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European Ombudsman

The European Ombudsman is an ombudsman for the European Union, based in the Václav Havel building in Strasbourg. The European Ombudsman was established by the Maastricht Treaty and the first, Jacob Söderman of Finland, was elected by Parliament in 1995; the current Ombudsman, Emily O'Reilly of Ireland, took office on 1 October 2013. The European Ombudsman is elected by the European Parliament; the Ombudsman is elected for the term of Parliament and the term is renewable. At the request of Parliament, the Ombudsman may be removed by the Court of Justice if "he no longer fulfils the conditions required for the performance of his duties or if he is guilty of serious misconduct". Any EU citizen or entity may appeal the Ombudsman to investigate an EU institution on the grounds of maladministration: administrative irregularities, discrimination, abuse of power, failure to reply, refusal of information or unnecessary delay; the Ombudsman can not investigate the European Court of Justice in its judicial capacity, the General Court, the Civil Service Tribunal and regional administrations, private individuals or corporations.

The Ombudsman has no binding powers to compel compliance with their rulings, but the overall level of compliance is high. The Ombudsman relies on the power of persuasion and publicity. In 2011, the overall rate of compliance by the EU institutions with their suggestions was 82%; the EU Agencies had a compliance rate of 100%. The compliance rate of the European Commission was the same as the overall figure of 82%, while the European Personnel Selection Office scored 69%, it is. One example of a case dealt with by the Ombudsman involved a late payment from the Commission to a German science journalist; the Commission paid interest and accelerated future payments to experts. On another occasion, following a complaint from a Hungarian, EPSO agreed to clarify information in recruitment competition notices concerning eligibility and pre-selection tests. A third case was resolved when the Ombudsman compelled the Council to release to the public documents it had not acknowledged the existence of; the ombudsman received 2,667 complaints in the year 2010 and opened 335 investigations into alleged maladministration.

In 2011 2,510 complaints were received and 396 investigations were opened. The largest number of complaints in 2011 came from Spain, followed by Germany with 308. Relative to population, the greatest proportion of complaints came from Luxembourg and Cyprus; the United Kingdom, despite its eurosceptic reputation, was in 2009 responsible for the smallest number of cases lodged. In 2011 the UK was responsible for 141 complaints to the Ombudsman, still representing a low ratio of complaints to population. According to the Ombudsman's own reports, 58% of complaints in 2011 were related to the European Commission. 11% related to the European Personnel Selection Office from dissatisfied applicants to the European Civil Service and 4% to the European Parliament. The Council of the European Union accounted for 3%. European Citizens' Initiative, an initiative aimed at increasing direct democracy in the European Union; the official website of the European Ombudsman, The European Code of Good Administrative Behaviour, at the Ombudsman's official website Public service principles for the EU civil service, at the Ombudsman's official website

List of Kolkata Presidencians

The following is the list of notable people associated with Presidency University, Kolkata. Durga Mohan Das, leader of the Brahmo Samaj Mahendranath Gupta, author of Sri Sri Ramakrishna Kathamrita Raja Dakshinaranjan Mukherjee, leader of the Young Bengal movement. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, 1st President of India Abu Sayeed Chowdhury, 2nd President of Bangladesh Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem, 6th President of Bangladesh Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh, former Governor of Uttar Pradesh Lord Satyendra Prasanno Sinha, first Indian Governor of Bihar and Orissa Mohammad Ali Bogra, 3rd Prime Minister of Pakistan A. K. Fazlul Huq, Prime Minister of Bengal Jyoti Basu, 6th Chief Minister of West Bengal Buddhadeb Bhattacharya, 7th Chief Minister of West Bengal Bishnu Ram Medhi, Chief Minister of Assam Siddhartha Shankar Ray, 5th Chief Minister of West Bengal. S. A. Anugrah Narayan Sinha, 1st Deputy Chief Minister of Bihar MJ Akbar, Minister of State for External Affairs, Government of India Bratya Basu and actor.

