Tornio is a city and municipality in Lapland, Finland. The city forms a cross-border twin city together with Haparanda on the Swedish side; the municipality covers an area of 1,348.83 square kilometres. The population density is 18.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, with a total population of 21,837. It borders the Swedish municipality of Haparanda. In spite of being a border city Tornio is unilingually Finnish with a negligible number of Swedish speakers; the delta of the Torne river has been inhabited since the end of the last ice age, there are 16 settlement sites known in the area, similar to those found in Vuollerim. The Swedish part of the region is not far from the oldest permanent settlement site found in Scandinavia. A former hypothesis that this region was uninhabited and "colonised" from the Viking Age onward has now been abandoned; the church spire at Tornio was one of the landmarks used by de Maupertuis in his measurements. The church was constructed in 1686 by Matti Joosepinpoika Härmä.
Until the 19th century, inhabitants of the surrounding countryside spoke Finnish, Kemi Sami, a language of the Eastern Sami group similar to Finnish, while those of the town were Swedish-speaking. The name'Tornio' is an old Finnish word meaning war spear: the city is named after the river. To Swedish it was borrowed as Torneå after an alternative name of the river; the town received its charter from the King of Sweden in 1621 and was founded on the island of Suensaari. The charter was granted in recognition of Tornio being the hub of all trade in Lapland throughout the 16th century, it was the largest merchant town in the North at the time and for some years ranked as the richest town in the Swedish realm. Despite the lively trade with Lapland and overseas, the population of the town remained stable for hundreds of years at little over 500. During the 18th century Tornio was visited by several expeditions from Central Europe which came to explore the Arctic; the most notable expedition was led by a member of the Académie française, Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, who came to take meridian arc measurements along the Meänmaa which would show that the globe is flattened towards the poles.
The Lapland trade on which Tornio depended started to decline in the 18th century, the harbour had to be moved downriver twice as a result of the rising of the land, which made the river too shallow for navigation. However, the greatest blow to the wealth of the town came in the last war between Sweden and Russia in 1808, which saw the Russians capture and annexe Finland; the border was drawn through the deepest channel of the Muonio and Tornio rivers, splitting Lapland into two parts, with deleterious effects on trade. Tornio ended up on the Russian side of the border by special request of the Russian czar; the Swedes developed the village of Haaparanta on their side of the border, to balance the loss of Tornio, Tornio became unilingually Finnish. During the Russian period Tornio was a sleepy garrison town. Trade only livened up during the Crimean War and the First World War, when Tornio became an important border crossing for goods and people. During the First World War Tornio and Haparanda had the only rail link connecting the Russians to their Western allies.
After the independence of Finland in 1917 Tornio experienced further decline. Although its population increased steadily; the town played no role of importance in the Finnish Civil War, but was the scene of some fierce street fighting at the onset of the Lapland War between Finland and Nazi Germany. The rapid liberation of the town by Finnish forces saved it from being burned down like so many other towns in Lapland; as a result, the beautiful wooden church from 1686 can still be admired today. After World War II, the town created new employment built on the success of the local Lapin Kulta brewery and the Outokumpu stainless steel mill. Tourism based on the border has been a growing industry; the town is a centre of education for Western Lapland with a vocational college and a university of applied sciences. Tornio and Haparanda have a history as twin cities, are set to merge under the names TornioHaparanda and HaparandaTornio. A new city centre is under construction on the international border and several municipal services are shared.
The towns share a common golf course, situated astride the border. The new IKEA store in Haparanda has signposting in Finnish as well as in Swedish, all prices are signposted in two currencies. Tornion Palloveikot, or just ToPV, is a bandy club which play in the Bandyliiga and has become Finnish bandy champions several times, they play their home matches in Haparanda, just on the other side of the Swedish border, the venue for games at the 2001 Bandy World Championship. Teemu Tainio, was born in Tornio. Jesse Puljujärvi, ice hockey player, lived his childhood in Tornio. Tornio has a subarctic climate, tempered in winter by its proximity to the sea, but retains warm continental summers that are quite short; the weatherbox is from neighbouring city Haparanda and operated by Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Despite the fact that Tornio experiences polar day between 15 and 27 June it does not experience polar night. A break of gauge occurs at Tornio between the Swedish railway systems.
