Europium is a chemical element with the symbol Eu and atomic number 63. Europium is the most reactive lanthanide by far, having to be stored under an inert fluid to protect it from atmospheric oxygen or moisture. Europium is the softest lanthanide, as it can be dented with a fingernail and cut with a knife; when oxidation is removed a shiny-white metal is visible. Europium is named after the continent of Europe. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium assumes the oxidation state +3, but the oxidation state +2 is common. All europium compounds with oxidation state +2 are reducing. Europium has no significant biological role and is non-toxic compared to other heavy metals. Most applications of europium exploit the phosphorescence of europium compounds. Europium is one of the rarest of the rare earth elements on Earth. Europium is a ductile metal with a hardness similar to that of lead, it crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice. Some properties of europium are influenced by its half-filled electron shell.
Europium has the lowest density of all lanthanides. Europium becomes a superconductor when it is compressed to above 80 GPa; this occurs because europium is divalent in the metallic state, is converted into the trivalent state by the applied pressure. In the divalent state, the strong local magnetic moment suppresses the superconductivity, induced by eliminating this local moment. Europium is the most reactive rare-earth element, it oxidizes in air, so that bulk oxidation of a centimeter-sized sample occurs within several days. Its reactivity with water is comparable to that of calcium, the reaction is 2 Eu + 6 H2O → 2 Eu3 + 3 H2Because of the high reactivity, samples of solid europium have the shiny appearance of the fresh metal when coated with a protective layer of mineral oil. Europium ignites in air at 150 to 180 °C to form europium oxide: 4 Eu + 3 O2 → 2 Eu2O3Europium dissolves in dilute sulfuric acid to form pale pink solutions of the hydrated Eu, which exist as a nonahydrate: 2 Eu + 3 H2SO4 + 18 H2O → 2 3+ + 3 SO2−4 + 3 H2 Although trivalent, europium forms divalent compounds.
This behavior is unusual for most lanthanides, which exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. The +2 state has an electron configuration 4f7 because the half-filled f-shell provides more stability. In terms of size and coordination number and barium are similar; the sulfates of both barium and europium are highly insoluble in water. Divalent europium is a mild reducing agent, oxidizing in air to form Eu compounds. In anaerobic, geothermal conditions, the divalent form is sufficiently stable that it tends to be incorporated into minerals of calcium and the other alkaline earths; this ion-exchange process is the basis of the "negative europium anomaly", the low europium content in many lanthanide minerals such as monazite, relative to the chondritic abundance. Bastnäsite tends to show less of a negative europium anomaly than does monazite, hence is the major source of europium today; the development of easy methods to separate divalent europium from the other lanthanides made europium accessible when present in low concentration, as it is.
Occurring europium is composed of 2 isotopes, 151Eu and 153Eu, which occur in equal proportions. While 153Eu is stable, 151Eu was found to be unstable to alpha decay with a half-life of 5+11−3×1018 years in 2007, giving about 1 alpha decay per two minutes in every kilogram of natural europium; this value is in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. Besides the natural radioisotope 151Eu, 35 artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 150Eu with a half-life of 36.9 years, 152Eu with a half-life of 13.516 years, 154Eu with a half-life of 8.593 years. All the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives shorter than 4.7612 years, the majority of these have half-lives shorter than 12.2 seconds. This element has 8 meta states, with the most stable being 150mEu, 152m1Eu and 152m2Eu; the primary decay mode for isotopes lighter than 153Eu is electron capture, the primary mode for heavier isotopes is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 153Eu are isotopes of samarium and the primary products after are isotopes of gadolinium.
Europium is produced by nuclear fission, but the fission product yields of europium isotopes are low near the top of the mass range for fission products. As with other lanthanides, many isotopes of europium those that have odd mass numbers or are neutron-poor like 152Eu, have high cross sections for neutron capture high enough to be neutron poisons. 151Eu is the beta decay product of samarium-151, but since this has a long decay half-life and short mean time to neutron absorption, most 151Sm instead ends up as 152Sm. 152Eu and 154Eu cannot be beta decay products because 152Sm and 154Sm are non-radioactive, but 154Eu is the only long-lived "shielded" nuclide, other than 134Cs, to have a fission yield of more than 2.5 parts per million fissions. A larger amount of 154Eu is produced by neutron activation of a significant portion of the non-radioactive 153Eu. 155Eu has a fission yield of 330 parts per million for thermal neutrons.
