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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights referred to as the Strasbourg Court, is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights. The court hears applications alleging that a contracting state has breached one or more of the human rights provisions concerning civil and political rights set out in the convention and its protocols. An application can be lodged by an individual, a group of individuals, or one or more of the other contracting states. Aside from judgments, the court can issue advisory opinions; the convention was adopted within the context of the Council of Europe, all of its 47 member states are contracting parties to the convention. The court is based in France near the European Parliament; the court was established on 21 January 1959 on the basis of Article 19 of the European Convention on Human Rights when its first members were elected by the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe. The convention charges the court with ensuring the observance of the engagement undertaken by the contracting states in relation to the convention and its protocols, ensuring the enforcement and implementation of the European Convention in the member states of the Council of Europe.

The jurisdiction of the court has been recognized to date by all 47 member states of the Council of Europe. On 1 November 1998, the court became a full-time institution and the European Commission of Human Rights, which used to decide on admissibility of applications, was abolished by Protocol 11; the accession of new states to the European Convention on Human Rights following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 led to a sharp increase in applications filed in the court. The efficiency of the court was threatened by the large accumulation of pending applications. In 1999, 8,400 applications were allocated to be heard. In 2003, 27,200 cases were filed and the number pending rose to 65,000. In 2005, the court opened 45,500 case files. In 2009, 57,200 applications were allocated, with 119,300 pending. At the time, more than 90 per cent of applications were declared to be inadmissible, the majority of cases decided—around 60 per cent of the decisions by the court—related to what is termed repetitive cases: where the court has delivered judgment finding a violation of the European Convention on Human Rights or where well established case law exists on a similar case.

Protocol 11 was designed to deal with the backlog of pending cases by establishing the court and its judges as a full-time institution, by simplifying the procedure and reducing the length of proceedings. However, as the workload of the court continued to increase, the contracting states agreed that further reforms were necessary and in May 2004, the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers adopted Protocol 14 to the European Convention on Human Rights. Protocol 14 was drafted with the aim of reducing the workload of the court and that of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, which supervises the execution of judgments, so that the court could focus on cases that raise important human rights issues. Protocol 14 entered into force on 1 June 2010, three months after it was ratified by all 47 contracting states to the convention. Between 2006 and 2010, Russia was the only contracting state to refuse to ratify Protocol 14. In 2010, Russia ended its opposition to the protocol, in exchange for a guarantee that Russian judges would be involved in reviewing complaints against Russia.

Protocol 14 led to reforms in three areas: The court's filtering capacity was reinforced to deal with inadmissible applications, new admissibility criteria were introduced so that cases where the applicant has not suffered a significant disadvantage would be declared inadmissible, measures were introduced to deal more with repetitive cases. Protocol 14 amended the convention so that judges would be elected for a non-renewable term of nine years, whereas judges served a six-year term with the option of renewal. Amendments were made so that a single judge could reject plainly inadmissible applications, while prior to this protocol only a three judge committee could make this final decision. In cases of doubt, the single judge refers the applications to the Committee of the Court. A single judge may not examine applications against the state; the three judge committee has jurisdiction to declare applications admissible and decide on the merits of the case if it was well founded and based on well established case law.

The three judge committee could only declare the case inadmissible, but could not decide on the merits of the case, which could only be done by a chambers of seven judges or the Grand Chamber. Protocol 14 provides that when a three judge committee decides on the merits of a case, the judge elected to represent that state is no longer a compulsory member of this committee; the judge can be invited by the committee, to replace one of its members, but only for specific reasons, such as when the application relates to the exhaustion of national legal remedies. Protocol 14 empowered the court to declare applications inadmissible where the applicant has not suffered a significant disadvantage and which do not raise serious questions affecting the application or the interpretation of the convention, or important questions concerning national law; the European Commissioner for Human Rights is now allowed to intervene in cases as a third party, providing written comments and taking part in hearings.

