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European dragon

European dragons are legendary creatures in folklore and mythology among the overlapping cultures of Europe. The Roman poet Virgil in his poem Culex lines 163-201, describing a shepherd having a fight with a big constricting snake, calls it "serpens" and "draco", showing that in his time the two words were interchangeable. In and after the early Middle Ages, the European dragon is depicted as a large, fire-breathing, horned, lizard-like creature; some depictions show dragons with one or more of: feathered wings, ear frills, fiery manes, ivory spikes running down its spine, various exotic decorations. In folktales, dragon's blood contains unique powers, keeping them alive for longer or giving them poisonous or acidic properties; the typical dragon in Christian culture protects a castle filled with gold and treasure. An evil dragon is associated with a great hero who tries to slay it, a good one is said to give support or wise advice. Though a winged creature, the dragon is to be found in its underground lair, a cave that identifies it as an ancient creature of earth.

English "dragon" derives from Ancient Greek δράκων drákōn, "serpent, dragon" related to δέρκομαι, "I see". The Greek word derives from an Aryan base derk- meaning "to see" and the Sanskrit dŗç- signifying "to see". Notwithstanding their folkloric associations, there is no etymological connection between dragons and the ghoulish figures known as draugar in Old Norse, who haunt rich burial mounds. Roman dragons developed from serpentine Greek ones, combined with the dragons of the Near East, in the context of the hybrid Greek/Eastern Hellenistic culture. From Babylon, the muš-ḫuššu was a classic representation of a Near Eastern dragon. St John's Book of Revelation—Greek literature, not Roman—describes Satan as "a great dragon, flaming red, with seven heads and ten horns". Much of St John's literary inspiration is late Hebrew and Greek, but his dragon is more to have symbolized the dragons from the Near East. In the Roman Empire, each military cohort had a particular identifying signum. With the jaws facing into the wind, the silken body rippled, resembling a windsock.

Several personifications of evil or allusions to dragons in the Old Testament are translated as forms of draco in Jerome's Vulgate. E.g. Deuteronomy, Psalms, Isaiah and Malachi. Dragons in Greek mythology guard treasure. For example, Ladon, a hundred-headed dragon, guarded the tree of Herodias until he was slain by Heracles. Python guarded the oracle of Delphi until he was slain by Apollo out of revenge for Python tormenting his mother; the Lernaean Hydra, a multiple-headed serpentine swamp monster killed by Heracles, is said to be a dragon. In the Tale in Apuleius' Metamorphoses VIII a band of travelers ask a shepard for refreshments; the shepard asks. An old man asks the travellers if they can help get his son from a well, to which one of them goes to help; when he does not return to the group they go search for him. They find a monstrous dragon eating the said man from the group while the old man was nowhere to be seen; the Roman author Pliny the Elder in his book Natural History describes the draco as a big constricting snake that can constrict an elephant.

The Roman author Aelian in his book De Natura Animalium describes the draco as a big constricting snake found in India the Indian Python, but with its size and strength exaggerated so that it can kill an elephant by constricting its neck. Classical European dragons are described as illuminating the air; this is taken by Christian writers as a metaphor for Lucifer, whose name means "bearer of light". During the early Middle Ages, European culture was out of contact with classical literature for centuries. During this time there was a gradual change in the usual mental image of the "dragon", i.e. the Latin draco and its equivalents in vernacular languages, which occurred in oral and written literature, including in classical literature. This led to the depiction in this literature of "modern-type" dragons, whose features are described below; the modern western image of a dragon developed in western Europe during the Middle Ages through the combination of the snakelike dragons of classical Graeco-Roman literature, references to Near Eastern European dragons preserved in the Bible, western European folk traditions.

