Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
European route E1
The European route E 1 is a series of roads in Europe, part of the United Nations International E-road network, running from Larne, United Kingdom to Seville, Spain. There is a sea crossing between Rosslare Harbour, in Ireland, Ferrol, but no ferry service; the road passes through Portugal – past the city of Porto, through the capital and south to the Algarve, passing Faro before reaching the Spanish border west of Huelva.: Larne – –: –: – Belfast: Belfast: Belfast – Lisburn: Lisburn – NewryAs with all E-roads in the United Kingdom, the E 1 is not signed. It begins in Larne, County Antrim as the A8. A short section of the A8 at Newtownabbey is under motorway regulations and is signed as the A8 motorway; this motorway joins the much longer M2 motorway to Belfast. At Belfast, the road becomes a dual carriageway which links to the M1 motorway; the A1 continues south as a dual carriageway. This takes the road over the border into Ireland. Main article: European route E01 in Ireland: British border – Dundalk: Dundalk – Dublin M50: Dublin M11/N11: Dublin – WexfordThe dual carriageway continues in Ireland as the N1, which from Ballymascanlon in County Louth onwards is under motorway regulations and signed as the M1 motorway.
The road follows the M1 south to Dublin, where, in the northern suburbs, it meets Dublin's ring road, the M50 motorway. It follows the M50 through the outer suburbs of Dublin until it meets the short M11 motorway near Shankill; the M11 continues as the N11, south of Bray in County Wicklow. This section passes through the Glen of the Downs Nature Reserve; this section of the road is dual motorway to south of Gorey in County Wexford. Following this, the remainder of the route in Ireland is single carriageway and passes through several towns and villages; the N11 continues to Wexford. The route follows the N25 to its final destination in Ireland of Rosslare Europort. All remaining sections of the N11 outside of Dublin are due to be replaced by motorways or dual carriageways; the E 1 has two sections in Spain. The northern section is between Tui at the Portuguese border, it follows the motorway AP-9, a.k.a. The Atlantic Axis, which connects the Galician cities of Ferrol, A Coruña, Santiago de Compostela and Vigo, continuing south towards Tui.
The E 01 follows the motorway A-55 near the city of Tui to the Portuguese border at the river Minho. In Portugal, the route is composed of the following sections, always as a motorway: A3: Valença – Braga – Porto A20: Porto A1: Porto – Coimbra – Lisbon IP1: Lisbon – Montijo A12: Montijo – Junction with A2 A2: Junction with A12 – Albufeira A22: Albufeira – Castro Marim In the section Aveiro Norte – Lisbon of the A1, the E1 follows the same route as the E80. In that section the E80 signage prevails over the E01 signage, the latter appearing; the second Spanish section is between Ayamonte at Sevilla. It follows the motorway A-49, passes near the city of Huelva; the border is at the Guadiana river
A1 road (Northern Ireland)
The A1 is a major route in Northern Ireland. It runs from Belfast via Lisburn and Banbridge to the border with the Republic of Ireland south of Newry, from where the road continues to Dublin, becoming the N1 road and M1 motorway. Between Sprucefield and Carrickcarnan the road forms part of the European route E01; the A1 is dual carriageway but some junctions remain low specification as they necessitate right-turning movements across the central reservation. The busier junctions have been improved by the provision of underpasses. A flyover was constructed at the busy Rathfriland Road junction in Banbridge and an underpass at the dangerous Hillsborough road junction in Dromore was completed in June 2005. Improved junctions at Banbridge and Hillsborough opened in September 2009, at Loughbrickland in December 2009 and at Banbridge Road, Dromore in February 2010; the scheme involving the dualling of the A1 between Beech Hill and Cloghogue was completed in July 2010, five months ahead of schedule. The Roads Service of Northern Ireland has planned to provide four further grade separated junctions.
