click links in text for more info

European Convention on Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights is an international convention to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950 by the newly formed Council of Europe, the convention entered into force on 3 September 1953. All Council of Europe member states are party to the Convention and new members are expected to ratify the convention at the earliest opportunity; the Convention established the European Court of Human Rights. Any person who feels his or her rights have been violated under the Convention by a state party can take a case to the Court. Judgments finding violations are binding on the States concerned and they are obliged to execute them; the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe monitors the execution of judgements to ensure payment of the amounts awarded by the Court to the applicants in compensation for the damage they have sustained. The compensations imposed under ECHR can be large; the Convention has several protocols. The European Convention on Human Rights has played an important role in the development and awareness of Human Rights in Europe.

The development of a regional system of human rights protection operating across Europe can be seen as a direct response to twin concerns. First, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the convention, drawing on the inspiration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be seen as part of a wider response of the Allied Powers in delivering a human rights agenda through which it was believed that the most serious human rights violations which had occurred during the Second World War could be avoided in the future. Second, the Convention was a response to the growth of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe and designed to protect the member states of the Council of Europe from communist subversion. This, in part, explains the constant references to values and principles that are "necessary in a democratic society" throughout the Convention, despite the fact that such principles are not in any way defined within the convention itself. From 7 to 10 May 1948 with the attendance of politicians, civil society representatives, business leaders, trade unionist and religious leader was organised gathering-The "Congress of Europe" in Hague.

At the end of Congress the declaration and following pledge was issued which demonstrated the initial seeds of modern European institutes, including ECHR. The second and third Articles of Pledge stated: We desire a Charter of Human Rights guaranteeing liberty of thought and expression as well as right to form a political opposition. We desire a Court of Justice with adequate sanctions for the implementation of this Charter; the Convention was drafted by the Council of Europe after the Second World War in response to a call issued by Europeans from all walks of life who had gathered at the Hague Congress. Over 100 parliamentarians from the twelve member states of the Council of Europe gathered in Strasbourg in the summer of 1949 for the first meeting of the Council's Consultative Assembly to draft a "charter of human rights" and to establish a court to enforce it. British MP and lawyer Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, the Chair of the Assembly's Committee on Legal and Administrative Questions, was one of its leading members and guided the drafting of the Convention.

As a prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials, he had seen first-hand how international justice could be applied. With his help, the French former minister and Resistance fighter Pierre-Henri Teitgen submitted a report to the Assembly proposing a list of rights to be protected, selecting a number from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights just agreed to in New York, defining how the enforcing judicial mechanism might operate. After extensive debates, the Assembly sent its final proposal to the Council's Committee of Ministers, which convened a group of experts to draft the Convention itself; the Convention was designed to incorporate a traditional civil liberties approach to securing "effective political democracy", from the strongest traditions in the United Kingdom and other member states of the fledgling Council of Europe, as said by Guido Raimondi, President of European Court of Human Rights: The European system of protection of human rights with its Court would be inconceivable untied from democracy.

In fact we have a bond, not only regional or geographic: a State cannot be party to the European Convention on Human Rights if it is not a member of the Council of Europe. So a non-democratic State could not participate in the ECHR system: the protection of democracy goes hand in hand with the protection of rights; the Convention was opened for signature on 4 November 1950 in Rome. It was ratified and entered into force on 3 September 1953, it is overseen and enforced by the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, the Council of Europe. Until procedural reforms in the late 1990s, the Convention was overseen by a European Commission on Human Rights; the Ukraine, whose National Judge is Ganna Yudkivska, ratified the Convention in 1997. The Convention is drafted in broad terms, in a similar manner to the English Bill of Rights, the U. S. Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man or the first part of the German Basic law. Statements of principle are, from a legal point of view, not determinative and require extensive interpretation by courts to bring out mean