Sarat Chandra Bose, Bengal Congress President. K. Handique, Union Minister of Mines & Development of North Eastern Region, GOI. Azizul Haque, B. L, C. I. E, K. C. S. I, D. Litt. Former Education Minister, Government of Bengal Humayun Kabir, Education Minister, Government of India Fazlul Karim, Mayor of Cox's Bazar Amit Mitra, Finance Minister of West Bengal Syama Prasad Mukherjee, founder of Bharatiya Jana Sangh. C. I. E. First Indian Muslim President of the reformed legislative council of undivided Bengal in 1921 Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Member of the Bihar and Orissa Legislative Assembly Maharajadhiraja Sir Uday Chand Mahtab, Member of the Bengal Legislative Assembly, Indian Constituent Assembly, 1946-47 & Maharajadhiraja Bahadur of Burdwan. Hirendranath Mukherjee, Member of Lok Sabha,Leader of the Opposition, India Arjun Kumar Sengupta, Member of Rajya Sabha Colonel H. H. Nripendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur, Maharaja of Coochbehar Raja Dakshinaranjan Mukherjee, Taluqdar of Shankarpore in the United Provinces Anandamohan Bose, One of the earliest Indian political leaders during the British Raj.

Ashim Chatterjee, former Naxalite leader Ullaskar Dutta, former member of Jugantar Party. Amin Ahmed, Chief Justice of the High Court of Dacca. Justice Gooroodas Banerjee, former Judge of the High Court of Calcutta. Pramada Charan Banerjee, Judge of the High Court of Allahabad. Monomohun Ghose, first practising Indian barrister of the Calcutta High Court. Sir Sarat Kumar Ghosh, I. C. S, Chief Justice of Jaipur and Kashmir. Kulada Charan Das Gupta, I. C. S, Chief Justice of Calcutta High Court Sadhan Chandra Gupta, former Advocate General of West Bengal. Justice Altamas Kabir, 39th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India. Sir Ashutosh Mookerjee, former Chief Justice of the Calcutta High Court. Justice Sabyasachi Mukherjee, former Chief Justice of India Justice Radhabinod Pal Judge of the High Court of Calcutta.

Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4

SMAD4 called SMAD family member 4, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4, or DPC4 is a highly-conserved protein present in all metazoans. It belongs to the SMAD family of transcription factor proteins, which act as mediators of TGF-β signal transduction; the TGFβ family of cytokines regulates critical processes during the lifecycle of metazoans, with important roles during embryo development, tissue homeostasis and immune regulation. SMAD 4 belongs to the second class of the SMAD family. SMAD4 is the only known co-SMAD in most metazoans, it belongs to the Darwin family of proteins that modulate members of the TGFβ protein superfamily, a family of proteins that all play a role in the regulation of cellular responses. Mammalian SMAD4 is a homolog of the Drosophila protein "Mothers against decapentaplegic" named Medea. SMAD4 interacts with R-Smads, such as SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD1, SMAD5 and SMAD8 to form heterotrimeric complexes. Once in the nucleus, the complex of SMAD4 and two R-SMADS binds to DNA and regulates the expression of different genes depending on the cellular context.

Intracellular reactions involving SMAD4 are triggered by the binding, on the surface of the cells, of growth factors from the TGFβ family. The sequence of intracellular reactions involving SMADS is called the SMAD pathway or the transforming growth factor beta pathway since the sequence starts with the recognition of TGF-β by cells. In mammals, SMAD4 is coded by a gene located on chromosome 18. In humans, the SMAD4 gene contains 54 829 base pairs and is located from pair n° 51,030,212 to pair 51,085,041 in the region 21.1 of the chromosome 18. SMAD4 is a 552 amino-acid polypeptide with a molecular weight of 60.439 Da. SMAD4 has two functional domains known as MH1 and MH2; the complex of two SMAD3 and one SMAD4 binds directly to DNA though interactions of their MH1 domains. These complexes are recruited to sites throughout the genome by cell lineage-defining transcription factors that determine the context-dependent nature of TGF-β action. Early insights into the DNA binding specificity of Smad proteins came from oligonucleotide binding screens, which identified the palindromic duplex 5’–GTCTAGAC–3’ as a high affinity binding sequence for SMAD3 and SMAD4 MH1 domains.

Other motifs have been identified in promoters and enhancers. These additional sites contain the CAGCC motif and the GGC| consensus sequences, the latter known as 5GC sites; the 5GC-motifs are represented as clusters of sites, in SMAD-bound regions genome-wide. These clusters can contain CAG| sites. SMAD3/SMAD4 complex binds to the TPA-responsive gene promoter elements, which have the sequence motif TGAGTCAG; the first structure of SMAD4 bound to DNA was the complex with the palindromic GTCTAGAC motif. The structures of SMAD4 MH1 domain bound to several 5GC motifs have been determined. In all complexes, the interaction with the DNA involves a conserved β-hairpin present in the MH1 domain; the hairpin is flexible in solution and its high degree of conformational flexibility allows recognition of the different 5-bp sequences. Efficient interactions with GC-sites occur only if a G nucleotide is located deep in the major grove, establishes hydrogen bonds with the guanidinium group of Arg81; this interaction facilitates a complementary surface contact between the Smad DNA-binding hairpin and the major groove of the DNA.

