Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Predrag Bošković is the European Handball Federation Vice President and member of the International Handball Federation Council. Bošković is an economist and has been involved in politics since 1997, he was a member of the Montenegrin Parliament, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Government of Serbia and Montenegro, Minister of Economy at the Government of Montenegro, Minister of Labor and Social Welfare at the Government of Montenegro and Minister of Education at the Government of Montenegro. He is the Minister of Defence at the Government of Montenegro. Predrag Bošković was born in Pljevlja, Yugoslavia, as the second child in the family of Milenko and Milana Bošković. One year before he was born his parents and brother Dragan were supposed to move to Germany, but they decided to stay in Pljevlja. Father Milenko has influenced Predrag's life and still remains an important source of his inspiration. At the age of 7, Bošković moved to Podgorica where he finished both high school. Though he was keen on pursuing career in electrical engineering, he graduated in 1996 from the Faculty of Economics at the University of Montenegro.
As a student he was involved in the work of the Entrepreneurial club at the Faculty of Economics.. He started his academic career as a Teaching Assistant at the Faculty of Economics, University of Montenegro, where he thought courses in Statistics and Econometrics; this is still the main area of his research interests. In 1999, he received his master's degree at the Faculty of University of Belgrade. Bošković completed many educational trainings in the areas of economics and econometrics; the most important training was the one on the Time series and predictions of election results, organized by the Central European University in Budapest in October 1997. Before devoting most of the time to his political career he published several papers in both domestic and international journals. Bošković became a member of the Democratic Party of Socialists in 1997, was the president of the DPS Youth club from 1998-2002. Achieved results recommended him for the responsible positions in Montenegrin politics.
In 2000 he became a member of the Podgorica City Council and a member of the Montenegrin Parliament from 2001-2004, after which he got elected the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Government of Serbia and Montenegro. During his term as the Deputy Minister he represented the country during many international visits. In June 2005, Boskovic delivered a speech on the importance of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in front of the United Nations General Assembly, he took part in numerous bilateral meetings with high representatives of many foreign countries from all over the world. From November 2005 to September 2006 he served as the Minister of Economy in the Government of Montenegro. From September 2006 to August 2008 he was the president of the Board of Directors of Montenegrobonus. In August 2008 he was elected the president of the Coalmine "Pljevlja"; the company had suffered major losses for many consecutive years prior to his appointment. Bošković introduced many organizational and strategic changes, as a result the company started to incur profits.
Moreover, the company is one of the most successful companies in Montenegro today. In December 2012 he was elected Minister of Social Welfare, he remained at this position until March 2015. On the 28th of November 2016 he was elected as Minister of Defense of the Republic of Montenegro, leaving his previous post as Minister of Education. Being sportsman himself, Bošković got involved in Montenegrin handball in 2005 when he became a board member of the Women's Handball Club, Budućnost. In December 2006 he became the president of the club. After his election, he set the European Champions League title as a medium-term goal. Starting from his election, all the decisions were made keeping this goal in mind, for which general public criticized him quite often. On May 13, 2012 WHC "Budućnost" won its first European Handball Federation Champions League title. Prior to this historical triumph, the club lost seven EHFCL semifinals. During Boskovic's presidency the club won the second Champions League title in 2015, eleven domestic championships, six regional league titles, one Cup Winner's Cup title in 2010 and was the semifinalist of the EHFCL in 2011, 2016 and 2017 and the finalist in 2014.
Due to obligations in EHF, Boskovic resigned as president of Handball Club Buducnost on March 12, 2018. In 2011 he was the elected president of the Montenegrin Handball Association and held this position until September 2016 when he stepped down due to the candidacy for the vice-president of the European Handball Federation. In 2012 both men's and women's national teams accomplished the best results in their history; the men's national team qualified for the World Handball Championship, held in Spain in 2013 Few months after that, on August 11, women's national team won the silver medal at the London 2012 Olympics. This medal is viewed as a historical achievement since it is the first Olympic medal for Montenegro since its independence in 2006; the great year for Montenegrin handball was crowned with the European Championship title which Montenegrin Women's Handball Team won on December 16, 2012. Many analysts and organizations, including the International Handball Federation, agree that Bošković is one of the people who have contributed the most to the immense success of the Montenegrin handball.
The IHF referred to him as the "father of success". Recognizing his stellar work
Beach handball is a team sport where two teams pass and bounce or roll a ball, trying to throw it in the goal of the opposing team. The game is similar to team handball. Matches are played depending on when a team wins their second set of the game. If teams are tied at the end of a regular set the teams will play for a golden goal; the teams will try to win a jump ball and the first goal wins the set. If the teams are tied at the end of 2 sets the teams will participate in a tie breaker; the tie break involves a goalie throwing the ball to his/her own player while that player attempts to score one-on-one with the opposing goalie. During regular play, if the goalkeeper scores a goal this counts as two points, compared to a normal goal scored by an outfield player which counts as 1 point. Creative or spectacular goals, such as 360 degree jumps and alley-oops, are awarded with two points, as well as inflights and 6 meter throws; the official rules of Beach Handball were internationally made in 2002.