A bogie exchange and variable gauge axle track. Tor
Gävle is a city in Sweden, the seat of Gävle Municipality and the capital of Gävleborg County. It had 100 603 inhabitants in 2017, it is the oldest city in the historical Norrland, having received its charter in 1446 from Christopher of Bavaria. However, Gävle is far nearer the greater Stockholm region than it is to the other major settlements in Norrland. In recent years, the city has received a lot of international attention due to its large Yule Goat figure made of straw - the Gävle Goat; the goat is erected in December each year and is subsequently vandalised by someone setting it on fire. The goat is being used for various marketing purposes, it is believed that the name Gävle derives from the word gavel, meaning river banks in Old Swedish and referring to the Gavleån. The oldest settlement was called Gävle-ägarna, which means "Gavel-owners"; this name was shortened to Gävle Gefle, Gävle. Gävle is first mentioned as a town in official history books in the year 1413 but only received its official town charters in the year 1446.
For a long time Gävle consisted of small, turf or shingle roofed wooden buildings. Boat-houses lined the banks of Gavleån, Lillån, Islandsån; until the 18th century the town was built, as was the practice around the three most important buildings: the church, the regional palace, the town hall. Over the last 300 years Gävle has been ablaze on three different occasions. After the fire of 1776 the town was rebuilt with rectangular city blocks; the number of stone and brick houses started to increase. The biggest town fire occurred 1869, when out of a population of around 10,000 8,000 inhabitants lost their homes, about 350 farms were destroyed; the whole town north of Gavleån was burnt down. All the buildings south of Gavleån were saved. An area of the old town between the museum and the library has been preserved to this day as a historic reserve, Gamla Gefle. After the catastrophe of the fire Gävle developed its characteristic grid plan with large esplanades and green areas, it is now a green town with wide avenues.
Stopping the spread of future town fires was the main idea behind this development. An extensive redevelopment of the central town area was started during the 1950s. Around 1970 Gävle became a large urban district when it was united with the nearby municipalities of Valbo, Hamrånge and Hille. New suburbs like Stigslund, Sätra and Bomhus have grown up around the central city. In the middle of the 1800s to the beginning of the 1900s there was a bad harvest and a high unemployment rate in Sweden. At the same time and religious oppression occurred, religious encounters outside the State Church were not allowed; this led many Swedes to emigrate to other countries such as the United States. During the early emigration era, Gävle was one of the cities from which people left on their journey to the US. People from different parts of Gästrikland and other neighboring counties made their way to the harbor town of Gävle and commenced their departure to America. In 1986 as a result of the Chernobyl disaster, Gävle was subjected to a severe deposition of radionuclides, exceeding 185 kBq per square meter.
The impact was much greater than experienced by other regions of western Europe and as such, Gävle became one of the most affected areas outside of the Soviet Union. Gävle is situated by the Baltic Sea near the mouth of the river Dalälven. At 60 degrees north and 17 degrees east, Gävle has the same latitude as Helsinki and the same longitude as Vienna and Cape Town. Bordering municipalities are Söderhamn, Sandviken, Tierp and Älvkarleby. Twenty kilometers west of Gävle lies Sandviken. Gävle has a similar climate to the rest of central Sweden, with an average temperature of around −10 °C in January and 20 °C in July. Yearly rainfall is around 600 mm. Under the Köppen climate classification Gävle is classified as humid continental, in spite of the significant maritime influence, it is one of the northernmost cities by significant size in the world with this climate type, since areas north of the 60th parallel for the most part are dominated by various subarctic climate types. Under the 1961-1990 normals, Gävle's fourth warmest month was just around the isotherm of 10 °C to not be classified as subarctic, but temperatures did go up sufficiently to be clear humid continental since.
