Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. This is a branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, floods to fossils. Earth science can be with a much older history. Earth science encompasses four main branches of study, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere, each of, further broken down into more specialized fields. There are both holistic approaches to earth sciences, it is the study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Some earth scientists use their knowledge of the planet to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth's environment, design methods to protect the planet; some use their knowledge about earth processes such as volcanoes and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events. The earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, the large-scale structure of the earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere and biosphere.
Earth scientists use tools from geography, physics, chemistry and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the earth works and evolves. Earth science affects our everyday lives. For example, meteorologists study the watch for dangerous storms. Hydrologists warn of floods. Seismologists try to predict where they will strike. Geologists study rocks and help to locate useful minerals. Earth scientists work in the field—perhaps climbing mountains, exploring the seabed, crawling through caves, or wading in swamps, they measure and collect samples they record their findings on charts and maps. The following fields of science are categorized within the earth sciences: Physical geography covers aspects of geomorphology, soil study, meteorology and biogeography. Geology describes the rocky parts of its historic development. Major subdisciplines are mineralogy and petrology, geomorphology, stratigraphy, structural geology, engineering geology, sedimentology. Geophysics and geodesy investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields.
Geophysicists explore the earth's core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Geophysics is used to supplement the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of crustal geology in mineral and petroleum exploration. Seismologists use geophysics to understand plate tectonic shifting, as well as predict seismic activity. Soil science covers the outermost layer of the earth's crust, subject to soil formation processes. Major subdivisions in this field of study include pedology. Ecology covers the interactions between the flora; this field of study differentiates the study of Earth from the study of other planets in the Solar System, Earth being the only planet teeming with life. Hydrology and limnology are studies which focus on the movement and quality of the water and involves all the components of the hydrologic cycle on the Earth and its atmosphere. "Sub-disciplines of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface water hydrology, watershed science, forest hydrology, water chemistry."
Glaciology covers the icy parts of the Earth. Atmospheric sciences cover the gaseous parts of the Earth between the exosphere. Major subdisciplines include meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics. Plate tectonics, mountain ranges and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can be explained in terms of physical and chemical processes in the earth's crust. Beneath the Earth's crust lies the mantle, heated by the radioactive decay of heavy elements; the mantle is not quite solid and consists of magma, in a state of semi-perpetual convection. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly; the resulting process is known as plate tectonics. Plate tectonics might be thought of as the process; as the result of seafloor spreading, new crust and lithosphere is created by the flow of magma from the mantle to the near surface, through fissures, where it cools and solidifies. Through subduction, oceanic crust and lithosphere returns to the convecting mantle. Areas of the crust where new crust is created are called divergent boundaries, those where it is brought back into the earth are convergent boundaries and those where plates slide past each other, but no new lithospheric material is created or destroyed, are referred to as transform boundaries Earthquakes result from the movement of the lithospheric plates, they occur near convergent boundaries where parts of the crust are forced into the earth as part of subduction.
Volcanoes result from the melting of subducted crust material. Crust material, forced into the asthenosphere melts, some portion of the melted material becomes light enough to rise to the surface—giving birth to volcanoes; the troposphere, mesosphere and exosphere are the five layers which make up Earth's atmosphere. 75 % of the gases in the atmosphere are located within the lowest layer. In all, the atmosphere is made up of about 78.0% nitrogen, 20.9% ox
The Grenoble tramway is the tram system in the city of Grenoble in the Rhône-Alpes region of France. In 1987, Grenoble became the second French city to reintroduce trams, the first being the Nantes tramway; the current network is 35-kilometre long, comprises five lines: lines A, B, C, D and E. Line A was opened in 1987, line B in 1990, line C on 20 May 2006, line D on October 2007 and line E on 28 June 2014; the tramway is operated by the Société d'économie mixte des transports publics de l'agglomération grenobloise on behalf of the Communauté d'agglomération Grenoble Alpes Métropole, the intercommunal structure linking the commune of Grenoble and its suburbs. SÉMITAG operates its services, which includes local bus services as well as the tramway, under the Tag brand. Trams were first introduced to Grenoble in 1894, this first generation tram system survived until 1952; the current network comprises 93 stations, 12 of which are shared by two lines: Line A has 29 stations. Line B has 22 stations.