In order to reduce the workload of the court, Protocol 14 states that the court should encourage the parties to reach a settlement at an early stage of the proceedings in repetitive cases. The Commit

Biological reserve (Brazil)

A biological reserve in Brazil is a defined type of protected area of Brazil, a conservation unit that aims for full preservation of biota and other natural attributes without human interference. It may be visited only with prior approval of the responsible agency, only for research or educational purposes. A "Biological reserve" in Brazil is one of the Integral Protection Units defined by Article 13 of Law No. 9,985 of 18 July 2000, National System of Conservation Units. The biological reserve is public property; when it is established any private lands within its limits are expropriated. The manager of the biological reserve must prepare a management plan for approval by the responsible agency; the approved management plan is accessible by the public. This category of conservation unit aims at full preservation of biota and other natural attributes without direct human interference or environmental changes; the exception is for measures to recover altered ecosystems and management actions required to restore and preserve natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes.

Public access is prohibited with the exception of visits for educational purposes as defined in management plan. Research may be conducted after prior approval of the responsible agency and is subject to the agency's conditions and restrictions

Damir Ryspayev

Damir Muratuly Ryspayev a Kazakh professional ice hockey defenceman playing for Nomad Nur-Sultan of the Supreme Hockey League. On 8 August 2016, during an exhibition game against Kunlun Red Star, Ryspayev started a brawl that caused the game to get cancelled after just three minutes; the brawl began when Ryspayev punched Tomáš Marcinko as he was checking him, escalated when Ryspayev decided to attack the other Red Star players at random. After trying to attack players on the Red Star bench, Ryspayev was ejected from the game with the rest of the game getting cancelled, he was suspended by the KHL for the remainder of the exhibition season and faced a hearing for further discipline. On 18 August 2016 Ryspayev received a lifetime ban from the league, with a representative of the league's Council of Directors stating that the league could not allow its rules to be "systematically and grotesquely violated". On December 27, 2017, the lifetime ban on Ryspayev was lifted. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or The Internet Hockey Database


Podvisoki was a medieval settlement, part of wider urban area of fortress Visoki located in Visoko and Herzegovina. Podvisoki was main trading center over course much of the history of Bosnian medieval state from the mid 14 century; the first direct mention was in 1363. It was located along river Fojnica, in the foothills of Visočica hill, Visoko. Podvisoki was one of the early examples of medieval urban settlement in Bosnia region. Podvisoki had a colony of Ragusan merchants, they remained there until 1430s. Notable local merchant from Visoko in 14th century was Milaš Radomirić. Ragusan sources cite biggest caravan trade between Podvisoki and Ragusa in 1428; that year, on 9 August, Vlachs committed to Ragusan lord Tomo Bunić, that they will with 600 horses deliver 1500 modius of salt. Delivery was meant for Dobrašin Veseoković, Vlachs price was half of delivered salt. At the end of 14. Century merchants from Podvisoki took part in slave trade, it was recorded, that on November 1389 Bogovac Vukojević traded small boy Milko, a Bosnian, for the price of 4 ducats.

Visoko during the Middle Ages Old town of Visoki Mile Pavao Anđelić, Srednji vijek – Doba stare bosanske države, „Visoko i okolina kroz historiju I, Visoko 1984. Redžić, Srednjovjekovni gradovi u Bosni i Hercegovini, Sarajevo Publishing, ISBN 978-9958-21-511-7


Bison valley is a village in Udumbanchola Taluk in the Idukki district of the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. Bison valley is situated at around 914 metres above mean sea level, in the Western Ghats range of mountains; as of 2001 census of India, Bisonvalley had a population of 12761 with 6312 females. The name Bison valley is believed to tell the history of the place, Where the kings and officers of east India company came for hunting bison during there vacations in Munnar. Geographic coordinates of Bison valley is 10°00'21.9"N 77°40'36.9"E Bison valley is situated in the valleys of Chokramudi Peak in Udumbanchola taluk in the Idukki district covering an area of nearly 144 square kilometers. Bison valley is connected to a rural roads, 24 km form munnar, about 133 km from Cochin, 30 km from Adimali, 147 km from Madurai, Tamil Nadu and 56 km from Neriamangalam; the nearest major railway stations are at Aluva. The Nearest Functioning Railway station is at Udumalaipettai; the nearest airport is Cochin International Airport, 110 kilometers away.