"Shakaar" is the 70th episode of the science fiction television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, the 24th episode of the third season. It was first broadcast on May 22, 1995. Guest star Duncan Regehr plays Bajoran Shakaar; this episode goes deeper into the backstory of Cardassian alien's occupation of Bajor, interweaving the stories of former resistance fighters with Bajoran recovery. This is a vehicle for Kira character development her moving on from the old romance with Vedek Bareil. Nielsen ratings for "Shakaar" registered 7.1 points with a rank of 4. When the First Minister of the Bajoran Provisional Government dies, Kai Winn is appointed to his duties on an interim basis and is positioned to be formally elected to the office. Winn approaches Major Kira with a special request. A group of farmers in Kira's home province refuse to return some soil reclamators that Winn needs for Bajor's recovery efforts in Rakantha Province, their leader, Shakaar led Kira's resistance cell during the Occupation, so Winn wants Kira to convince him to return the property.
Kira agrees to do it for the good of Bajor. Kira visits Shakaar, who calmly tells his side of the story: he only received the reclamators two months before, after a three-year wait, was told that he and fellow farmers Furel and Lupaza would have their use for a year, but when Winn took over, they were ordered to return them immediately. Since the Rakantha project is geared toward farming products for export, while Shakaar's farmers are trying to feed their people, he sees his project as far more important. Kira encourages him to meet with Winn. Kira tells Winn; as Kira briefs Shakaar for the discussion, two security officers arrive to arrest him. Infuriated that Winn lied, Kira helps subdue the escapes with Shakaar. Now fugitives, Shakaar and their comrades hide in the mountains where they once eluded the Cardassians. Weeks as Bajoran troops close in, Shakaar's exhausted group realizes there is no option but to stop running and fight. Reluctantly, he and Kira lead their pursuers into a canyon to set up an ambush.
Hiding in the canyon and Kira watch as the Bajoran troops enter their trap. But as they see the faces of their "enemies", the realization hits that they will be shooting former comrades-in-arms. Unwilling to do this and Shakaar drop their weapons and, after a brief conversation with the leader, Colonel Lenaris, a cease-fire is called. Lenaris takes Kira and Shakaar to Winn's office, where Shakaar informs her that he has decided to enter the election for First Minister. Realizing a competitive election with the popular Shakaar will expose how Winn's actions brought Bajor to the brink of civil war, Winn decides to step down from the race. Meanwhile, back on Deep Space Nine, O'Brien has recorded an incredible winning streak at darts in Quark's bar, hitting the bullseye when he needs to. Quark collects bets on O'Brien with house odds of 15 to 1 in his favour. However, on the day of his match, O'Brien leans backwards for a drink and injures his shoulder just before throwing his final dart. After surgery, O'Brien's streak appears to have ended.
Quark leads him away. In 2018, SyFy recommend this episode for its abbreviated watch guide for the Bajoran character Kira Nerys, they note this episode for focusing on Kira's past story and her relationship with the character Shakaar. "Shakaar" on IMDb "Shakaar" at TV.com Shakaar at Memory Alpha Shakaar at StarTrek.com
Two Little Boys is a 2012 New Zealand feature film based on the 2008 novel of the same name by Duncan Sarkies. It stars Bret McKenzie and Hamish Blake in the two title roles, is directed by Robert Sarkies. Duncan Sarkies served as a script writer. Nige and Deano are two childhood friends who live in Invercargill in the South Island of New Zealand. However, estrangement has since resulted, because Nige has stopped flatting with Deano over concerns about Nige's self-perceived emotional dependence on his friend, moved in with a third friend, Gav. However, Nige inadvertently runs over and kills a person from Norway engaging in backpacker tourism with his unreliable Ford Laser, enlists the assistance of Deano to conceal the body, although not without reservations from Deano due to his'abandonment' issues after Nige terminated their earlier flatting cohabitation; the film deals with the bungled and incompetent police investigation into the comedy of errors that produced this chain of events, with humorous consequences.
It premiered at the Berlin film festival in February 2012. It was due to open in New Zealand on 15 March 2012, but that date was pushed back to in the year. A wide release is planned for in the year; the release date was later shown on the Facebook page of Two Little Boys. Two Little Boys was in New Zealand cinemas by 20 September, following the New Zealand premiere held in Invercargill on 11 September. Filming started in 2010 in the Southland District, New Zealand and concluded in 2011; the first trailer was released in early 2012 showing the original release date before the change. The yellow car that Nige drives when he ran over a backpacker is a 1982 Ford Laser, on display at The Movie and TV Museum in Waipu, New Zealand. Two Little Boys on IMDb