The period between the 11th and 13th centuries represents the height of European interest in dragons as living creatures. Dragons are shown in modern times with a body more like a huge lizard, or a snake with two pairs of lizard-type legs, breathing fire from their mouths; this traces back to the continental dragon referred to as a fire-breathing dragon. The continental, like many other European dragons, has bat-like wings growing from its back; the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf refers to a dragon as a draca and as a wyrm. Its movements are denoted by

Consejo Estatal de Estudiantes de Medicina

The Spanish Council of Medical Students is a university and nonprofit association without link with any party, formed by all students' representatives of Spanish Medicine Faculties in line with the organization's statutes. The Spanish Council of Medical Students is the body that holds the legitimate/lawful and only representation of Spanish national and medical students, so it is recognized by national and international institutions which it works with, it is formed with university, secular character, it is a non-profit organization and with no affiliation with any party. CEEM is organized as an assembly body. Thanks to students’ work, CEEM is nowadays one of the most powerful qualification's/degree's representations of Spain; as a result of this, the Spanish medical students’ voice has a lawful representative before the Administration and the different institutions. It stands an informative and participative attitude in all the matters and fields that concern the medical students training, it analyzes students situation and teaching in Medicine, it tries to improve them and it promotes Public Health as well.

At this moment it is part of Medical Profession's Forum, that holds the voice of all medical profession together with the Spanish Medical Colleges Organization, the National Dean's Conference, the National Council of Specialities in Health Sciences, the Federation of Medical and Scientific Spanish Associations and the National Confederation of Medical Union. CEEM has the same vote in Medical Profession's Forum as the other organizations mentioned. In the area of external relationships, CEEM keeps contact with other bodies of student representation and Spanish scientific associations. Furthermore, it gathers with the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equiality and the Ministry of Education and Sport, it appeared with the beginning of democracy, years after it received its biggest impulse working as a state organism which coordinated the mobilisations of “6=0”, against the lack of vacancies in the public system for doctors without specialty. The supreme governing body of the association is the General Assembly, made up of representatives of each of the 40 university medical faculties in Spain.

Each representative has an equal vote in the GA, irrespective of the number of students they represent. The agenda for each GA meeting is agreed in advance. Decisions are taken by absolute majority of the votes submitted, though in some cases the Association's Statutes may require a two-thirds majority; this is the visible face of the organization, which entrusts with the expected tasks during the interassembly period, the events’ assistance, the media's statements, etc. It is chosen by secret vote of the representatives, it is conformed by Presidency, Vice-Presidency of Internal Tasks, Vice-Presidency of External Tasks, General Secretary and Treasury. The post are held by: During the assembly, the executive board's role consists in managing the sessions, mediating the assembly and favoring in all moment the active participation of the assistants in the plenary sessions. To favor the work and the correct development of the different subjects related to CEEM, there are four Working Commissions: Medical Education, Medical Residency and Profession and Public Health.

All students have the possibility of working and participating in this commissions, they cal contribute with their personal view in all of the hot topics. It helps the Executive Board, it is chosen in a democratic and secret way by the GA, it is formed by official charges of the Council, but not all of them are included: the ones in charge of the External Relationships Division Area are exempt. The members of the Executive Board, Coordinators of Thematic Commissions, Coordinators of Bodies and Internal Management Bodies, Zone Coordinators and the Spokespeople form the Official's Team, they are all individual positions and, but for a settled duration. Thus, the Official's Team consists of 20 people. There are other five more Internal Management Organs that safeguard the good running of the Council and the correct spreading of their activities: Legislative Coordination, Advisory Commission, Projects Division, Formation's Division and Public Relations’ Division; the different faculties are divided in zones to be better managed: Zone I: Galicia, Cantabria, Basque Country and Leon and Navarra.

Zone II: Catalonia. Zona III: Madrid and Aragon. Zone IV: Extremadura and Andalusia. Zone V: Castile-La Mancha, Valencia and Canary Islands. There are four Committees: the Primary Health Care Committee contacts the family doctor's societies, it is a charge of one interassembly period. On the one hand, those students designated by their faculties to represent them in a Medical Students State Conference are considered representatives, they have the right to take part in the assembly. On the other hand, those students that haven't assisted to the last