The Coimbatore and Madurai airports is 165 km from Bison valley

Chow Tai Fook

Chow Tai Fook group is a Hong Kong–based owned conglomerate that engaged in the jewellery, property development, department store, energy, telecommunications, port and other businesses. Despite the holding companies of the group, namely Chow Tai Fook Capital Limited, Chow Tai Fook Limited, Chow Tai Fook Enterprises Limited and etc. were owned, the group was floated in the public, via associate company New World Development and subsidiary Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Group Limited. As of 31 December 2018, New World Development was ranked as the 47th largest companies of the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong by market capitalization, HK$105.68061 billion. However, the size of the unlisted portion of the Chow Tai Fook business empire is unclear; the Financial Times quoted one banker of Cheng Yu-tung family, saying "You can't look at YT without looking at the private side of the business and his ability to spot early investment opportunities". Notable unlisted business of the group includes Rosewood Hotel Group, as well as Australia-based Alinta Energy and Loy Yang B power station, which were acquired in 2017.

Chow Tai Fook Capital is owned by the descendants of the late Chow Tai Fook Jewellery founder Chow Chi-yuen and his son-in-law, the late Cheng Yu-tung, which includes the current Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Group chairman, Chow Tai Fook director Henry Cheng. The Chow Tai Fook group began with the Chow Tai Fook jewellery store, founded by Chow Chi-yuen in 1929 in Guangzhou, China; the store shifted its business to Portuguese Macau in 1940 and to British Hong Kong after the break out of the Second Sino-Japanese War in the 1930s and the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. The group returned to Mainland China after the market reforms of the 1980s, notably as New World Department Store China and former listed company New World China Land. Cheng Yu-tung took over the business empire from his father-in-law Chow Chi-yuen in 1956. Other sons of Mr. Chow, such as Stephen Chow Shue-tong, emigrated to Canada, after the outbreak of Hong Kong 1967 leftist riots, as an architect. Stephen Chow involved in the founding of the real estate division of Chow Tai Fook group in the 1960s.

Mr. Cheng transformed the group into a diversified empire, with interests in jewellery retailing, real estate, transportation, public utilities and other businesses. In 1961, Chow Tai Fook Jewellery built a for-sale residential building on 265–275 Tai Nan Street, Sham Shui Po, Kowloon; the building was named after Tai Fook. The real estate division became listed company New World Development in 1972, despite the group, via Chow Tai Fook Enterprises made private investment in real estate and hotels. One of the main holding company of the group, Chow Tai Fook Enterprises Limited, was incorporated on 10 August 1966 in the British Hong Kong, while the flagship listed company New World Development Company Limited, was incorporated in 1970 in the British Hong Kong; the jewellery store chain was incorporated as Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Company Limited in 1961 in the British Hong Kong, new holding company for the jewellery division was incorporated in the Cayman Islands and listed in the Hong Kong S.

A. R. A part of China, as Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Group Limited in 2011; as of 2018, the group consists of two more parent companies in the group structure, namely Chow Tai Fook Capital Limited and its subsidiary Chow Tai Fook Limited. They were incorporated in the British Virgin Islands. Chow Tai Fook is the parent company of Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Enterprises and Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Group. Chow Tai Fook group, via Chow Tai Fook Limited and Chow Tai Fook Enterprises Limited, owned two listed companies as the significant shareholder: Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Group Limited and New World Development Company Limited. However, New World Development owned a few listed second-tier subsidiaries, such as New World Department Store China, NWS Holdings and etc.. New World China Land, another second-tier subsidiary, was a listed company until privatization by New World Development in 2016; the privatization of listed second-tier subsidiary New World Department Store China by New World Development was not approved by the minority shareholders in 2017.

Another second-tier listed subsidiary, New World Hotels, was privatized by New World Development and Chow Tai Fook Enterprises in 1990. New World Development is a constituent of Hong Kong blue-chip index Hang Seng Index. Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Group, as of 13 October 2016, was the world's second-largest jeweller by market capitalization. Chow Tai Fook Jewellery is a jewellery store and gold shop founded by Chow Chi-yuen in 1929 in Guangzhou, China, his son-in-law Cheng Yu-tung took over the business in 1956 and their family owns the business. Chow Tai Fook Jewellery Company Limited, was the core company of the store chain, it was incorporated in British Hong Kong in 1961. The brand is popular in the Chinese-speaking world, according to a research by CLSA; the store has retail outlets in several countries, including over 2,000 retail outlets in mainland China. Cheng invented gold with 99.99% purity as a product of Chow Tai Fook Jewellery, which became a standard among the peers in Hong Kong. In 1964, Chow Tai Fook Jewellery acquired a license for purchasing diamond from De Beers, the monopoly supplier at that time.

It was reported that 30% diamonds imports of