Trade from the port of Gävle increased markedly during the 15th century when copper and iron began to be exported from the port. In order to ensure that all trade was via Stockholm, sailing to foreign ports from Gävle and a few other ports was forbidden. During the 16th century, Gävle was one of the most important port and merchant towns with many shipping companies and shipyards. In 1787 Gävle was awarded "unrestricted sailing rights" to and from foreign ports; this led to an increase in trade, which in turn led to an increase in buildings, industrial developments and shipping. Today there are few shipping companies or shipyards left, it is among the top ten common ports in Sweden. BillerudKorsnäs Kraft General Foods Scandinavia Leaf AB Gävle Galvan Gävle Stål Gävle Varv Cale Industri Gävle has, considering its size, a large and well nourished cultural life, being a cradle for many musicians such as The Deer Tracks and The Sound of
Härnösand is a locality and the seat of Härnösand Municipality in Västernorrland County, Sweden with 17,556 inhabitants in 2010. It is called "the gate to the High Coast" because of the world heritage landscape just a few miles north of Härnösand. Härnösand is the seat of the Diocese of Härnösand. Härnösand is at the northernmost fringe of the humid continental climate zone with significant maritime influence, causing mild to warm summers and cold but not severe winters that are milder than areas further north. In the Kvarken area and further north the water is less salty and freezes easier, creating colder winter climate. Härnösand is a small town and some of the activities young people engage in are Kåken, a youth centre provided by the municipality; the city has an extensive selection of outdoor activities in the summer and wintertime. Wintertime people can go ice skating, etc.. Summertime activities include climbing, trekking, etc; the town features a summertime beach Smitingen, which gets some surfable waves.
Härnösand is each summer the site of one of the world's largest airsoft events, Berget. One of the biggest employers in Härnösand is the cable-TV and Cable internet service provider Com Hem. Com Hem in Härnösand takes care of all incoming support calls and therefore hire young adults with an interest in technology; the Interview Institute of Scandinavia and Intervjubolaget are employers seated in Härnösand focusing on call center activities, although their focus lies in doing interviews by phone or face to face. The women's team of the bandy club Härnösands AIK plays in the highest division and the men's team has done, their handballteam plays in division 2 and is called Brännans IF. The football club IF Älgarna plays in Division 2 Norrland. Curling is a great sport in the city, Team Anette Norberg is from here. Anette has taken several medals including Olympic gold, it is therefore not surprising that Sweden's only curling high school is located here. The high school has since contributed several talented curlers to the world.
Härnösand has an ice hockey team AIK Hockey Härnösand that plays in division 1 in region norr. That is. Anders Jonas Ångström, physicist Albert Atterberg, soil mechanics Bo Holmberg, politician Carl Gustaf Nordin, statesman Ulf Sandström, Ice Hockey player Nils Bohlin, inventor Anette Norberg, women's curling Olympic gold medalist Lubbe Nordström, writer/poet Frideborg Winblad and administrator Lena Endre, Actor Lasse Lindh, Musician Håkan Ekström, Forestry Consultant Kullarmark Mid Sweden University Härnösand official site Webcams
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway and partial controlled access highway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway, including limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses, few or no intersecting cross-streets. The degree of isolation from local traffic allowed varies between regions; the precise definition of these terms varies by jurisdiction. The first implementation of limited-access roadways in the United States was the Bronx River Parkway in New York, in 1907; the New York State Parkway System was constructed as a network of high-speed roads in and around New York City. The first limited access highway built is thought to be the built Long Island Motor Parkway in Long Island, New York.
The Southern State Parkway opened in 1927, while the Long Island Motor Parkway was closed in 1937 and replaced by the Northern State Parkway and the contiguous Grand Central Parkway. In the United States, the national Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices uses "full control of access" only for freeways. Expressways are defined as having "partial control of access", meaning that major roads use interchanges and commercial development is accessed via cross roads or frontage roads, while minor roads can cross at grade and farms can have direct access; this definition is used by some states, some of which restrict freeways only to motor vehicles capable of maintaining a certain speed. Some other states use "controlled access" to mean a higher standard than "limited access", while others reverse the two terms. While Australia's larger capital cities feature controlled-access highway networks, the smaller metropolitan areas rely on limited-access highways for high-speed local traffic. In South Australia the terms "expressway" and "freeway" can be synonymous.