Lu Cheng

Lu Cheng was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang serving as a chancellor at the time of the founding of Later Tang. It is not known when or where Lu Cheng was born, although it was said that he was from a prominent aristocratic family. Both his grandfather Lu Yi and father Lu Yun were said to be prominent officials, although their titles were not stated in historical accounts. Lu Cheng himself passed the imperial examinations in the Jinshi class late in Tianfu era of Emperor Zhaozong of Tang; the chancellor Cui Yin, also the acting director of the salt and iron monopolies, made Lu one of his surveyors. After the major warlord Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit forced Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital from Chang'an to Luoyang in 904, Zhu's associate, then-chancellor Liu Can, began to carry out persecutions against Tang aristocratic families. Lu thus fled north of the Yellow River, traveling in the regions of Yan and Zhao, he sometimes donned Taoist monk robes and went to meet regional governors, but was not yet well-known at the time.

Because he was friendly with Doulu Ge, serving on the staff for Wang Chuzhi the military governor of Yiwu Circuit, Lu Rubi, serving on the staff at Hedong Circuit, he first went to visit Doulu, but Wang's treatment of him was not to his satisfaction, so he went to Lu Rubi. Lu Rubi recommended him to Li, who thereafter made him the circuit judicial officer, executive secretary, it was said that Lu Cheng was harsh and lacking in talent, was prone to argument and arrogance due to his aristocratic background. Around the new year 919, Li's assistant Wang Jian was killed at a major battle between Jin and its archrival Later Liang. After Li returned to Taiyuan, he held a feast, publicly named Feng Dao as Wang's successor, despite Feng's reservations that he was not senior enough to succeed Wang — Lu was more senior than Feng and expected either himself or Lu Rubi to be named as Wang's successor, such that he complained, "The Lord does not take people such that he put the son of a farmer in high position."

On one occasion, when Lu Cheng accompanied Li on a campaign, Li summoned him to the command tent and asked him to draft an order for Li, but he declined, claiming that he was not a talented writer. At that time, the eunuch monitor Zhang Chengye in charge of headquarter matters at Hedong whenever Li was out on campaign. Lu's responsibilities as Zhishi involved overseeing the circuit treasurers, he did not like this responsibility and asked Zhang to take him off the duty, claiming to be not talented with money matters. Zhang rebuked him: "You, call yourself a civilian officer. You should be able to use your literary talents to aid the hegemon. You had once been asked to draft an order, you claim not to be a good writer, and when it came to the responsibilities of Zhishi, you want to abdicate them. What can you do?" Lu, realizing that his attitude was not appropriate and thanked Zhang for the rebuke. He was made Li's assistant in Li's role as governor of Hedong. In 923, Li Cunxu was preparing to claim imperial title himself as emperor of a new Later Tang, he was considering whom to make his chancellors.

At that time, his assistant in his role as military governor of Hedong, Lu Zhi, was considered to be the ranking official under him with aristocratic heritage and therefore considered the most appropriate candidate. Lu Zhi, strenuously declined, instead recommended Doulu Ge and Lu Cheng. Li thus summoned Lu Cheng, making them chancellors in his provisional imperial government. Shortly after, he claimed imperial title at Xingtang, he formally made Doulu and Lu Cheng chancellors with the designation Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi. Lu Cheng was made Zhongshu Shilang, the deputy head of the legislative bureau of government. As, in claiming imperial title, Li honored his mother Lady Cao as empress dowager and his father Li Keyong's wife Lady Liu consort dowager, he dispatched Lu to Taiyuan to honor them. On the way, it was said that Lu was arrogant, while riding the litter there at the cost of much manual labor, if the local officials displeased him, he whipped and humiliated them, he spoke insultingly of Emperor Gao of Han and Confucius.

In the year, there was a time when Lu made a personal request to the administrators at Xingtang's municipal government, the request was not handled to his satisfaction, such that he whipped their backs. Ren Tuan, the deputy mayor of Xingtang and the minister of palace supplies, the husband to Li's cousin, went to visit Lu to protest the behavior, Lu insulted him, stating, "You, are nothing but an insect. How dare you try to depend on the power of your wife?" Ren reported this incident to Li. He wanted to order Lu Cheng to commit suicide, but at much effort by Lu Zhi to intercede, Lu Cheng was demoted to be a member o