click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

European golden plover

The European golden plover known as the Eurasian golden plover or just the golden plover within Europe, is a largish plover. This species is similar to two other golden plovers: the American golden plover, Pluvialis dominica, Pacific golden plover, Pluvialis fulva, which are both smaller and longer-legged than European golden plover, both have grey rather than white axillary feathers; the genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia, "rain". It was believed; the species name apricaria means to bask in the sun. The European golden plover is quite thickset, with its wings only being longer than its tail, its most distinct feature is a white "s"-shaped band stretching from its forehead to its flanks. The European golden plover tends to breed in the Arctic tundra and other palearctic areas, ranging as far west as Iceland, where they are called Heiðlóa, as far east as central Siberia, it tends to gather in large flocks and winter in open areas, agricultural plains, ploughed land, short meadows, ranging from Europe to North Africa.

In the United Kingdom, golden plover chicks rely on Tipulidae for feeding, while in Sweden Bibionidae are more important. The European golden plover's call is a monosyllabic descending, melancholic "tuu", its flight action is powerful, with regular wingbeats. The European golden plover spends summers in Iceland, in Icelandic folklore, the appearance of the first plover in country means that spring has arrived; the Icelandic media always covers the first plover sighting, which in 2017, took place on March 27. On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver the managing director of the Guinness Breweries, went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney in County Wexford, Ireland. After missing a shot at a Eurasian golden plover, he became involved in an argument over, the fastest game bird in Europe, the golden plover or the red grouse; that evening at Castlebridge House, he realised that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird.

Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records. He realised that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove popular. A Guinness employee told Sir Hugh of two twin brothers and Ross McWhirter, who had opened a fact checking agency in London. Sir Hugh interviewed the brothers and, impressed by their prodigious knowledge, commissioned the book, he published the first Guinness World Records which became a best seller within months. The European golden plover is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze BirdLife species factsheet for Pluvialis apricaria "Pluvialis apricaria". Avibase. "Eurasian Golden Plover media". Internet Bird Collection. European Golden-Plover photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Pluvialis apricaria at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of European golden plover on Xeno-canto.

Pluvialis apricaria in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World

Voltage reduction

In a simple resistive circuit, a reduction in the voltage across the resistance will result in a reduction in the power dissipated by the circuit. Electric utilities have discovered that this basic principle can save utility companies, their customers, a significant amount of money. Utilities are able to shave the peak of their power demand curves by reducing the voltage across their distribution system; when a utility reaches a point where power demand is expected to exceed supply, utilities only have two options. Either purchase power from another utility at substantial prices, or reduce demand. Utilities use load management systems to turn off customers' air conditioners, water heaters, pool pumps to reduce demand. Voltage reduction has become another option for utilities to reduce demand—typically unbeknownst to the customer. However, only the resistive portion of the load responds to the reduction in voltage to reduce aggregate demand. Loads such as incandescent lights and heater coils will use less power.

On the other hand, induction motor loads are unaffected by the reduction in voltage, because the current rises to account for no change or a slight increase in power consumption. Current rise is detrimental to motors. To accomplish the same work the motors have to run longer, for example, if a refrigerator is running at 35% duty cycle at nominal voltage, at lower voltage its duty cycle may increase to 40%. Running hotter and running longer shortens the service longevity of motors; some resistive loads provide only short-term benefits. A phenomenon known as load diversity plays a role in voltage reduction and can counteract its effects on occasion; the concept of load diversity can most be explained with an example. In your neighborhood, it is unlikely. During non-hot water usage hours, when your hot water heater is on, your neighbor's may be off. Due to the distributed and noncoincident nature of these loads, the aggregate peak can remain constant. However, if the voltage is reduced to all of the resistive elements in the water heaters, the elements will not be able to heat the water as quickly.

