The European hare known as the brown hare, is a species of hare native to Europe and parts of Asia. It is adapted to temperate, open country; some hares are herbivorous and feed on grasses and herbs, supplementing these with twigs, buds and field crops in winter. Their natural predators include large birds of prey and felids, they rely on high-speed endurance running to escape predation, having long, powerful limbs and large nostrils. Nocturnal and shy in nature, hares change their behaviour in the spring, when they can be seen in broad daylight chasing one another around in fields. During this spring frenzy, they sometimes strike one another with their paws; this is not competition between males, but a female hitting a male, either to show she is not yet ready to mate or as a test of his determination. The female nests in a depression on the surface of the ground rather than in a burrow and the young are active as soon as they are born. Litters may consist of three or four young and a female can bear three litters a year, with hares living for up to twelve years.
The breeding season lasts from January to August. The European hare is listed as being of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature because it has a wide range and is moderately abundant. However, populations have been declining in mainland Europe since the 1960s, at least due to changes in farming practices; the hare has been hunted across Europe for centuries, with more than five million being shot each year. The hare has been a traditional symbol of fertility and reproduction in some cultures and its courtship behaviour in the spring inspired the English idiom mad as a March hare; the European hare was first described in 1778 by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas. It shares the genus Lepus with 31 other hare and jackrabbit species, jackrabbits being the name given to some species of hare native to North America, they are distinguished from other leporids by their longer legs, wider nostrils and active young. The Corsican hare, broom hare and Granada hare were at one time considered to be subspecies of the European hare, but DNA sequencing and morphological analysis support their status as separate species.
There is some debate as to whether the Cape hare are the same species. A 2005 nuclear gene pool study suggested that they are, but a 2006 study of the mitochondrial DNA of these same animals concluded that they had diverged sufficiently to be considered separate species. A 2008 study claims that in the case of Lepus species, with their rapid evolution, species designation cannot be based on mtDNA but should include an examination of the nuclear gene pool, it is possible that the genetic differences between the European and Cape hare are due to geographic separation rather than actual divergence. It has been speculated that in the Near East, hare populations are intergrading and experiencing gene flow. Another 2008 study suggests that more research is needed before a conclusion is reached as to whether a species complex exists. Cladogenetic analysis suggests that European hares survived the last glacial period during the Pleistocene via refugia in southern Europe and Asia Minor. Subsequent colonisations of Central Europe appear to have been initiated by human-caused environmental changes.
Genetic diversity in current populations is high with no signs of inbreeding. Gene flow appears to be biased towards males. There appears to be a large degree of genetic diversity in hares in the North Rhine-Westphalia region of Germany, it is however possible that restricted gene flow could reduce genetic diversity within populations that become isolated. Up to 30 subspecies of European hare have been described, although their status has been disputed; these subspecies have been distinguished by differences in pelage colouration, body size, external body measurements, skull morphology and tooth shape. Sixteen subspecies are listed in the IUCN red book, following Hoffmann and Smith: Twenty-nine subspecies of "very variable status" are listed by Chapman and Flux in their book on lagomorphs, including the subspecies above and additionally: The European hare, like other members of the family Leporidae, is a fast-running terrestrial mammal, its teeth grow continuously, the first incisors being modified for gnawing while the second incisors are peg-like and non-functional.
There is a gap between the incisors and the cheek teeth, the latter being adapted for grinding coarse plant material. The dental formula is 2/1, 0/0, 3/2, 3/3; the dark limb musculature of hares is adapted for high-speed endurance running in open country. By contrast, cottontail rabbits are built for short bursts of speed in more vegetated habitats. Other adaptions for high speed running in hares include larger hearts. In comparison to the European rabbit, the hare has a proportionally smaller caecum; this hare is one of the largest of the lagomorphs. Its head and body length can range from 60 to 75 cm with a tail length of 7.2 to 11 cm. The body mass is between 3 and 5 kg; the hare's elongated ears range
The 17th Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards honoring the best in film for 2011 were announced on December 16, 2011. These awards "recognizing extraordinary accomplishment in film" are presented annually by the Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association, based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex region of Texas; the organization, founded in 1990, includes 29 film critics for print, radio and internet publications based in north Texas. The Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association began presenting its annual awards list in 1991; the Descendants was the DFWFCA's most awarded film of 2011 taking top honors in the Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Supporting Actress, Best Director, Best Screenplay categories. This continued a trend of critics groups across the United States giving their top prizes to the film about a family dealing with betrayal and change. No other film earned multiple 2011 honors from the critics association. Beginners earned Christopher Plummer the Best Supporting Actor honor for his performance as Hal.
