Euroscepticism known as EU-scepticism, means criticism of the European Union and European integration. It ranges from those who oppose some EU institutions and policies and seek reform, to those who oppose EU membership outright and see the EU as unreformable; the opposite of Euroscepticism is known as European Unionism. Euroscepticism should not be confused with anti-Europeanism, a dislike of European culture and European ethnic groups by non-Europeans; the main sources of Euroscepticism have been beliefs that integration undermines national sovereignty and the nation state, that the EU is elitist and lacks democratic legitimacy and transparency, that it is too bureaucratic and wasteful, that it encourages high levels of migration, or perceptions that it is a neoliberal organisation serving the business elite at the expense of the working class, responsible for austerity and driving privatization. Euroscepticism is found in groups across the political spectrum, both left-wing and right-wing and is found in populist parties.
Although they criticise the EU for many of the same reasons, Eurosceptic left-wing populists focus more on economic issues while Eurosceptic right-wing populists focus more on nationalism and immigration. The rise in radical right-wing parties since the 2000s is linked to a rise in Euroscepticism. Eurobarometer surveys of EU citizens show that trust in the EU and its institutions has declined since a peak in 2007. Since it has been below 50%. A 2009 survey showed that support for EU membership was lowest in the United Kingdom and Hungary. By 2016, the countries viewing the EU most unfavourably were the UK, Greece and Spain. A referendum on continued EU membership was held in the UK in 2016 which resulted in a 51.9% vote in favour of leaving the EU. The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020. Since 2015, trust in the EU has risen in most EU countries as a result of falling unemployment rates and accelerating economic growth. Post 2019 election survey "Eurobarometer" report showed that 68% citizens support the European Union, the highest level since 1983.
While having some overlaps and anti-Europeanism are different. Anti-Europeanism has always had a strong influence in American culture and American exceptionalism, which sometimes sees Europe on the decline or as a rising rival power, or both; some aspects of Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom have been mirrored by U. S. authors. There can be considered to be several different types of Eurosceptic thought, which differ in the extent to which adherents reject integration between member states of the European Union and in their reasons for doing so. Aleks Szczerbiak and Paul Taggart described two of these as soft Euroscepticism. At the same time, some have said that there is no clear line between the presumed'hard' and'soft' Euroscepticism. Kopecky and Mudde have said that if the demarcation line is the number of and which policies a party opposes the question arises of how many must a party oppose and which ones should a party oppose that makes them'hard' Eurosceptic instead of'soft'. According to Taggart and Szczerbiak, hard Euroscepticism is "a principled opposition to the EU and European integration and therefore can be seen in parties who think that their countries should withdraw from membership, or whose policies towards the EU are tantamount to being opposed to the whole project of European integration as it is conceived."The Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group in the European Parliament, typified by such parties as the Brexit Party and UK Independence Party, displays hard Euroscepticism.
In western European EU member countries, hard Euroscepticism is a characteristic of many anti-establishment parties. Some hard Eurosceptics prefer to call themselves "Eurorealists" rather than "sceptics", regard their position as pragmatic rather than ‘in principle’. Additionally, Tony Benn, a left-wing Labour Party MP who fought against European integration in 1975 by opposing membership of the European Communities in that year's referendum on the issue, emphasised his opposition to xenophobia and his support of democracy, saying: "My view about the European Union has always been not that I am hostile to foreigners, but that I am in favour of democracy I think they're building an empire there, they want us to be a part of their empire and I don't want that."The Czech president Václav Klaus rejected the term ’Euroscepticism’ for its purported negative undertones, saying that the expressions for a Eurosceptic and their opponent should be "a Euro-realist" and someone, "Euro-naïve", respectively.
François Asselineau of the French Popular Republican Union has criticised the use of the term'sceptic' to describe hard Eurosceptics, would rather advocate the use of the term "Euro opponent". He believes the use of the term'sceptic' for soft Eurosceptics to be correct, since other Eurosceptic parties in France are "merely criticising" the EU without taking into account the fact that the Treaty of Rome can only be modified with a unanimous agreement of all the EU member states, something he considers impossible to achieve. Soft Euroscepticism is support for the existence of, membership of, a form of European Union, but with opposition to specific EU policies.