The first European Championships was played in the year 2000. As of September 2014, Brazil is ranked the number 1 country in the world, is the winner of the world championship in both men's and women's divisions at the 2014 Beach Handball World Championships. CompetitionsBeach Handball World Championships Beach handball at the World Games IHF Youth Beach Handball World ChampionshipRegionalAsian Beach Handball Championship European Beach Handball Championship Oceania Beach Handball Championship Pan American Beach Handball Championship Beach volleyball Suances Cup Beach Handball Championships Polish Beach Handball Community World CUP Cadiz 2008 Calella International Beach Handball Open 2011 European Beach Handball Championships,Umag, Croatia Croatia 2011 European Men's and Women's Beach Handball Champions Croatian Beach Handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, the team that scores more goals wins. Modern handball is played on a court of 40 with a goal in the middle of each end; the goals are surrounded by a 6-meter zone. The sport is played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball and beach handball; the game is fast and high-scoring: professional teams now score between 20 and 35 goals each, though lower scores were not uncommon until a few decades ago. Body contact is permitted, the defenders trying to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. No protective equipment is mandated, but players may wear soft protective bands and mouth guards; the game was codified at the end of the 19th century in Denmark. The modern set of rules was published in 1917 in Germany, had several revisions since; the first international games were played under these rules for men in 1925 and for women in 1930.
Men's handball was first played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin as outdoors, the next time at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich as indoors, has been an Olympic sport since. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics; the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946 and, as of 2016, has 197 member federations. The sport is most popular in the countries of continental Europe, which have won all medals but one in the men's world championships since 1938. In the women's world championships, only two non-European countries have won the title: South Korea and Brazil; the game enjoys popularity in East Asia, North Africa and parts of South America. There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called expulsim ludere. There are records of handball-like games in medieval France, among the Inuit in Greenland, in the Middle Ages. By the 19th century, there existed similar games of håndbold from Denmark, házená in the Czech Republic, handbol in Ukraine, torball in Germany.
The team handball game of today was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe: in Denmark, Germany and Sweden. The first written set of team handball rules was published in 1906 by the Danish gym teacher and Olympic medalist Holger Nielsen from Ordrup grammar school, north of Copenhagen; the modern set of rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Karl Schelenz, Erich Konigh from Germany. After 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz; the first international games were played under these rules, between Germany and Belgium by men in 1925 and between Germany and Austria by women in 1930. In 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to draw up international rules for field handball; the International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928 and the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946. Men's field handball was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. During the next several decades, indoor handball flourished and evolved in the Scandinavian countries.
The sport re-emerged onto the world stage as team handball for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. Due to its popularity in the region, the Eastern European countries that refined the event became the dominant force in the sport when it was reintroduced; the International Handball Federation organised the men's world championship in 1938 and every four years from World War II to 1995. Since the 1995 world championship in Iceland, the competition has been held every two years; the women's world championship has been held since 1957. The IHF organizes women's and men's junior world championships. By July 2009, the IHF listed 166 member federations - 795,000 teams and 19 million players; the rules are laid out in the IHF's set of rules. Two teams of seven players take the field and attempt to score points by putting the game ball into the opposing team's goal. In handling the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions: After receiving the ball, players can pass, keep possession, or shoot the ball.
If possessing the ball, players must dribble, or can take up to three steps for up to three seconds at a time without dribbling. No attacking or defending players other than the defending goalkeeper are allowed to touch the floor of the goal area. A shot or pass in the goal area is valid. Goalkeepers are allowed outside the goal area, but are not allowed to cross the goal area boundary with the ball in their hands; the ball may not be passed back to the goalkeeper. Notable scoring opportunities can occur. For example, an attacking player may catch a pass while launching inside the goal area, shoot or pass before touching the floor. Doubling occurs. Handball is played on a court 40 with a goal in the centre of each end; the goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called the zone or the crease, defined by a line six meters from the goal. A dashed near-semicircular line nine metres f
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top of a corporation taking full responsibility for managing all business activities. In the United Kingdom, the term head office is most used for the HQs of large corporations; the term is used regarding military organizations. A headquarters is the entity at the top of a corporation that takes full responsibility for the overall success of the corporation, ensures corporate governance; the corporate headquarters is a key element of a corporate structure and covers different corporate functions such as strategic planning, corporate communications, legal, finance, human resources, information technology, procurement. This entity includes the chief executive officer as a key person and his or her support staff such as the CEO office and other CEO-related functions. Many companies have a registered office at a different address to their corporate office.
A headquarters includes the leader of business unit and his or her staff as well as all functions to manage the business unit and operational activities. The head of the business unit is responsible for overall result of the business unit. A headquarters sometimes functions at the top of regional unit, including all activities of the various business units, taking full responsibility for overall profitability and success of this regional unit. Military headquarters take many forms depending on the size and nature of the unit or formation they command, they are split into the forward and rear components, both within NATO nations, those following the organization and doctrine of the former Soviet Union. The forward or tactical HQs is a small group of staff and communicators. Mobile, they exist to allow the commander to go forward in an operation, command the key parts of it from a position where they can see the ground and influence their immediate subordinates; the main HQs is involved in both the planning and execution of operations.
There are a number of staff assembled here from various staff branches to advise the commander, to control the various aspects of planning and the conduct of discrete operations. A main HQ for a large formation will have a chief of staff; the rear or logistic HQs is some distance from the front line in conventional operations. Its function is to ensure the logistical support to front line troops, which it does by organizing the delivery of combat supplies and equipment to where they are needed, by organizing services such as combat medicine, equipment recovery, repair; the headquarters of the Catholic Church is Vatican City. The World Headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses is relocated in Warwick, New York, from its former location, New York; the headquarters of the Russian Orthodox Church is in Moscow. The World Council of Churches, including Orthodox Churches, has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland; the headquarters of Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is located in Turkey. The headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City, Utah.
The Anglican Communion Office is in London. In Japanese budō martial arts such as karate, aikido, etc. There is a headquarters for each organization or region; the Japanese word honbu is used for that outside Japan. Sometimes they refer to this headquarters as honbu dojo in which dojo is a facility provided for practicing discipline, the training ground. Sometimes honbu is written as hombu, the way it is pronounced, but according to the Hepburn transcription, the correct spelling should be honbu in which the'n' is a syllabic n. Isby, David C. Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army Jane's, London: 516 pp. Wanner, Herbert Global and regional corporate headquarters in: Kählin, Christian, H.: Switzerland Business & Investment Handbook. Wanner, Herbert.
France women's national handball team
The France women's national handball team is the national team of France. It is governed by the Fédération Française de Handball and takes part in international handball competitions. 2000: 6th 2004: 4th 2008: 5th 2012: 5th 2016: 2nd 2020: Qualified 2024: Qualified 1986: 15th 1990: 14th 1997: 10th / 1999: 2nd 2001: 5th 2003: Winner 2005: 12th 2007: 5th 2009: 2nd 2011: 2nd 2013: 6th 2015: 7th 2017: Winner 2019: Qualified 2000: 5th 2002: 3rd 2004: 11th 2006: 3rd 2008: 14th / 2010: 5th 2012: 9th / 2014: 5th 2016: 3rd 2018: Winner 1987 Mediterranean Games: 2nd 1989 Carpathian Trophy: 3rd 1991 Mediterranean Games: 2nd 1993 Mediterranean Games: 2nd 1997 Mediterranean Games: Winner 2001 Mediterranean Games: Winner 2005 Mediterranean Games: 4th 2009 Mediterranean Games: Winner 2002 Møbelringen Cup: 3rd 2004 Møbelringen Cup: 2nd 2006 Møbelringen Cup: 3rd 2012 Møbelringen Cup: Winner GF World Cup'07: 2nd GF World Cup'08: 3rd GF World Cup'10: 3rd GF World Cup'11: 3rd 2014–15 Golden League: 2nd Squad for the 2018 European Women's Handball Championship.
Head coach: Olivier Krumbholz Several French players have seen their individual performance recognized at international tournaments. MVPValérie Nicolas, 2003 World ChampionshipAll-Star TeamNodjialem Myaro, 1999 World Championship Stéphanie Cano, 2002 European Championship Valérie Nicolas, 2003 World Championship, 2007 World Championship Isabelle Wendling, 2003 World Championship Véronique Pecqueux-Rolland, 2004 Summer Olympics Mariama Signaté, 2009 World Championship Allison Pineau, 2009 World Championship, 2011 World Championship, 2016 Summer Olympics Alexandra Lacrabere, 2016 Summer Olympics Béatrice Edwige, 2016 European Championship Grâce Zaadi, 2017 World Championship Siraba Dembélé, 2017 World Championship Amandine Leynaud, 2018 European Championship Total number of matches played in official competitions only. France's matches are televised by Canal+ which will last until 2017. Official website Femmes2defis IHF profile