history. Constructed of wood in 1863 by the John Litherbury Boatyard in Cincinnati, she was intended for the lower Mississippi cotton trade; the steamer registered 1,719 tons and carried a crew of 85. For two years, she ran a regular route between St. Louis and New Orleans, was commissioned to carry troops. Although designed with a capacity of only 376 passengers, she was carrying 2,137 when three of the boat's four boilers exploded and she burned to the waterline and sank near Memphis, Tennessee; the disaster was overshadowed in the press by events surrounding the end of the American Civil War, including the killing of President Lincoln's assassin John Wilkes Booth just the day before, no one was held accountable for the tragedy. Under the command of Captain James Cass Mason of St. Louis, Sultana left St. Louis on April 13, 1865 bound for New Orleans, Louisiana.

On the morning of April 15, she was tied up at Cairo, when word reached the city that President Abraham Lincoln had been shot at Ford's Theater. Captain Mason grabbed an armload of Cairo newspapers and headed south to spread the news, knowing that telegraphic communication with the South had been totally cut off because of the war. Upon reaching Vicksburg, Mason was approached by Capt. Reuben Hatch, the chief quartermaster at Vicksburg. Hatch had a deal for Mason. Thousands of released Union prisoners of war, held by the Confederacy at the prison camps of Cahaba near Selma and Andersonville, in southwest Georgia, had been brought to a small parole camp outside of Vicksburg to await release to the North; the U. S. government would pay $2.75 per enlisted man and $8 per officer to any steamboat captain who would take a group north. Knowing that Mason was in need of money, Hatch suggested that he could guarantee Mason a full load of about 1,400 prisoners if Mason would agree to give him a kickback.

Hoping to gain much money through this deal, Mason agreed to the offered bribe. Leaving Vicksburg, Sultana traveled down river to New Orleans, continuing to spread the news of Lincoln's assassination. On April 21, 1865 Sultana left New Orleans with about 70 cabin and deck passengers, a small amount of livestock, she carried a crew of 85. About ten hours south of Vicksburg, one of Sultana's four boilers sprang a leak. Under reduced pressure, the steamboat limped into Vicksburg to get the boiler repaired and to pick up her promised load of prisoners. While the paroled prisoners from the states of Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and West Virginia, were brought from the parole camp to Sultana, a mechanic was brought down to work on the leaky boiler. Although the mechanic wanted to cut out and replace a ruptured seam, Mason knew that such a job would take a few days and cost him his precious load of prisoners. By the time the repairs would be completed, the prisoners would have been sent home on other boats.

Instead and his chief engineer, Nathan Wintringer, convinced the mechanic to make temporary repairs, hammering back the bulged boiler plate and riveting a patch of lesser thickness over the seam. Instead of taking two or three days, the temporary repair took only one. During her time in port, while the repairs were being made, Sultana took on the paroled prisoners. Although Hatch had suggested that Mason might get as many as 1,400 released Union prisoners, a mix-up with the parole camp books and suspicion of bribery from other steamboat captains caused the Union officer in charge of the loading, Capt. George Augustus Williams, to place every man at the parole camp on board Sultana, believing the number to be less than 1,500. Although Sultana had a legal capacity of only 376, by the time she backed away from Vicksburg on the night of April 24, 1865, she was overcrowded with 1,960 paroled prisoners, 22 guards from the 58th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 70 paying cabin passengers, 85 crew members, a total of 2,137 people.

Many of the paroled prisoners had been weakened by their incarceration in the Confederate prison camps and associated illnesses but had managed to gain some strength while waiting at the parole camp to be released. The men were packed into every available space, the overflow was so severe that in some places, the decks began to creak and sag and had to be supported with heavy wooden beams. Sultana spent two days traveling upriver, fighting against one of the worst spring floods in the river's history. At some places, the river overflowed the spread out three miles wide. Trees along the river bank were completely covered, until only the tops of the trees were visible above the swirling, powerful water. On April 26, Sultana stopped at Helena, where photographer Thomas W. Bankes took a picture of the grossly overcrowded vessel. Near 7:00 p.m. Sultana reached Memphis and the crew began unloading 120 tons of sugar from the hold. Near midnight, Sultana left Memphis leaving behind about 200 men, she went a short distance upriver to take on a new load of coal from some coal barges, at about 1:00 a.m. started north again.

Near 2:00 a.m. on April 27, 1865, when Sultana was just seven miles north of Memphis, its boilers exploded. First one boiler exploded, followed a split second by two more; the cause of the explosions is unknown. One theory suggests the initial explosion was the result of too much pressure and low water in the boilers. There was reason to believe allowable working steam pressure had been exceeded in an attempt to overcome the spring river current. Sultana's tubular boilers were made of Charcoal Hammered No. 1, a poor c