The Southern and Northern Expressways are both controlled-access highways. However confusingly, the Port River Expressway is a limited-access highway. Dual carriageways that connect capital cities and regional centres, such as the M31 Hume Highway between Sydney and Melbourne, are all limited-access highways. In spite of this,'freeway' terminology is used on signage for most regional limited access highways in the state of Victoria; the terms Motorway and Expressway in New Zealand both encompass multi-lane divided freeways as well as narrower 2-4-lane undivided expressways with varying degrees of grade separation. The Expressway Network of the People's Republic of China is the longest highway system in the world; the network is known as National Trunk Highway System. By the end of 2016, the total length of China's expressway network reached 131,000 kilometers. Expressways in China are a recent addition to a complex network of roads. China's first expressway was built in 1988; until 1993 few expressways existed.
The network is expanding after 2000. In 2011, 11,000 kilometres of expressways were added to the network; the Expressways of Pakistan are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed highways in Pakistan, which are owned and operated federally by Pakistan's National Highway Authority. They are one class lower than the country's motorways and are upgraded versions of the national highways; the total length of Pakistan's expressways is 260-kilometre as of November, 2016. Around 770-kilometre of expressways are under construction in different parts of country. Most of these expressways will be complete between 2017 and 2020. Expressways in Taiwan may be controlled-access highways similar to National Freeways or limited-access roads. Most have Provincial Highway status, although some are maintained by cities. All provincial expressways run east–west except for Provincial Highway No. 61, which runs north–south along the west coast. Some provincial expressway routes are still under construction; the North–South Expressway covers the length of Peninsular Malaysia.
It connects Woodlands in Singapore to the Thailand border. Another expressway called, it covers the width of Peninsular Malaysia. There are many rest areas along both expressways. Both expressways has a speed limit from 90 km/h to 110 km/h. Singaporean expressways are used to get to one urban place to another; the longest is the Pan Island Expressway. It is 42 kilometres long. Since 2009 more expressways are being constructed. One of the newest is the Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway, 2 kilometres on ground level and 10 kilometres underground; that makes it the longest tunnel expressway in Southeast Asia. On ground level or on flyovers and viaducts, speed limits is 70 km/h to 90 km/h but in tunnels, the speed limit is 70 km/h or 80 km/h. Expressways in India make up more than 942 km of the Indian National Highway System on which they are the highest class of road; the National Highways Development Project is underway to add an additional 18,637 km of expressways to the network by the year 2022. Expressways in Iran are one class lower than freeways and are used in large urban areas such as Isfahan, Mashhad, or Tehran and between other important cities in rural and desert areas.
Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm. The city has a population of 95,618 inhabitants in 2016, out of a municipal total of 130,050, making it Sweden's tenth largest city and eighth largest municipality; the city is situated by the mouth of the river Motala ström, at Bråviken, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Water power from the Motala ström and the good harbour were factors that facilitated the rapid growth of this once industrial city, known for its textile industry, it has several nicknames such as: "Sweden's Manchester", "Peking" and "Surbullestan". The city has medieval foundations by settlers around the Norrköping twin city with Linköping Motala stream estuary, who used the falls and rapids to power their mills; the stream was full of fish such as salmon. Exact dates are uncertain, it was dedicated to Norway's patron. The first trace of the city's name is from 1283, when Sophia of Denmark donated her rights of salmon fishing to the Skänninge monastery.