These schemes are located at: Listullycurran Road, between Dromore and Hillsborough Gowdystown Road, south of Dromore Skeltons Road, between Dromore and Banbridge Waringsford Road, north of Banbridge. Further measures envisaged to improve safety include a central reservation safety barrier to be constructed from the A1's junction with the M1 at Sprucefield to Loughbrickland; this will involve the closing of many of the dual carriageway's central cross-over points. The Road Service plan to improve the link between the M1 and A1 at Sprucefield in a scheme that would include a flyover at Hillsborough, the last remaining roundabout on the route between Dublin and Belfast
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
European route E5
The European route E5 is part of the United Nations international E-road network. It is the westernmost north-south "reference road", running from Greenock, Scotland south through England and France to Algeciras, Spain; the route is 1,900 miles long. The E5 follows the route Greenock - Glasgow - Gretna - Carlisle - Penrith - Preston - Warrington - Birmingham - Newbury - Southampton … Le Havre - Paris - Orléans - Tours - Poitiers - Bordeaux - San Sebastián - Burgos - Madrid - Cordóba - Sevilla - Cádiz - Algeciras. Although the United Kingdom Government participates in activities concerning the E-routes, E-routes are not signposted within the United Kingdom. Hence the first 724 km of the route is not signed; the E 5 has a gap at Le Havre, France. There is no direct ferry link, but a ferry from nearby Portsmouth, along the M27, connects to Le Havre. United Kingdom: Greenock -: - Glasgow (Interchange with /: Glasgow - Anglo-Scottish border: Anglo-Scottish border - Cannock: Cannock - OR: Birmingham Northern Relief Road: Birmingham: Birmingham - Oxford: Oxford - Winchester: Winchester - Southampton Gap Southampton - Le Havre France Le Havre Le Havre - Tancarville Tancarville Tancarville - Bourneville Bourneville - Rouen - Paris Boulevard Périphérique: Paris Paris - Massy Massy - Ablis - Orléans - Tours - Poitiers - Niort - Saintes - Bordeaux Bordeaux Bordeaux Bordeaux - Bayonne - Hendaye Spain Irún - Donostia/S.
Sebastián - Eibar - Eibar - Miranda de Ebro - Burgos Burgos - Madrid Madrid Madrid - Manzanares - Bailén - Córdoba - Sevilla http://www.elbruz.org/eroads/E05.htm
The border between England and Scotland runs for 96 miles between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. It is Scotland's only land border with another country, one of England's two; the Firth of Forth was the border between the Picto-Gaelic Kingdom of Alba and the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria in the early 10th century. It became the first Anglo-Scottish border with the annexation of Northumbria by Anglo-Saxon England in the mid 10th century. In 973, King of Scots attended the English king, Edgar the Peaceful, at his council in Chester. After Kenneth had done homage, Edgar rewarded Kenneth by granting him Lothian. Despite this transaction, the control of Lothian was not settled and the region was taken by the Scots at the Battle of Carham in 1018 and the River Tweed became the de facto Anglo-Scottish border; the Solway–Tweed line was established in 1237 by the Treaty of York between England and Scotland. It remains the border today, with the exception of the Debatable Lands, north of Carlisle, a small area around Berwick-upon-Tweed, taken by England in 1482.
It is thus one of the oldest extant borders in the world, although Berwick was not annexed into England until 1746, by the Wales and Berwick Act 1746. For centuries until the Union of the Crowns the region on either side of the boundary was a lawless territory suffering from the repeated raids in each direction of the Border Reivers. Following the Treaty of Union 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united Scotland with England and Wales to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Border continues to form the boundary of two distinct legal jurisdictions as the treaty between the two countries guaranteed the continued separation of English law and Scots law; the age of legal capacity under Scots law is 16, while it was 18 under English law. The border settlements of Gretna Green to the west, Coldstream and Lamberton to the east, were convenient for elopers from England who wanted to marry under Scottish laws, marry without publicity; the marine boundary was adjusted by the Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order 1999 so that the boundary within the territorial waters is 0.09-kilometre north of the boundary for oil installations established by the Civil Jurisdiction Order 1987.
The border country known as the Scottish Marches, is the area either side of the Anglo-Scottish border including parts of the modern council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and the Scottish Borders, parts of the English counties of Cumbria and Northumberland. It is a hilly area, with the Scottish Southern Uplands to the north, the Cheviot Hills forming the border between the two countries to the south. From the Norman conquest of England until the reign of James VI of Scotland, who in the course of his reign became James I of England while retaining the more northerly realm, border clashes were common and the monarchs of both countries relied on Scottish Earls of March and Lord Warden of the Marches to defend and control the frontier region. In 1333, during the Second War of Scottish Independence, Scotland was defeated at the Battle of Halidon Hill. Thereafter, Edward Balliol, the titular King of Scots, made formal his promises to the English king, Edward III and yielded a considerable portion of southern Scotland to England at the 1334 Treaty of Newcastle.