Other direct interactions involve Lys88 and Gln83. The X-ray crystal structure of the Trichoplax adhaerens SMAD4 MH1 domains bound to the GGCGC motif indicates a high conservation of this interaction in metazoans; the MH2 domain, corresponding to the C-terminus, is responsible for receptor recognition and association with other SMADs. It forms heterodimers and heterotrimers; some tumor mutations detected in SMAD4 enhance interactions between the MH2 domains. SMADs are conserved across species in the N terminal MH1 domain and the C terminal MH2 domain; the SMAD proteins are homologs of both the Drosophila protein MAD and the C. elegans protein SMA. The name is a combination of the two. During Drosophila research, it was found that a mutation in the gene MAD in the mother repressed the gene decapentaplegic in the embryo; the phrase "Mothers against" was added, since mothers form organizations opposing various issues, e.g. Mothers Against Drunk Driving, reflecting "the maternal-effect enhancement of dpp".

SMAD4 is known as DPC4, JIP or MADH4. SMAD4 is a protein defined as an essential effector in the SMAD pathway. SMAD4 serves as a mediator between extracellular growth factors from the TGFβ family and genes inside the cell nucleus; the abbreviation co in co-SMAD stands for common mediator. SMAD4 is defined as a signal transducer. In the TGF-β pathway, TGF-β dimers are recognized by a transmembrane receptor, known as type II receptor. Once the type II receptor is activated by the binding of TGF-β, it phosphorylates a type I receptor. Type I receptor is a cell surface receptor; this receptor phosphorylates intracellular receptor regulated SMADS such as SMAD2 or SMAD3. The phosphorylated R-SMADS bind to SMAD4; the R-SMADs-SMAD4 association is a heteromeric complex. This complex is going to move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus: it is the translocation. SMAD4 may form heterotrimeric, heterohexameric or heterodimeric complexes with R-SMADS. SMAD4 is a substrate of the Erk/MAPK kinase and GSK3; the FGF pathway stimulation leads to Smad4 phosphorylation by Erk of the canonical MAPK site located at Threonine 277.

This phosphorylation eve

Koenigsmark (1935 film)

Koenigsmark is a 1935 British-French drama film directed by Maurice Tourneur and starring Elissa Landi, John Lodge and Pierre Fresnay. The film is based on the novel Koenigsmark by Pierre Benoît, its sets were designed by the art director Lucien Aguettand. The film was known in the United States as Crimson Dynasty. Pierre Fresnay as Raoul Vignerte Elissa Landi as Princess Aurore John Lodge as Grand Duke Frederick Antonin Artaud as Cyrus Back Frank Vosper as Maj. Baron de Boise Jean-Max as Le commandant de Boose Allan Jeayes as Grand Duke Rodolphe Romilly Lunge as Lt de Hagen Jean Yonnel as Le grand-duc Rodolphe Jean Debucourt as Le lieutenant de Hagen Marcelle Rogez as Comtesse Mélusine Georges Prieur as Le prince Tumène André Dubosc as Le roi Roger Puylagarde as Monsieur de Marçais Clary Monthal Jacques Henley Maurice Devienne Léon Courtois André Lannes Cecil Humphreys as De Marçaise Hay Petrie as Professor H. G. Stoker Koenigsmark Koenigsmark Koenigsmark at IMDB Koenigsmark at BFI Database

Pope Nicholas IV

Pope Nicholas IV, born Girolamo Masci, Pope from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292. He was the first Franciscan to be elected pope. Jerome Masci was born on 30 September 1227 at Lisciano, near Ascoli Piceno, he was a pious, peace-loving man whose goals as a Franciscan friar were to protect the Church, promote the crusades, root out heresy. According to Heinrich of Rebdorf, he was a Doctor of Theology; as a Franciscan friar, he had been elected the Order's superior for Dalmatia during the Franciscan general chapter held at Pisa in 1272. Pope Gregory X, was sending a legate to the Greek Emperor, Michael Palaiologos, in 1272, to invite the participation of Greek prelates in the Second Council of Lyons; the Pope's ambition was to achieve a reunion of Western Christendom. St Bonaventure Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, was asked to select four Franciscans to accompany the Legation as Nuncios, he chose Friar Jerome Masci as one of the four. When Bonaventure died during the fifth session of the Order's General Chapter at Lyons on 15 July 1274, Friar Jerome Masci was elected to succeed him as the Franciscan Minister General though he was absent at the time, only returning with the Greek delegates from the embassy to Constantinople.