The town is estimated to have received city status in the early 14th century, although no written documents exist prior to a document from 1384. This document, signed by Albrekt of Sweden is stored in the city archive today. Köping means there was a market there, while Nörr or Norr means "north". There is a smaller town nearby named Söderköping, or "South market"; the city was the location of several battles in the ensuing centuries. As a consequence, nothing of the medieval Norrköping remains today. During the Northern Seven Years' War, the entire southern part of Norrköping was burnt, it was rebuilt by John III of Sweden. In 1618, a weapon industry was established by supervision of Gustavus Adolphus; the harbour attracted ships due to its proximity to the industries of Finspång. In addition to the weapon industry, a large scale industry of textile was initiated. An important benefactor was the industrial man Louis De Geer. At De Geer's death, Norrköping was Sweden's second largest city; the city again burnt in 1655, again in 1719 during the Russian Pillage of 1719-21 when the Russians burnt it to the ground.
Stones from the Johannisborg castle were used to build new houses, today only a few stones remain. During the 18th century it was rebuilt and several industries soon got a stronghold: In the 1740s, Norrköping boasted three sugar refineries. From this time stems the city churches of Saint Olof and Saint Hedvig, several other old houses. In 1762, the first theater in Sweden outside of Stockholm was established in the city, the Egges Teater. Norrköping's importance again flourished. In 1769 the Swedish Riksdag assembled there. In 1800 King Gustav IV of Sweden was crowned in the Church of Saint Olof. In the 18th and early 19th Centuries, Norrköping was one of the three Swedish cities where Jews were allowed to live; the city again suffered fires in 1822 and 1826. Thereafter wooden houses were banned. In 1841 a ship industry was initiated as a branch of Motala Verkstad in Motala. In 1850 the industry had over 600 employees making it Sweden's largest ship industry at the time. During the remaining 19th century, the industries kept expanding.
The area by the Motala Stream was developed further with the construction of a cotton refinery, a paper mill was constructed in 1854, specializing in newspaper, is still today exporting to customers around the world. The industry, including textile manufacturers expanded into the 20th century. In 1950 a total of 54 factories had 6,600 employees in town. By 1956, however, 18 of them had been closed due to competition from countries abroad with lower wages, such as Italy and Japan. In 1970 only 10 factories and 1,200 employees remained. In that year, the renowned Holmen paper mill, with its 350 years long history, announced closure, another 900 people were let go. To counter the effects, several governmental authorities were relocated to Norrköping from Stockholm. See Braviken Paper Mill; as of 2002, Norrköping is now seeing a revival, as a center of education. The Norrköping symbol represents the "new" Norrköping; the Motala ström river flows through the city. In connection to the latter is the industrial landscape where the old textile industries once were situated.
In the summer, there is a cactus plantation in Carl Johans Park. 25,000 cacti planted there every summer. Kolmårdens Djurpark is a zoo located 30 km north of Norrköping. In connection to the large outdoor zoo, there is Tropicariet, an aquarium, where for example snakes and sharks can be seen; the archipelagos 50 km away from Norrköping are called St Gryt. A campus of Linköping University, its own symphonic orchestra, an airport called Kungsängen with 170,000 traveling, a high-tech industry park called Norrköping Science Park, Petroglyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age. Norrköping had a humid continental climate for the reference period of 1961–1990, but it was borderline four-season oceanic during that period and has since more resembled the latter, with somewhat warmer temperatures year-round. In spite of it being located near the Baltic Sea, Norrköping has a dry climate with precipitation levels averaging 508.2 millimetres between 1961 and 1990. That would in turn be low for a mar
Södertälje is a city and the seat of Södertälje Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden. As of 2016, it has a population of 71,774 inhabitants; the industrial city, about 30 kilometers southwest of Stockholm, is the home to truck maker Scania AB and one of the manufacturing arms of pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. Its research and development facility was closed in 2012, its former facility was sold to a consortium of PEAB and Acturum, the acquisition department of the Wallenberg Foundation. More than 40 percent of Södertälje's inhabitants have foreign backgrounds, this proportion increases by 1.5 percent per year. Assyrians/Syriacs are the largest groups of immigrants in Södertälje. Prior to 600 AD, the lake Mälaren was connected to the sea. Due to land elevation, the lake was cut off, boats had to be dragged over land to and from the lake; this demanded labour. The name Tälje or Telge is first attested in the 11th century, it is derived from Old Swedish *talgh with the meaning'indentation', referring to the long and narrow inlets connecting the city with the Baltic Sea and Mälaren.