A 16th-century Act of the Scottish Parliament talks about the chiefs of the border clans, a late 17th-century statement by the Lord Advocate uses the terms "clan" and "family" interchangeably. Although Lowland aristocrats may have liked to refer to themselves as "families", the idea that the term "clan" should be used of Highland families alone is a 19th-century convention. Historic Border clans include the following: Armstrong, Bannatyne, Briar, Elliot, Hedley of Redesdale, Home or Hume, Jardine, Kerr, Moffat, Ogilvy, Routledge, Tweedie. During late medieval and early modern eras—from the late 13th century, with the creation by Edward I of England of the first Lord Warden of the Marches to the early 17th century and the creation of the Middle Shires, promulgated after the personal union of England and Scotland under James VI of Scotland —the area around the border was known as the Scottish Marches. For centuries the Marches on either side of the boundary was an area of mixed allegiances, where families or clans switched which country or side they supported as suited their family interests at that time, lawlessness abounded.
Before the personal union of the two kingdoms under James, the border clans would switch allegiance between the Scottish and English crowns depending on what was most favourable for the members of the clan. For a time a powerful local clan dominated a region on the border between Scotland, it was known as the Debatable Lands and neither monarch's writ was heeded. Following the 1603 Union of the Crowns, King James VI & I decreed that the Borders should be renamed'the Middle Shires'. In the same year the King placed George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar in charge of pacification of the borders. Courts were known reivers were arrested; the more troublesome and lower classes were executed without trial. Mass hanging soon became a common occurrence. In 1605 he established a joint commission of ten members, drawn from Scotland and England, to bring law and order to the region; this was aided by statutes in 1606 and 1609, first to repeal hostile laws on both sides of the border, an
Belfast is a city in the United Kingdom, the capital city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland. It is second-largest on the island of Ireland, it had a population of 333,871 as of 2015. By the early 19th century, Belfast became a major port, it played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, becoming the biggest linen-producer in the world, earning it the nickname "Linenopolis". By the time it was granted city status in 1888, it was a major centre of Irish linen production, tobacco-processing and rope-making. Shipbuilding was a key industry. Belfast as of 2019 has a major aerospace and missiles industry. Industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest city and it became the capital of Northern Ireland following the Partition of Ireland in 1922, its status as a global industrial centre ended in the decades after the Second World War of 1939–1945. Belfast suffered in the Troubles: in the 1970s and 1980s it was one of the world's most dangerous cities.
However, a survey conducted by a finance company and published in 2016 rated the city as one of the safest within the United Kingdom. Throughout the 21st century, the city has seen a sustained period of calm, free from the intense political violence of former years, has benefitted from substantial economic and commercial growth. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as for the arts, higher education and law, is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Belfast is still a major port, with commercial and industrial docks, including the Harland and Wolff shipyard, dominating the Belfast Lough shoreline, it is served by two airports: George Best Belfast City Airport and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Belfast as a Gamma global city in 2018; the name Belfast is derived from the Irish Béal Feirsde, spelt Béal Feirste. The word béal means "mouth" or "rivermouth" while feirsde/feirste is the genitive singular of fearsaid and refers to a sandbar or tidal ford across a river's mouth.
The name would thus translate as " mouth of the sandbar" or " mouth of the ford". This sandbar was formed at the confluence of two rivers at what is now Donegall Quay: the Lagan, which flows into Belfast Lough, its tributary the Farset; this area was the hub. The Irish name Béal Feirste is shared by a townland in County Mayo, whose name has been anglicised as Belfarsad. An alternative interpretation of the name is "mouth of of the sandbar", an allusion to the River Farset, which flows into the Lagan where the sandbar was located; this interpretation was favoured by John O'Donovan. It seems clear, that the river itself was named after the tidal crossing. In Ulster-Scots, the name of the city has been variously translated as Bilfawst, Bilfaust or Baelfawst, although "Belfast" is used. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the city continues to be viewed as straddling County Antrim and County Down; the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age.
The Giant's Ring, a 5,000-year-old henge, is located near the city, the remains of Iron Age hill forts can still be seen in the surrounding hills. Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. John de Courcy built a castle on what is now Castle Street in the city centre in the 12th century, but this was on a lesser scale and not as strategically important as Carrickfergus Castle to the north, built by de Courcy in 1177; the O'Neill clan had a presence in the area. In the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe O'Neill, built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn O'Neill of the Clannaboy O'Neills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, one remaining link being the Conn's Water river flowing through east Belfast. Belfast became a substantial settlement in the 17th century after being established as a town by Sir Arthur Chichester, it was settled by Protestant English and Scottish migrants at the time of the Plantation of Ulster.
In 1791, the Society of United Irishmen was founded in Belfast, after Henry Joy McCracken and other prominent Presbyterians from the city invited Theobald Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell to a meeting, after having read Tone's "Argument on Behalf of the Catholics of Ireland". Evidence of this period of Belfast's growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries and became Ireland's pre-eminent industrial city. Industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, at the end of the 19th century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland; the Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, employing up to 35,000 workers. In 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned.
The accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfas