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European Investment Bank

The European Investment Bank is a publicly owned international financial institution whose shareholders are the EU member states. It was established in 1958 under the Treaty of Rome as a "policy-driven bank" using financing operations to further EU policy goals such as European integration and social cohesion, it should not be confused with the European Central Bank, based in Frankfurt or with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, based in London. The member states set the bank's broad policy goals and oversee the decision-making bodies of the bank: its board of governors and board of directors, it is the world's largest international public lending institution. The European Investment Bank was founded when the Treaty of Rome came into force 1958, located in Brussels and with 66 employees. In 1968 it was relocated to Luxembourg. By 1999, it had more than 1,000 staff members, more than 2,000 in 2012; the EIB Group was formed in 2000, comprising the EIB and the European Investment Fund, the EU's venture capital arm that provides finances and guarantees for small and medium enterprises.

The EIB is the EIF's majority shareholder, with 62% of the shares. In 2012, the EIB Institute was created, with the goal of promoting "European initiatives for the common good" in EU Member States and candidate and potential candidate countries, as well as EFTA nations; the total subscribed capital of the Bank was EUR 232 billion in 2012. The capital of the EIB was doubled between 2007 and 2009 in response to the financial crisis; the EU heads of government agreed to increase paid-in capital by EUR 10 billion in June 2012, with implementation expected in early 2013. For the fiscal year 2011, EIB lent EUR 61 billion in various loan products, bringing total outstanding loans to EUR 395 billion. Nearly 90% of these were with EU member states with the remainder dispersed between around 150 "partner countries"; the bank uses its AAA credit rating to fund itself by raising equivalent amounts on the capital markets. As the "Bank of the European Union", the EIB's mission is to make a difference to the future of Europe and its partners by supporting sound investments which further EU policy goals.

Although about 90 percent of projects financed by the EIB are based in EU member countries, the bank does fund projects in about 150 other countries—non-EU Southeastern European countries, Mediterranean partner countries, ACP countries and Latin American countries, the members of the Eastern Partnership and Russia. According to the EIB, it works in these countries to implement the financial pillar of the union's external cooperation and development policies by encouraging private sector development, infrastructure development, security of energy supply and environmental sustainability. EU finance ministers have "called on all multilateral development banks, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, to phase out financing of fossil fuel projects."In the wake of the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, the Council of the European Union instructed the EIB to suspend new financing operations in Russia. Operating strategy: To finance viable capital projects which further EU objectives To borrow on the capital markets to finance these projectsLending strategy within the EU Within the EU the EIB has six priority objectives: Cohesion and convergence Support for small and medium-sized enterprises Environmental sustainability Knowledge economy Development of Trans-European Networks of transport and energy Sustainable and secure energy supplyLending strategy outside the EU Outside the EU the EIB's priority objectives for lending activity are: Private sector development Financial sector development Infrastructure development Security of energy supply Environmental sustainability EU presenceWhen making loans outside the EU, the bank has lending mandates based on EU external cooperation and development policies, which differ from region to region.

Pre-Accession: Candidate and Potential Candidate countries in the Enlargement region European Neighbourhood: Mediterranean Neighbourhood / Russia and Eastern Neighbours Development: Africa and Caribbean / Republic of South Africa Economic Cooperation: Asia and Latin America Within pre-accession countries, activities support both the EU priority lending objectives and the objectives of the external mandates. Transport Policy, Energy Policy, Transparency Policy, Climate Strategy, Governance at the EIB, Complaints Mechanism Policy, Anti-Fraud and Anti-Corruption Policy, Integrity Policy and Compliance Charter, Statement on Environmental and Social Principles and Standards, EIB Whistleblowing Policy, EIB Policy towards weakly regulated, non-transparent and uncooperative jurisdictions; as such, the European Investment Bank is represented in the Standard Committee of SuRe® – The Standard for Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, a global voluntary standard, developed by the Swiss Global Infrastructure Basel Foundation and the French bank Natixis, which integrates key criteria of sustainability and resilience into infrastructure development and upgrade.

On 14 November 2019, the EIB announced that it would stop funding new, fossil fuel projects from the end of 2021, including an end to funding for natural gas. Current projects, such as the Trans Adriatic Pipeline, will not be affected; the bank announced an intention to "support €1 trillion of climate related investment" in "the coming years." Example

Battle of Cassano (1705)

The Battle of Cassano took place at the town of Cassano d'Adda in Lombardy, Italy on 16 August 1705 during the War of the Spanish Succession between a French-led force commanded by the duc de Vendôme and an Imperial army under Prince Eugene of Savoy. It is considered a French tactical victory since the Imperial army was prevented from crossing the River Adda but casualties were heavy on both sides. By 1705, the fighting in Northern Italy was in its fourth year, the French retaining the key strategic prize of Milan and having the upper hand. Finances were an enduring weakness of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy with the Imperial army in Italy receiving minimal support from Emperor Leopold, more focused on the Hungarian revolt known as Rákóczi's War of Independence. In October 1703, Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy voided his alliance with France and switched sides. During 1704, Marshall La Feuillade captured Savoyard territories in Villefranche and the County of Savoy, a process, completed when Nice surrendered in April 1705.

Victor Amadeus now retained parts of Southern Piedmont. The French commander in Italy, Vendôme, positioned his brother Philippe de Vendôme at Cassano d'Adda with 20,000 men while he himself led a mobile reserve. Prince Eugene of Savoy now resumed command in Italy while Leopold agreed to provide men and money; the Maritime Powers signed an agreement with Prussia for a contingent of 8,000 led by Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau to join Prince Eugene's army. The Imperialists needed to relieve the pressure on Victor Amadeus to keep Savoy in the war. Since the nominal strength of a French squadron was 135 and 600 for an infantry battalion, this indicates a maximum of 2,700 cavalry and 9,000 infantry; when the Imperial army reached Iveza in the Brianza, they constructed a pontoon bridge under cover of artillery fire and Vendôme prepared to defend the crossing. This was a feint, he doubled back hoping to catch the French detachment at Cassano by surprise and arrived in Romanengo on 14 August, about 40 kilometres away.

The Adda was deep and fast-flowing and unfordable, which limited potential crossing points for large bodies of men. The town of Cassano is on the right bank, with a stone bridge protected by a small fortification or redoubt; the area was divided by numerous small streams and irrigation channels, the most significant being the Retorto, an irrigation canal running parallel to the Adda. This was connected to the left bank by another bridge protected by a strongpoint. Assuming Prince Eugene was heading for Mantua, Vendôme had ordered Philippe to leave Cassano and intercept him; the French were in an dangerous position, their baggage blocking the main bridge and the Adda behind them. Vendôme joined his brother with 1,500 cavalry; this included all five regiments of the Irish Brigade. After bitter fighting, the Imperialists captured the Retorto bridge giving them control of the sluice gates. Prince Eugene ordered the Prince of Anhalt-Dessau and his Prussians into the canal to assault the French left.

The battle surged forth across the river for several hours. Prince Eugene himself had to leave the field; the two sides spent the next few weeks watching each other. On 9 October, the Imperial army left camp and made a thrust towards Crema, trying to trap Vendôme against the river; this was a good example of Prince Eugene's ability to keep his opponents guessing but although Vendôme was only able to follow on 11 October, heavy rains brought the campaign to a close for the year. The French spent the winter around Castiglione and Mantua, with the Imperialists at Montichiari and Calcinato. Opinion is divided on. Using the practice of the day, the Imperial army could technically claim victory as it remained in control of the battlefield at the end, it is best described as a French tactical victory. La Feuillade's force of 22,000 was not large enough to besiege Turin, giving Victor Amadeus time to reinforce it. Bancks, John.

NCSA Telnet

NCSA Telnet is an implementation of the Telnet protocol created at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign National Center for Supercomputing Applications in 1986 and continuously developed until 1995. The initial implementation ran under Mac OS and Microsoft MS-DOS and provided basic DEC VT102 terminal emulation as well as support for multiple simultaneous connections and an internal FTP server. At the time, NCSA Telnet was the first implementation of telnet for the Macintosh or a PC that provided the ability to connect to multiple hosts simultaneously. Over time, the program evolved with added revisions to the user interface. Support for Tektronix 4010/4014 vector terminal emulation and a protocol for downloading and viewing raster images were added. In 1987, a short-lived version for Sun Microsystems SunOS was released. Although the PC version of NCSA Telnet lost popularity once Microsoft Windows was in widespread use, the Macintosh version remained in use throughout the 1990s as a basic tool of connectivity in academic and commercial installations.

NCSA Telnet used a built-in TCP/IP protocol stack to communicate over the network. As standard APIs became available for network communication, the program was adapted to use those methods, most notably Apple's MacTCP. However, the built-in stack continued to ship in the software for years. NCSA Telnet was released as open source software and as such spawned a number of spin-off products including BetterTelnet Brown tn3270 BYUTelnet InterCon's TCP/Connect series MacBlue Telnet MacTelnet NCSA Telnet-J "NCSA PC Telnet Info Page ". Web.archive.org. 2005-12-25. Retrieved 2020-01-07