Gustaf Wrede

Gustaf Woldemar Wrede af Elimä was a Finnish Freiherr and businessman. He is best known for his contribution to Finnish tractor production. Wrede was born to influential Finnish industrialist Wrede family. Due to his background, Wrede got a good education and subsequently a good position in his father's company, in which he designed Kullervo tractor; as manager of Ab Dalsbruk Wrede grew a hardy manager who saved the company from closure and developed the production. During World War II Wrede led the nickel mining company Petsamon Nikkeli Oy. After the war he led the metal industry production for war reparations to the Soviet Union; as manager of Valmet, Wrede participated in developing of Valmet tractors. Wrede's parents were manager Carolus Wrede and Siri née Söderhjelm, his nickname within the family was Dutta. The affluent Wrede family had been involved in industrial development for generations already. Carolus Wrede was the main owner of engineering companies Åbo Åbo Waggonfabrik, it was rather natural, that Gustaf Wrede became oriented to engineering.

He studied eight grades in Swedish-speaking Nya svenska läroverket in Helsinki. In 1907 he started studies in Technische Universität Darmstadt in Germany where he graduated in 1911 as Mechanical Engineer. Wrede's sister Siri married Wilhelm Wahlforss, who became an influential businessman. Wrede and Wahlforss worked both as colleagues and leading large competing engineering companies. Carolus Wrede's companies produced agricultural machinery and he became interested in tractors, as he saw a big market potential in Russian Plains where fields reached as far as eye can see. Right after his studies Gustaf Wrede to United States to learn more about vehicle production, he worked for a number of automotive companies in 1911–1912. During 1912–1914 he worked as Chief Engineer for Jackson Automobile Company in Michigan, where he focused on learning tractor technology. In 1914 Wrede returned to Finland and became Chief Engineer of Åbo Jernmanufaktur, where he started to develop a tractor; the First World War, which started shortly after, slowed down the development work.

The new tractor was introduced in the following autumn. In the meantime, Finland had become an independent state and the prominent Russian market was closed. However, the market of Baltic states looked promising. Serial production of Wrede's tractor named Kullervo started in 1919. Kullervo was produced in two variants of different engine outputs; the stronger, 30-hp version was intended for the Russian export. The smaller, 15-hp model was designed for domestic market. While the construction was modern, Kullervo was not sales success. Production ceased until when just 300 units were sold. In 1920–1922 Wrede worked as general manager in another agricultural machinery producer Tykö bruks Ab. Wrede was recruited to lead Ab Dalsbruk in 1922. Finland was in economical upswing and Wrede started an investment programme. Despite of intense price competition, the company's order book was in a good level. In January 1924 Dalsbruk became part of German Wuppermann company, which secured its financial status giving security to investments.

The Wuppermann family had high expectations for potential of the Dalsbruk factory and invested on it total 23.5 million Finnish marks. The youngest son of the owning family Gerhard Wuppermann was appointed Deputy Director. In 1926 the company started to have problems. Problems continued in the following year, when Dalsbruk was in strike and lockout for total seven months; when this was over, the economic cycle had turned worse. Dalsbruk operated just four days per week and the number of shifts was cut down. Wuppermann family had to fund the operations by bills of exchange; the company still owned large areas of land, sold. In 1929 the company debt reached 5.5 million marks and in addition Wuppermann family had taken debt for Dalsbruk for 10.5 million. The Wuppermanns decided to run down operations in Dalsbruk in a hygienic manner. In September 1930 the family gave Dalsbruk shares to Wrede, whose task was now to make the tough decisions. Salaries were cut and nail production was sold and headcount was reduced.

As the Finnish government changed its tariff policy more favourable, Wrede managed to press the losses down in 1930–1931. Abandoning of gold standard in autumn 1931 and the subsequent devaluation improved Dalsbruk's competitiveness. On the other hand, following collapse of international raw material bar cartel, competition had become more intense and prices dropped. In 1932 Dalsbruk got a large order for train wheels and axles from the State Railways, which led to immediate improvement. Wrede continued investing on the Dalsbruk. Before Dalsbruk, Wrede had succeeded in his life because of his noble background and wealthy family; the experience he gained as manager had a major impact on the rest of his life and toughened him to perform in his duties. In 1939 he sold his Dalsbruk shares to Wärtsilä Group, a company led by his brother-in-law, Wilhelm Wahlforss. During 1924–1934 Wrede led Suomen Pultti ja Konetehdas Oy and in 1935–1946 he worked as

Independent Women's Forum

The Independent Women's Forum is a conservative American non-profit organization focused on economic policy issues of concern to women. IWF was founded by activist Rosalie Silberman to promote a "conservative alternative to feminist tenets" following the controversial Supreme Court nomination of Clarence Thomas in 1992. IWF's sister organization is a 501 organization; the group advocates "equity feminism," a term first used by IWF author Christina Hoff Sommers to distinguish "traditional, classically liberal, humanistic feminism" from "gender feminism", which she claims opposes gender roles as well as patriarchy. According to Sommers, the gender feminist view is "the prevailing ideology among contemporary feminist philosophers and leaders" and "thrives on the myth that American women are the oppressed'second sex.'" Sommers' equity feminism has been described as anti-feminist by critics. Founded in 1992 by Rosalie Silberman, Anita K. Blair, Barbara Olson, the IWF grew out of the ad hoc group "Women for Judge Thomas," created to defend Clarence Thomas against allegations of sexual harassment and other improprieties.

By 1996 the organization had some 700 dues-paying members who met at luncheons to network and share ideas. Silberman was the IWF's first president; the current president of the organization is Carrie Lukas. The IWF has been described as "a virtual'Who's Who' of Washington's Republican establishment." In 2006, the organization had a budget of $1.05 million. The IWF opposes many mainstream feminist positions, describing them as "radical feminism", but rather focuses on equity feminism. IWF-affiliated writers have argued that the gender gap in income exists because of women's greater demand for flexibility, fewer hours, less travel in their careers, rather than because of sexism. In an article for the Dallas Morning News, IWF Vice-President Carrie Lukas attributed gender disparities in income to "women's own choices", writing that women "tend to place a higher priority on flexibility and personal fulfillment than do men, who focus more on pay. Women tend to avoid jobs that require travel or relocation, they take more time off and spend fewer hours in the office than men do.

Men disproportionately take on the most dirty and depressing jobs."The IWF argues that feminists manufacture domestic violence legislation that "is misleading because it is premised on and mean to advance feminist ideology." This falls under their larger belief that "feminists... lie about data, are opportunistic, construct men as the enemy, cast women as helpless victims."Conservative commentators have praised the IWF. Writing in Capitalist Magazine, John Stossel cited Michelle Bernard's 2007 book Women's Progress as evidence that "American women have never enjoyed more options or such a high quality of life."Some writers have asserted that feminist rhetoric is used by the IWF for anti-feminist ends. A New York Times editorial described the IWF as "a right-wing public policy group that provides pseudofeminist support for extreme positions that are in fact dangerous to women." In 2009, IWF produced a political advertisement run on YouTube and in eight states arguing that "300,000 American women with breast cancer might have died" if U.

S. healthcare included a government-funded option. labeled the IWF ad false and manipulative of women's fears, finding that the IWF ad relied on "old statistics, faulty logic and false insinuations." Since shortly after the organization's inception, the IWF has joined with groups like the National Wrestling Coaches Association in opposing the manner in which the United States Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights has enforced Title IX gender equality legislation. The 1972 Title IX law that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." The organization emphasizes traditional family roles and cultural norms as essential for civil society. In particular, IWF encourages young women to embrace what it presents as a healthy attitude towards dating and marriage; this emphasis is reflected by high-profile, sometimes controversial work on college campuses where IWF sponsors advertising campaigns and literature distribution to promote its views.

