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World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983

The World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983, was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which provided for certain protections for World Heritage listed places. The validity of the Act was considered by the High Court of Australia in Commonwealth v Tasmania known as the Tasmanian Dams case; that case found several provisions of the Act to be invalid, but most of its major provisions were held to be valid. The Act was repealed in 1999, replaced by parts of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; the World Heritage Properties Conservation Bill was introduced on 21 April 1983, by the Minister for Home Affairs and the Environment, Barry Cohen. The Tasmanian Dams case revolved around the validity of the Act; the High Court of Australia was asked separate questions about the validity of: sections 6 and 9, sections 7 and 10, sections 8 and 11, section 17. On the first part of question, the court held that s 6, were valid, but that it was not necessary to determine the validity of the other subsections.

It held that the remaining subsections of s 9 and were invalid. On the second part of the question, the court found that s 7 was valid, that s 10 and were valid. On the third part of the question, the court held s 11 invalid, it held. The Act was repealed in 1999 by Schedule 6 of the Environmental Reform Act 1999, as part of the reforms that saw the introduction of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, which replaced several prior pieces of environmental legislation, it ceased to have effect on 16 July 2000. The core of the legislation provided for a system of proclamations: sections 9, 10 and 11 set out certain acts which were unlawful if done with respect to properties or sites to which the sections applied, sections 6, 7 and 8 allowed the Governor-General of Australia to make proclamations declaring that those sections applied to certain eligible properties or sites; the three pairs of sections were set up to make use of three different powers available under the Constitution of Australia: the external affairs power, the corporations power and the race power.

Section 6 concerned sites of cultural heritage value. It allowed proclamations to be made with respect to World Heritage nominated sites, sites which Australia was otherwise obliged to protect under international law, sites that were otherwise a matter of international concern, or sites "part of the heritage distinctive of the Australian nation"; these overlapping provisions were designed to touch on different aspects of the external affairs power in the Constitution of Australia, the last of these was designed to touch on the implied nationhood power. If the Governor-General were satisfied that a property falling under the above definitions "is being or is to be damaged or destroyed" they could make a proclamation with respect to that property. Once a proclamation was made under section 6, certain acts were prohibited by section 9, including carrying out excavation works, exploratory drilling, constructing "a building or other substantial structure" and felling any trees on the site. Section 7 was far broader than section 6.

However section 10, which set out the consequences of a proclamation under section 7, was narrow in its application. Section 10 went further, made those same acts unlawful if done by such a corporation "for the purposes of its trading activities". Section 8 allowed proclamations to be made with respect to sites of significance to Indigenous Australians, if either the sites themselves, or any artefacts or relics on them, were or were to be damaged or destroyed. Section 11 covered the same acts as described in sections 9 and 10, rendered them unlawful if done with respect to properties subject to proclamations under section 8. Once proclamations were made, they had to be tabled before both houses of the Parliament of Australia in accordance with the procedures set out in section 15. Proclamations could be revoked by the Governor-General once the threat of damage or destruction had passed. Section 12 provided certain statutory exceptions to the prohibitions in sections 9, 10 and 11, to do with acts permitted under management plans in other federal environment legislation, acts permitted under state or territory law.

Sections 9, 10 and 11 each provided that acts prohibited by those sections would not be unlawful if done with the permission of the relevant Minister. Section 18 allowed the power to grant consent to be delegated. Section 14 granted jurisdiction to both the High Court of Australia and the Federal Court of Australia to grant injunctions restraining acts unlawful under sections 9, 10 or 11. Section 17 provided for a compensation scheme, in the event that any proclamation should amount to an acquisition of property within the meaning of section 51 of the Australian Constitution

West Craigie Park

West Craigie Park was a football ground in Dundee, Scotland. It was the home ground of Dundee Our Boys from 1882 until they merged with Dundee East End to form Dundee F. C. in 1893. It was used as the home ground of the new club until the end of 1893. Dundee Our Boys moved to West Craigie Park in 1882 after buying some farmland directly to the west of their previous Baxter Park ground. A stand was built, but burnt down in 1892; until a replacement was built, a wooden hut was used as the changing rooms. It was used to host the final of the Forfarshire Cup in 1885–86 and 1886–87. In 1893 Dundee Our Boys merged with Dundee East End to form Dundee, with the new club playing at West Craigie Park. Dundee joined the Scottish Football League in the year, the first SFL match was played at the ground on 12 August 1893 with 5,000 watching a 3–3 draw with Rangers. However, the club only played six more games at the ground before moving to Carolina Port at the end of the year; the last match was played on 9 December, with 5,000 watching a 4–0 win over Dumbarton.

Dundee's highest league attendance at the ground was 8,000 for a 4–1 defeat by Celtic on 19 August. A few years after Dundee left the ground, the site was redeveloped for housing