Jerome was the associate of John of Vercelli, Master General of the Dominican Order, when the latter was sent by Pope Nicholas III on 15 October 1277, to arrange a peace between Philip IV of France and Alfonso III of Aragon. Jerome and John of Vercelli were again appointed to the same task on 4 April 1278. At the same time, Jerome was ordered to continue for the time being as the Franciscan Minister General. In 1278 Jerome was made Cardinal Priest by Pope Nicholas III, at some point after 16 May 1279 was assigned the titular church of Santa Pudenziana. After his appointment as a cardinal, he was allowed to remain as Minister General of the Franciscans until the next general chapter. In the event, however, he was unable to attend the chapter for reasons of ill health, as a letter of apology of Pope Nicholas III, written in May 1279, indicates. On 12 April 1281 he was promoted Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina by Pope Martin IV. After the death of Pope Honorius IV on 3 April 1287, the Conclave was held in Rome, at the papal palace next to Santa Sabina on the Aventine Hill, where Pope Honorius had died.

This was in accordance with the Constitution "Ubi Periculum" of Pope Gregory X. At the beginning, in April, there were thirteen cardinals in Rome; the Sacred College was for a time hopelessly divided in its selection of a successor. When six of the electors died during the year 1287, the others, with the sole exception of Jerome Masci, left the Conclave and returned to their homes, it was not until the following year. The electors at that time were seven in number: Jerome Masci, along with Latino Malabranca, Bentivenga de Bentivengis, Bernard de Languissel, Matteo Rosso Orsini, Giacomo Colonna, Benedetto Caetani. On 15 February 1288, the survivors unanimously elected Jerome Masci, to the papacy on the first scrutiny, it is said that the Cardinals were impressed by his steadfastness in remaining at the papal palace, but there is no real documentation as to their motives. As he admitted in his electoral manifesto, Cardinal Masci was reluctant to accept, indeed he persisted in his refusal for an entire week.

On 22 February, he gave in and agreed. He became the first Franciscan pope and chose the name Nicholas IV in remembrance of Nicholas III, who had made him a Cardinal. Given the considerable losses to the numbers of the Sacred College in 1286 and 1287, it is not surprising that Nicholas IV proceeded to fill vacancies. What is surprising is that he did not reach the number of cardinals who were alive under Honorius IV, let alone exceed it. On 16 May 1288, he named six new cardinals: Bernardus Calliensis, Bishop of Osimo, Hugues Aiscelin de Billon, OP, of the diocese of Clermont in the Auvergne. Nicholas IV issued an important constitution on 18 July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Holy See and a share in the financial management, thereby paving the way for that independence of the College of Cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy. In regard to the question of the Sicilian succession, as feudal suzerain of the kingdom, Nicholas annulled the treaty, concluded in 1288 through the mediation of Edward I of England, which confirmed James II of Aragon in the possession of the island of Sicily.

This treaty had not properly seen to papal interests. In May 1289 he crowned King Charles II of Naples and Sicily after the latter had expressly recognized papal suzerainty, in February 1291 concluded a treaty with Kings Alfonso III of Aragon and Philip IV of France looking toward the expulsion of James from Sicily. In 1288 Nicholas met with the Nestorian Christian Rabban Bar Sauma from China. In August 1290 he granted the status of studium generale to the university that King Denis of Portugal has just founded a few months earlier in the city of Lisbon; the loss of Acre in 1291 stirred Nicholas IV to renewed enthusiasm for a crusade. He sent missionaries, among them the Franciscan John

Abraham Edwards

Abraham Edwards was a Massachusetts politician who served as the fifth Mayor of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Edwards was born in Boston, Massachusetts to Abraham and Martha Edwards on September 7, 1796. Edwards married Anne Moore. Edwards prepared for college under the tutorship of Charles Folsom. After studying under Folsom, Edwards entered Harvard. Edwards graduated from Harvard in 1819. After his graduation from Harvard, Edwards went on to study law with Judge Fay. Edwards was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in Middlesex County, in September 1822. Edwards began his practice of law in Brighton, in Middlesex County at the time. In 1832 Edwards moved to Cambridge. Edwards was elected the fifth Mayor of Cambridge, serving from April 1854 to January 1855. Edwards died in Cambridge on February 5, 1870