The other acting award went to Michelle Williams as Best Actress for her leading role as Marilyn Monroe in My Week with Marilyn. His work on The Tree of Life earned Emmanuel Lubezki the honor for Best Cinematography; the remaining film honors went to Rango as Best Animated Film, Cave of Forgotten Dreams as Best Documentary, Iran's A Separation as Best Foreign Language Film. Along with the 11 "best of" category awards, the group presented the Russell Smith Award to We Need to Talk About Kevin as the "best low-budget or cutting-edge independent film" of the year; the award is named in honor of late Dallas Morning News film critic Russell Smith. Winners are highlighted with boldface. Other films ranked by the annual poll are listed in order. While most categories saw 5 honorees named, some categories ranged from as many as 10 to as few as 2. We Need to Talk About Kevin, for "best low-budget or cutting-edge independent film" Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association official website
The passport of the Republic of Lebanon is a passport issued to the citizens of the Republic of Lebanon to enable them to travel outside the Republic of Lebanon and entitles the bearer to the protectio from the diplomatic missions and consulates of the Republic of Lebanon if necessary. It is issued by the Lebanese Directorate General of General Security, can be issued at various Lebanese diplomatic missions and/or consulates outside the Republic of Lebanon, it allows the bearer a freedom of living in the Republic of Lebanon without any immigration requirements, participate in the Lebanese political system, entry to and exit from the Republic of Lebanon through any port, travel to and from other countries in accordance with visa requirements, facilitates the process of securing consular assistance abroad from the diplomatic missions and consulates of the Republic of Lebanon if necessary, requests protection for the bearer while abroad. Lebanese passport booklets are valid for travel by Lebanese citizens anywhere in the world to countries with which the government of the Republic of Lebanon maintains diplomatic ties although travel to certain countries and/or for certain purposes may require a visa and the Republic of Lebanon itself restricts its citizens from traveling to or engaging in commercial transactions in certain countries against the internal and external safety of the republic.
They conform with recommended standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization. By law, a valid unexpired Lebanese passport or identity card is conclusive proof of Lebanese citizenship, has the same force and effect as proof of Lebanese citizenship as certificates of naturalization or of citizenship, if issued to a Lebanese citizen for the full period allowed by law; the Lebanese law does not prohibit Lebanese citizens from holding passports of other countries, though they are required to use their Lebanese passport to enter and leave the country. An expired Lebanese passport can still be used to return to the Republic of Lebanon at any port and port personnel are obliged by law to allow the passage of the bearer without any delay or hindrance. Lebanese passports are property of the Republic of Lebanon and must be returned to the Lebanese Government upon demand. Citizens of the Republic of Lebanon are allowed to hold passports of other countries, but are required to use the Lebanese passport when entering and leaving the Republic of Lebanon.
The Republic of Lebanon law permits dual nationality. It is permissible to have and use a foreign passport. However, citizens of the Republic of Lebanon are required to use a Lebanese passport when leaving or entering the Republic of Lebanon; this requirement extends to a citizens of the Republic of Lebanon. The French state-run printing firm, Imprimerie Nationale carries on the official printing works of both the Lebanese and French governments; as of January 10, 2016, The Lebanese Directorate General of General Security has stopped renewing passports with handwritten notes and started issuing new ones instead. This move is intended for the introduction of the new Lebanese Biometric Passport on August 1, 2016; as of August 1, 2016 all passports being issued by the Lebanese Directorate General of General Security are Biometric and hold the biometric passport symbol. Non-biometric passports are valid until their expiry dates. Ordinary Passport - Issued to citizens for occasional travel, such as vacations and business trips Temporary Passport - Issued in emergency cases to those who are in need to travel on short notice or urgently need to replace their lost or stolen passport.
This passport is valid for a period between six months and one year. An emergency passport may be exchanged for a full-term passport. Strict rules apply. Collective Passport - Issued for the occasion of pilgrimages and other acts of analogous nature, facilitating the issuance of visas, or to decrease administrative costs if a lot of group members do not have their individual passports. Main users of these passports are high schools and tourist agencies. Whenever reciprocity with the destiny country exists, its validity is limited a single trip, whose duration will not be able to exceed three months. Though it is not primary means of international travel for organised groups, high schools, tourism agencies. All members of the group must cross the border at the same time and be part of the same organized trip. Diplomatic Passport - Issued to diplomats, Top ranking government officials, Diplomatic couriers, Members of the National Assembly, Parliament members, Head judges of the judicial organs, their deputies, Negotiators that are to deal with international issues, Spouse of the diplomatic passport holders, Unwed and unemployed daughters, sons younger than 18 years of age of the diplomatic passport holders who live with their parents upon the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Validity is determined by the nature of the position held. Official Passports and on Watch - Issued to individuals representing the Lebanese government if travelli