One such effort included the running of advertisements with provocative headings such as "The Ten Most Common Feminist Myths." IWF offers internships and sponsors an annual essay contest open to full-time female undergraduate students. As a reaction to reports of growing promiscuity on college campuses and the V-Day movement founded by Eve Ensler, IWF created its "Take Back the Date" campus program to "reclaim Valentine's Day from radical feminists on campus who use a day of love and romance to promote vulgar and promiscuous behavior through activities like The Vagina Monologues." Addressing the controversial play, IWF's "Take Back the Date" release states that, "although the play raises money for a good cause, the hyper-sexualized play counteracts the positive contributions of the feminist movement and degrades women." In an article in The Guardian, Jessica Valenti wrote that the program was "evamping outdated notions of femininity and positioning them as cutting edge." Since its founding, IWF has sponsored numerous conferences and other programs designed to promote its message to an international

Deeragun, Queensland

Deeragun is an outer suburb of Townsville in the City of Townsville, Australia. Deeragun is located 16.5 kilometres west of the Townsville CBD. Deeragun is a residential and rural-residential suburb characterised by the hill at Innes Estate and the Saunders Creek nature strip. Deeragun is a new suburb, being developed in the 1990s; the suburb is laid out around the old school and Nightjar Railway Station with much of the original residential development built by the Housing Commission. The origin of the name Deeragun is unrecorded; as at 2011 census the population of Deeragun was 3,525 people. The suburb contains the Woodlands Centro shopping complex that provides Northern Beaches residents access to a supermarket, a post office, several fast food outlets and veterinary services, some recreational businesses and fuel service stations. Additional shopping and restaurant amenities are in various stages of construction since 2011. A police station, Community Recreation Hall, a few churches and Woodlands Skate Park are located in Deeragun.

The Townsville City Council operate a mobile library service which visits the North Townsville Community Hub at Deeragun on Monday mornings. The Bruce Highway borders Deeragun to the north, it is at Deeragun where the Bruce Highway becomes a dual lane carriageway for the first time when approaching Townsville from the north. The final stage of the Townsville Ring Road is due for construction and will be a high-speed bypass road for traffic between Deeragun and Bohle Plains suburbs. Hermit Park Bus Service connects Deeragun with Townsville by providing through its "Route 33" a direct bus route to the Aitkenvale and Townsville CBD bus exchanges. Route 33 is part of the Department of Transport and Main Roads qconnect initiative and has a major stop in Bushland Beach; the taxi service as an alternative form of public transport is available in Deeragun. This service is operated by Townsville Taxis. Deeragun is 13.5 kilometres from Townsville Airport. Deeragun is served by three schools, they are: Bohlevale State Primary School Northern Beaches State High School St Anthony's Catholic College Additionally, there is a number of child care facilities available in the suburb

Bosniak Academy of Sciences and Arts

The Bosniak Academy of Sciences and Arts is an academic institution in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The institution is based in Sarajevo and has divisions in both Sarajevo and Novi Pazar to better reflect Bosniak interests in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sandžak; the institution was founded on 9 July 2011 in Novi Pazar under the initiative of Muamer ef. Zukorlić, mufti of the Islamic Community in Serbia; as per the decision of the founding assembly, Ferid Muhić was unilaterally proclaimed president while Dževad Jahić and Lamija Hadžiosmanović were named vice-presidents. The Grand Mufti of Bosnia, Dr. Mustafa ef. Cerić, was proclaimed President of the Zukorlić was named general secretary. Prof. Dr. Mustafa ef. Cerić, Grand Mufti Muhamed Filipović, historian Ferid Muhić, historian Nedžad Ibrišimović, author Šerbo Rastoder, politician Ejup Ganić, politician

Sângeorgiu de Pădure

Sângeorgiu de Pădure is a town in Mureș County, Romania. Bezid, Bezidu Nou and Loțu villages are administratively part of the town; the first written record of the town is preserved in a papal tithe applotment list from 1333 in which mention is made of a priest „de Sancto Georgio” who paid a sum of 6 dinars to the neighboring diocese. In 1347, a man named Erdő, count of the Székelys, the sons of Erdő of Erdőszentgyörgy were mentioned. In 1442, Anna Herepei, wife of Erdő of Erdewzenthgergh is written about; the village was the estate of prince of Transylvania. The Rédey castle was built in 1647. In 1788, Péter Bodor was born here. In 1818-1809, the Rédey castle was rebuilt. In 1913, the official Hungarian name of the village is Erdőszentgyörgy, its Romanian name was Erdeo-Sângeorgiu, after 1919 Sîngeorgiul de Pădure, changed by Romanian authorities to the current official name. In the mid-1780s as part of the Josephine administrative reform, Marosszék was integrated into Küküllő county, the szék-system was restored in 1790.

After the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution in 1849, the village formed part of the Kibéd military sub-division of the Marosvásárhely division in the Udvarhely military district. Between 1861–1876, the former Marosszék was restored; as a result of the administrative reform in 1876, the village fell within Nyárádszereda district of Maros-Torda County in the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, it became part of Romania and fell within Mureș-Turda County during the interwar period. In 1940, the Second Vienna Award granted the Northern Transylvania to Hungary and it was held by Hungary until 1944. Administered by the Soviet authorities after 12 November 1944, the village, together with the rest of Northern Transylvania, came under Romanian administration on 13 March 1945 and became part of Romania in 1947. Between 1952 and 1960, the commune fell within the Magyar Autonomous Region, between 1960 and 1968 the Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region. In 1968, the province was abolished, since the settlement has been part of Mureș County.

It became a town in 2004. The grave of Claudia Rhédey, grandmother of Queen Mary of England, is placed in the crypt of the Reformed church, renovated in 1936 from a donation of Queen Mary of England, great-granddaughter of count Rhédey and grandmother of Queen Elisabeth II of Great Britain and British royal family; the commune has an absolute Székely Hungarian majority. In 1900, the village had, in order of population size, 4,131 352 Romanian inhabitants. In 1930, the census indicated 1,194 Romanians, 334 Jews and 334 Gypsies. According to the 2011 census, 3,816 residents reported themselves as Hungarian, while 904 Romanian and 4.74% Gypsy, from a total of 5055 inhabitants. In 2002, 2,121 households were registered in the town along with 1,912 residential buildings; the 2002 Census reported Calvinism being professed by 54.71% of the total population, while 19.61% of the respondents belonged to the Romanian Orthodox Church, 10.34% of the respondents reported themselves as Unitarian, 8.55% as Roman Catholic and 1.07% as Baptist.

The local Town Council has 15 members: The Rhédey Castle was built in 1759 on the site of a former 16th-century castle. The castle was rebuilt in 1808; this is. The reformed church was built in early 14th centuries; the synode of the Unitarian church was held here in 1621 whern the Unitarians distanced themselves from the Sabbatarians as ’Judaizers’. It has belonged to the Reformed church since 1640; the church tower was added during the era of the Reformation. The patrons of the church were the Wesselényi families, it was rebuilt and restored in 1760. During a plague, the crypt below the church was closed by a wall by order of Gabriel Bethlen, prince of Transylvania The crypt of the Rhédey family is in this church; the Rhédey Mausoleum, now in ruins, stands on top of a hill north of the village, this is wherefrom the remains of countess Claudia Rhédey, wife of Duke Alexander of Württemberg was removed into the reformed church in 1841. The Orthodox Church was built in 1838 in the place of a former wooden church.

The town has a synagogue, too. The mansion house of the Zeyk family's is from the 16th century. Lieutenant General János Kiss was born in this house. Péter Bodor, Székely mechanic, was born here in 1788 Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde, morganatic wife of Duke Alexander of Württemberg, she is the great-great grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom Lieutenant General János Kiss, martyr of Hungarian anti-German resistance movement, was born here in 1883 The town is twinned with: Baja, Hungary. Celldömölk, Hungary Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland Varades, France List of Hungarian exonyms