To resolve a name conflict with another town, founded north of Stockholm in the 17th century, Söder was added to create Södertälje. In the 18th century Södertälje had a charter. Due to the Great Northern War and a series of plague epidemics, the population of the city dipped to above 200. In its December 2015 and 2017 reports, Police in Sweden placed the Ronna/Geneta/Lina district in the most severe category of urban areas with high crime rates; the first Aramaic-speaking immigrants arrived in 1967 as refugees from Turkey and were invited to settle here as workers for the understaffed factories in the area. However, the small community skyrocketed within a decade due to the PKK insurgency against the Turkish State during the 1980s which displaced tens of thousands of Aramaic-speaking immigrants because it made the region they lived in, known as Tur Abdin, unsafe for them. In more recent times, the Iraqi insurgency, the Syrian Civil War have caused the Aramaic-speaking immigrant community to grow larger.
In the city, Aramaic-speaking immigrants have five churches, two bishops, two soccer teams, several shops, an Assyrian/Syriac Aramean association and the headquarters of the Syriac language TV Channels Suroyo TV and Suryoyo Sat. Outside of the Aramaic-speaking immigrant community, other immigrant groups are from Finland and former Yugoslavia. During the Iraq war 1,500 Mandaeans fled to Södertälje, now make up one of the largest communities of Mandaeans in the world. However, not many Muslim immigrants live in Södertälje, as they suffer hate crimes by the Arameans of the city, who were oppressed by Muslims in the Middle East; the most spoken languages in Södertälje besides Swedish, the national language, are Turoyo, Neo-Aramaic and Arabic. To a lesser extent and Serbian are relatively common second languages. In the 2011-13 period, about 58% of the population in the Hovsjö district originated outside the EU and the Nordic Countries, at the time the highest share of all districts in Sweden along with Herrgården district in Malmö.
In 2017, Södertälje was one of three municipalities in Sweden with a population majority of foreign background. Foreign background is defined as being either born abroad or having both parents born abroad. Truck manufacturer Scania AB has its main location in Södertälje, it is one of the main sites for pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. The port of Södertälje is the second in the Stockholm region. Volkswagen Group has its Swedish headquarters located in Södertälje, Lantmännen Axa Foodservice AB is located in Järna 10 km south of Södertälje. In basketball, Södertälje BBK, SBBK is one of the best in the country, Södertalje KINGS became Swedish Champions in 2013, 2014 and 2015. In total SBBK has got 10 Gold for the male team Södertalje KINGS and 12 Gold for the female team Telge Basket. SBBK has in total 132 Swedish Championships since the star in 1968. Täljehallen is the home for SBBK; the city is home to Södertälje SK, a classic and successful ice hockey team playing in Sweden's second highest league – HockeyAllsvenskan with Scaniarinken as their home arena.
Assyriska FF and Syrianska FC are two successful football clubs started in 1974 and 1977. They play in Södertälje Fotbollsarena. Södertälje Storm Rugby League club are a pioneering Rugby league team, playing in the Swedish National Rugby League, formed in 2015. There is an indoor swimming arena. It's called "Sydpoolen"; the town is situated on a bay of Lake Mälaren, here connected with the Baltic Sea by the Södertälje Canal, 35 miles in length, with a minimum depth of 20 ft. This is on the route followed by the Göta Canal steamboats between Gothenburg, it was opened in 1819 and much enlarged in 1924, though a canal was begun here in the first half of the 15th century at the instigation of the patriot Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson. Södertälje, the rest of Stockholm region has a humid continental climate and displays four distinct seasons. Due to the city's high northerly latitude, daylight varies from more than 18 hours around midsummer, to only around 6 hours in midwinter. Södertälje has much warmer and sunnier weather than other locations at the same latitude because of the influence of Gulf Stream.
The city enjoys 1,981 hours of sunshine annually. Summers have an average daytime high temperatures of 20–23 °C and lows of around 15 °C