While an immediate reduction in the power demand will be recognized upon initiating voltage reduction, over time water heaters will need to be on longer to achieve the thermostat-set water temperature. Thus, more water heaters will be on at the same time; this will cause the aggregate peak to increase substantially. Therefore, with respect to thermostat-controlled resistive loads, the benefits of voltage reduction can be short lived, may end up increasing the aggregate load demand. Conversely increasing the voltage may increase power demand from the resistive loads. Again, the thermostat-controlled resistive loads will react differently, but it is clear that it will cost a customer more to turn on that incandescent reading lamp with higher voltage than it would at a lower voltage. Of course this is assuming that the customer is satisfied with dimmer light, otherwise the customer can replace the light bulbs with ones of higher wattage to provide sufficient lighting. In today's modern world many light fixtures, including the ones with LED type bulbs, are dimmable.

Therefore at lower voltage the dimmer will be turned up and at higher voltage it will be turned down, resulting in the same lumens being generated by the light fixture, hence no energy savings will take place. A good comparison of methodology of lowering the voltage to save energy is to draw a parallel with lowering the water pressure to save water; the washing machine will have to fill to the same level, it will just take longer. Irrelevant of the pressure the customer will have to use all the necessary water to get the desirable results. There will be short-term savings because the lawn will not get sufficiently watered, but the customer will notice this and will adjust the valves, watering duration or the number of sprinkler heads to compensate for the lower pressure. Http://www.ieso.ca/imoweb/siteShared/voltage_reduction.asp?sid=ic

Mathematical instrument

A mathematical instrument is a tool or device used in the study or practice of mathematics. In geometry, construction of various proofs was done using only a straightedge. In applied mathematics, mathematical instruments were used for measuring angles and distances, in astronomy, surveying and in the measurement of time. Instruments such as the astrolabe, the quadrant, others were used to measure and record the relative positions and movements of planets and other celestial objects; the sextant and other related instruments were essential for navigation at sea. Most instruments are used within the field of geometry, including the ruler, protractor, set square, ellipsograph, T-square and opisometer. Others are used in algebra. In astronomy, many have said the pyramids were instruments used for tracking the stars over long periods or for the annual planting seasons; the Oxford Set of Mathematical Instruments is a set of instruments used by generations of school children in the United Kingdom and around the world in mathematics and geometry lessons.

It includes two set squares, a 180° protractor, a 15 cm ruler, a metal compass, a 9 cm pencil, a pencil sharpener, an eraser and a 10mm stencil. The Construction and Principal Uses of Mathematical Instruments Dividing engine Measuring instrument Planimeter Integraph J. L. Heilbron, The Oxford Companion To the History of Modern Science ISBN 0195112296, Instruments and Instrument Making, pp. 408–411

Edward Mansvelt

Edward Mansvelt or Mansfield was a 17th-century Dutch corsair and buccaneer who, at one time, was acknowledged as an informal chieftain of the "Brethren of the Coast". He was the first to organise large scale raids against Spanish settlements, tactics which would be utilised to attack Spanish strongholds by buccaneers in future years, held considerable influence in Tortuga and Port Royal, he was considered one of the finest buccaneers of his day and, following his death, his position was assumed by his protégé and vice-admiral, Henry Morgan. His background is obscure, with conflicting accounts as a Dutchman from Curaçao or an Englishman, is referred to by the surnames Mansvelt or Mansfield, he is first recorded accepting a privateering commission from Governor Edward D'Oyley at Port Royal in 1659. Based from Jamaica during the early-1660s, he began raiding Spanish shipping and coastal settlements, travelling overland as far as the Pacific coast of South America; when Christopher Myngs was injured during the Sack of Campeche in 1663, Mansvelt took control of the 1000-man landing party and sacked the city, negotiating the surrender himself and capturing 14 vessels in port.