Line C has 19 stations. Line D has 6 stations. Line E has 17 stations; the Grenoble tramway is served by a total of 103 trams. The older 53 are Alsthom TFS trams, whilst the newer 50, which began entering service with the opening of the B line extension and the C line, are Alstom Citadis trams; the Alsthom TFS fleet consists of 53 trams numbered from 2001 to 2053 running on all four lines of the network. They were introduced in successive steps as follows: Series Grenoble 1 introduced in 1986/1987 Series Grenoble 2 introduced in 1989/1990 Series Grenoble 3 introduced in 1992 Series Grenoble 4 introduced in 1995/1996 The Alstom Citadis fleet is composed of 50 trams numbered from 6001 to 6050, circulates on the A, B and C lines. There are several series: Grenoble 1 entered service in 2005 Grenoble 2 entered service 4 May 2009, introducing Citadis trams on Line A Trams 6018-6020 were used for the inauguration of the C Line, on 20 May 2006, they carried a multicolor floral decoration for a few months, echoing the slogan "A flower for the city" used during the line's construction.
Line A is being extended by two stops from its current terminus at Denis Papin, Échirolles to the neighbouring commune of Pont-de-Claix, with completion expected at the end of 2019. Proposals have been floated since 2001 to extend Line A at the opposite end towards Sassenage, but no concrete studies have been put in place as of 2017. Extensions to line D from Saint-Martin-d'Hères to Grand'Place or/and from the university campus towards Meylan are planned, but have not been decided. A preliminary study was made in 2012 to extend line E to Pont-de-Claix. A tram-train linking Moirans to the centre of Grenoble as well as one linking Crolles and Grenoble have been studied, but the former project has been set aside due to current saturation of that train line by longer distance traffic. A link from Grenoble to Vizille via Pont-de-Claix and Champ-sur-Drac is under consideration. Trams in France List of town tramway systems in France Ancient tramway of Grenoble SEMITAG official website Railway-Technology.com on Grenoble NYCSubway.org on Grenoble
University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It received its royal charter in 1905 as successor to the University College of Sheffield, established in 1897 by the merger of Sheffield Medical School, Firth College and Sheffield Technical School. Sheffield is a multi-campus university predominantly over two campus areas: the Western Bank and the St George's; the university is organised into five academic faculties composed of multiple departments. It had 20,005 undergraduate and 8,710 postgraduate students in 2016/17; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £691.8 million of which £197.5 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £636.8 million. Sheffield ranks among the top 10 of UK universities for research grant funding. Sheffield was placed 75th worldwide and 13th in the UK according to QS World University Rankings and 106th worldwide and 12th in the UK according to Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
It was ranked 12th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. In 2011, Sheffield was named'University of the Year' in the Times Higher Education awards; the Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey 2014 ranked the University of Sheffield 1st for student experience, social life, university facilities and accommodation, among other categories. It is one of the original red brick universities, a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities, the Worldwide Universities Network, the N8 Group of the eight most research intensive universities in Northern England and the White Rose University Consortium. There are eight Nobel laureates affiliated with Sheffield and six of them are the alumni or former long-term staff of the university; the University of Sheffield was formed by the merger of three colleges. The Sheffield School of Medicine was founded in 1828, followed in 1879 by the opening of Firth College, which developed out of the Cambridge University Extension Movement scheme, by Mark Firth, a steel manufacturer, to teach arts and science subjects.
Firth College helped to fund the opening of the Sheffield Technical School in 1884 to teach applied science, the only major faculty the existing colleges did not cover. The Sheffield Technical School was founded because of local concern about the need for technical training steelmaking in Sheffield, the school moved to St George's Square in 1886; the three institutions merged in 1897 to form the University College of Sheffield by Royal Charter. Sheffield was the only large city in England without a university. Steelworkers, coal miners, factory workers and the people of Sheffield donated over £50,000 in 1904 to help found the University of Sheffield, it was envisaged that the University College would join Manchester and Leeds as the fourth member of the federal Victoria University. However, the Victoria University began to split up as independent universities before this could happen and so the University College of Sheffield received its own Royal Charter on 31 May 1905 and became the University of Sheffield.
In July 1905, Firth Court on Western Bank was opened by King Edward Queen Alexandra. St George's Square remained the centre of departments of Applied Science, the departments of Arts and Science moved to Western Bank. Sheffield is one of the six red brick universities, the civic universities founded in the major industrial cities of England. In 1905, there were 114 full-time students, the first Hall of Residence and library had been established by then; the number of students increased to a short-lived peak of 1,000 in 1919. During the First World War, some of the academic subjects and courses were replaced by teaching of munitions making and medical appliances production. Rather than from a single centre, the university has expanded since the 1920s from two ends, the Firth Court on Western Bank and the Sir Frederick Mappin Building on the St George's site. In 1943, the University Grants Committee announced that universities in the UK should look forward to expansion in the years after the Second World War.
Sheffield predicted a 50% increase in student population but the university was unprepared for such growth. There was pressure on the university to expand since the student numbers had increased from around 1,000 to 3,000 by 1946; the university announced proposals for development in 1947, which emphasised the need for new departments, medical school, administration building, halls of residence, as well as the completion of the Western Bank Quadrangles and the extension of the Students’ Union. The university grew until the 1950s and 1960s when it began to expand rapidly. Many new buildings were built and older houses were brought into academic use. Student numbers increased to their present levels of just under 26,000. At the same time in the 1950s, the university was expanding at other sites, including the St Georges area. From the 1960s, many more buildings have been constructed or extended, including the Union of Students and St George's Library; the campus master plan proposed in the 1940s was completed by the 1970s, the university required a new development plan.
The 1980s saw the opening of many new buildings and centres, such as the multi-purpose Octagon Centre and the Sir Henry Stephenson Building. The university's teaching hospital, Northern General Hospital, was extended. In 1987 the University began to collaborate with its once would-be partners of the Victoria University by co-founding the Northern Consortium.
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
The European Molecular Biology Laboratory is a molecular biology research institution supported by 25 member states, four prospect and two associate member states. EMBL was created in 1974 and is an intergovernmental organisation funded by public research money from its member states. Research at EMBL is conducted by 85 independent groups covering the spectrum of molecular biology; the Laboratory operates from six sites: the main laboratory in Heidelberg, outstations in Hinxton, Hamburg and Barcelona. EMBL groups and laboratories perform basic research in molecular biology and molecular medicine as well as training for scientists and visitors; the organization aids in the development of services, new instruments and methods, technology in its member states. Israel is the only full member state located outside Europe EMBL was the idea of Leó Szilárd, James Watson and John Kendrew, their goal was to create an international research centre, similar to CERN, to rival the American-dominated field of molecular biology.
Kendrew served as the first Director-general of EMBL until 1982, was succeeded by Lennart Philipson. From 1993 to 2005 Fotis Kafatos, served as director and was succeeded by Iain Mattaj, EMBL's fourth Director General from 2005 to 2018. In January 2019, Edith Heard became the fifth Director General of EMBL and the first woman to hold this position; each of the different EMBL sites have a specific research field. The EMBL-EBI is a hub for bioinformatics research and services and maintaining a large number of scientific databases, which are free of charge. At Grenoble and Hamburg, research is focused on structural biology. EMBL's dedicated. Scientists at EMBL Barcelona will explore how tissues and organs function and develop, in health and disease. At the headquarters in Heidelberg, there are units in Cell Biology and Biophysics, Developmental Biology, Genome Biology and Structural and Computational Biology as well as service groups complementing the aforementioned research fields. Many scientific breakthroughs have been made at EMBL.
The first systematic genetic analysis of embryonic development in the fruit fly was conducted at EMBL by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric Wieschaus, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1995. In the early 1980s, Jacques Dubochet and his team at EMBL, developed cryogenic electron microscopy for biological structures, it was rewarded with the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Advanced training is one of EMBL's five core missions. Over the years, the Laboratory has established a number of training activities, of which the EMBL International PhD Programme is the flagship - it has a student body of about 200, since 1997 has had the right to award its own degree. Other activities include the postdoctoral programme, including the EMBL Interdisciplinary Postdoctoral programme. EMBL is building a centre for high-resolution light and electron microscopy in its Heidelberg Headquarters; this centre will be open to visiting scientists worldwide and provide a unique service facility for the life sciences, uniting cutting-edge equipment and data analysis.
In March 2010, the EMBL Advanced Training Centre was inaugurated on the main campus in Heidelberg. Shaped in the form of a double helix, it provides training. EMBL runs an active Science and Society Programme which offers activities and events on current questions in life science research for the general public and the scientific community. European Molecular Biology Organization Official website
The Drac is a 130-kilometre long river in southeastern France. It is a left tributary of the river Isère, it is formed at the confluence of the Drac Noir and the Drac Blanc, which both rise in the southern part of the Massif des Écrins, high in the French Alps. It flows through several reservoirs including the Lac de Monteynard-Avignonet, it flows into the Isère at Grenoble. Its major tributary is the Romanche; the Drac flows through the following departments and towns: Hautes-Alpes: Saint-Bonnet-en-Champsaur Isère: Corps, GrenobleThe average flow of the Drac at Fontaine is 97 cubic metres per second, with the highest monthly flows occurring in June, due to the melting of Alpine glaciers. The catchment area of the river is 3,550 square kilometres, which has an average rainfall of 859 millimetres; the name Drac the Drau, is due to an attraction by the Occitan drac "imp", derived from the Latin dracō, meaning "Dragon". It is documented in the forms of Dracum and the ribière dou Drau; the word "Drac" means Dragon.
In many legends the drac, in Occitan, is a genius of evil waters or a form of Satan that attracts children to drown. Frédéric Mistral wrote in Félibrige Treasury: In December 1995, six children and their teacher were drowned in the river after the level of water rose due to the opening of the valves of a dam, they were there to see beavers. All of them died. Http://www.geoportail.fr