Thereafter, he commanded his own ships and pirate crews, using similar tactics to raid smaller settlements. In late 1665, he attacked a Cuban village with 200 buccaneers. Soon after this raid, he was offered a commission by the newly appointed governor, Thomas Modyford, at Port Royal, to sail against the Dutch at Curaçao, his men refused to fight the Dutch however, some themselves being Dutchman, while others believed it would be far more lucrative to continue their raids against the Spanish. In January 1666, Mansvelt and his crew left Jamaica. According to writer and historian, Alexandre Exquemelin, Mansvelt led the fleet which captured and looted Granada and the Isle of St. Catherine, although this is disputed, he was, elected admiral of the fleet, consisting between 10-15 ships and an estimated 500 men. Sailing for Costa Rica in April, he intended to attack Cartago several miles inland but was turned back by heavy resistance from Spanish defenders near Turrialba. Several members chose to leave the expedition to return to Jamaica or Tortuga after this setback, however Mansvelt took what remained of the fleet raiding the Isle of St. Catherine and capturing the island of Santa Catalina known as Providencia or Providence Island, a name given to it by English Puritans who had settled it in 1630.

The island was controlled by Spain at the time Mansvelt arrived. After occupying the St. Catharine, Mansvelt sent word to Port Royal for reinforcements in order to use the island as a base to attack the Spanish; the island may have been. He failed to persuade the governor in his request, as well as his attempts to use the island as a pirate haven, died of a sudden illness. Another version, again according to Exquemelin, claims he sailed from the island to Tortuga where he was captured by the Spanish in Cuba and executed for piracy in Portobelo. Regardless, his authority was assumed by another rising buccaneering captain, Henry Morgan, following news of his death. Cruishank, E. A; the Life of Sir Henry Morgan. Toronto, 1935. Haring, Clarence Henry; the Buccaneers in the West Indies in the XVIIth Century. New York: Metheun & Co. 1910. Michael Pawson and David Buisseret. Port Royal, Jamaica. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975. Edward Mansvelt Biography

ESPN NBA 2K5

ESPN NBA 2K5 is a basketball simulation video game developed by Visual Concepts and published by both Sega and Global Star Software. It was released in September 2004 for PlayStation 2 and Xbox in North America, February 2005 in Europe; the sixth installment in the NBA 2K series, it is the successor to ESPN NBA Basketball, the predecessor to NBA 2K6. Ben Wallace of the Detroit Pistons is the cover athlete, it is the last NBA 2K game to be released by Sega before the company sold Visual Concepts to Take-Two Interactive, forming 2K Sports. It is the second and last game to feature the ESPN branding on its front cover; the game strives to realistically depict the experience of basketball, more the National Basketball Association. Players play NBA basketball games in a variety of game modes with real players and teams as well as customizable players. A mode focusing on street basketball is present, as is a mode where the player simulates through a team's NBA season; the game features several aesthetical details, such as crowd animations, camera angles, commentary.

ESPN NBA 2K5 received positive reviews from critics upon release. The visuals and gameplay were acclaimed, while the 24/7 and Association game modes received a mixed response; the low price of the game was well received. ESPN NBA 2K5 is a basketball simulation video game which strives to emulate the National Basketball Association. Players play in basketball games in several game modes, with real teams, such as the Detroit Pistons and Boston Celtics. Gameplay follows the rules and objectives of basketball and the game is presented like televised NBA games. Several game modes are available; the game features Stuart Scott as a presenter, Bob Fitzgerald and Bill Walton as commentators, Michele Tafoya as a sideline reporter. The player may customize several aspects of the game, many aesthetical details are present. In the NBA 2K series, ESPN NBA 2K5 is the successor to ESPN NBA Basketball, the predecessor to NBA 2K6, it was published by both Sega and Global Star Software. It was released for Xbox on September 28, 2004, with a PlayStation 2 version following on September 30, both for North America.

In European regions, both versions of the game were released on February 4, 2005. NBA 2K3, ESPN NBA Basketball, ESPN NBA 2K5 are the only games in the series to feature ESPN licensing. Ben Wallace of the Detroit Pistons is the cover athlete; the first five games in the series featured Allen Iverson of the Philadelphia 76ers on the covers. ESPN NBA 2K5 is the last NBA 2K game to be released by Sega before the company sold Visual Concepts to Take Two Interactive, forming 2K Sports. ESPN NBA 2K5 received "favorable" reviews on both platforms according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. Andrew Reiner of Game Informer praised Visual Concepts for still being able to make subtle improvements over the previous game in the series, despite not implementing drastic overhauls, as was the case with ESPN NBA Basketball and NBA 2K3, he commended. Reiner called the crowd design "amazing" liking how they react to certain situations, the said that player models were "superb". Reiner summarized his review by saying, "This is still the best playing, most rewarding, realistic basketball game that money can buy."Game Revolution's review praised the visuals and price, but criticized the 24/7 mode for being "broken".

Bob Colayco of GameSpot praised the low price of the game, as well as the "extremely well done" gameplay and visuals. He found the soundtrack "forgettable" and thought the commentary was "good but not great". Both of GameZone's two reviews were positive, they praised the online features, the 24/7 mode, the commentary and soundtrack, the visuals, the gameplay. IGN's Hilary Goldstein wrote: "ESPN NBA 2K5 isn't a horrible game by any means, but it's Sega's weakest sports game this year. On the surface it looks fine, it plays decently and if you know how to use IsoMotion2, you can enjoy playing offense. There's a lot of fine-tuning needed and it seems pretty clear this game shouldn't be shipping quite so soon. I just couldn't play any more of the Association. It's not bad, it just isn't great and some of the AI gaffs began to get on my nerves over time. However, the 24/7 mode is refreshing after playing a lot last year. Considering this is a $20 game, it's worth it to pick up just for those nice extra modes.

However, if you want to play a real NBA sim, this one may disappoint you. It's too drive-minded and while it tries to create the idea of individuals and personality with the visuals and Association, the gameplay seems to ignore who these players are on the court. I want this to be a great game. I know, but it just isn't great. It's good, and in the competitive world of sports sims these days, being good isn't enough."By July 2006, the PlayStation 2 version of ESPN NBA 2K5 had sold 1 million copies and earned $20 million in the United States. Next Generation ranked it as the 57th highest-selling game launched for the PlayStation 2, Xbox, or GameCube between January 2000 and July 2006 in the United States. Combine

Carola Lorenzini

Carolina Elena Lorenzini was a pioneer Argentine aviator. Lorenzini was born in Buenos Aires, the seventh of eight children, she worked as a typist at the Unión Telefónica Company, enjoyed participating in sports such as rowing, javelin and hockey. In 1933 she started learning to fly at the Aeroclub de Morón; the lessons were expensive, she had to use all her savings, sell her bicycle and encyclopedia, to pay. In March 1935 she earnt her pilot's license; the same year, she broke the South American record for altitude. She entered and won several flying races, became interested in high aerobatics, enrolling in a course on the subject, she became famous for her skill in performing inverted loops, an advanced maneouvre which only one other aviator, her instructor Santiago Germanó, was able to perform. From 1938 to 1940, Lorenzini was involved in an air exploration mission to fly all of Argentina's 14 provinces and make aerial maps for transport and mail flights, she flew to every city in the country, annotating maps as she travelled.

As a result, she became nationally famous. On 23 November 1941 Lorenzini lost control of her aircraft, a Focke-Wulf, while conducting her famous inverted loop, crashed, she was killed immediately. The accident happened in Morón during an aerobatics exhibition for a visiting group of Uruguayan aviators, it was reported that Lorenzini had been flying an aircraft she was unfamiliar with and that she had been angry on the day of the exhibition due to an ongoing issue with the organisers of the event. In 2001, the Argentine post office issued a postage stamp bearing Lorenzini's name. Carola Lorenzini at Find a Grave