Sears plc was a large British-based conglomerate. The company was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it was acquired by Philip Green in 1999. The business was founded by John and William Sears in 1891 and traded as bootmakers under the name of Trueform, it had acquired Freeman and Willis by 1929. The business was acquired by Charles Clore in 1953, he renamed it Sears Holdings in 1955. In the late 1950s Clore consolidated all the shoe brands Sears had acquired under the name British Shoe Corporation under which name it bought Saxone, Lilley & Skinner, another shoe shop chain, in 1962. Despite the company using the Sears name, it has no relations with Chicago, Illinois-based Sears Roebuck and Company and its 2005-2019 parent company, Hoffman Estates, Illinois-based Sears Holdings Corporation. Sears decided to invest in department stores in 1965 acquiring Lewis's Investment Trust which itself controlled Selfridges. In 1966, Selfridges launched the Miss Selfridge department, which subsequently expanded to a store chain in its own right.
The company diversified again in 1971, buying a chain of bookmakers. Sears bought Wallis in 1980 and Foster Brothers Clothing, which owned Adams Childrenswear, in 1985. and in the same year was renamed Sears plc. It acquired Richard Shops in 1992; as at April 2005, the company was FTSE 100 listed and had the following brands: Wallis, Miss Selfridge, Adams Childrenswear, Shoe Express, Shoe City, Dolcis, Cable & Co, The Outfit, Lilley & Skinner, Freemans Catalogue Store, The Selfridges Hotel, Part ownership of The St. Enoch Shopping Centre in Glasgow, 3,000 retail shops being leasehold with a few freehold jewels such as 190 Oxford Street and 330 Oxford Street known as the Top Shop flagship store. In 1996 sold FHW, True Form and Curtess to entrepreneur Stephen Hinchliffe and his business Facia; the remaining parts of British Shoe Corporation were sold by 1998, at an accounting loss of £150 million. Sears plc was acquired by January Investments on behalf of Philip Green in January 1999; the womenswear business was subsequently transferred to Arcadia Group.
Philip Green purchased the Arcadia Group, regaining control of Wallis and Miss Selfridge alongside Arcadia's other brands. Sears Group Properties, a wholly owned subsidiary, was sold to the owner of department store Owen Owen, continues to operate as an outsourced property solution for other fashion brands. SPDL, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sears plc, was swallowed up by January Investments but the retail park development properties asset strip generated around £50 million; these included Westway Cross Retail Park. The Sears Property Developments Limited team of four contributed in excess of £10 million per annum in profits between 1995 and 1999 and was Sears "secret weapon." The Times's unfavourable commentary regarding SPDL's property development pipeline arguably led to Sears plc becoming a bid target. After taking on a raft of footwear brands, Stylo subsequently decided to consolidate the stores under their Barratts and PriceLess Shoes branding, many of the other brands were axed; the deal meant Stylo had a surfeit of retail space in many locations, so decided to sell off surplus stores to other operators, including Shoe Zone, or close them.
Dolcis was not included in the original sale of stores to Stylo, traded independently until 1998, when it was purchased by fashion retail group Alexon. The chain split off from Alexon in 2006, but collapsed into administration in 2008, with the rump of the chain purchased by Stylo. Lilley and Skinner traded under the Stead and Simpson banner. Adams Childrenswear - trading as'Adams Kids' - remained on the high street until 2010, after some difficulties over the years, collapsed into administration twice in the late 2000s; the brand survives as an online business. William Hill plc is owned by private equity firms CVC Capital Partners, it remains one of the UK's leading gaming organisations. Selfridges is owned by Canadian firm Galen Weston and has expanded beyond London with branches in Manchester and Birmingham. Lewis's was split from Selfridges and was placed into administration in 1991. Branches in Liverpool, Oxford and Hanley were bought out by Owen Owen. Richard Shops were closed down by Arcadia Group shortly after the firm took the chain over from Sears.
Miss Selfridge and Wallis remain part of Arcadia, the firm has continued to develop and evolve the Outfit out-of-town fashion store format developed by Sears. Arcadia sold Warehouse as part of the deal which created Rubicon Retail in 2002. Subsequently, Rubicon merged with Mosaic Fashions, following the collapse of Mosaic, Warehouse is in the hands of Aurora Fashions, which took on many of Mosaic's brands
Hilda Mary Seligman was a British sculptor and campaigner from Blackburn, Lancashire. She was married to chemical engineer Richard Seligman, they had four sons: Adrian, Peter and Madron. During the inter-war period, Seligman entertained Mahatma Gandhi and the Emperor Haile Selassie at her home in Wimbledon, London, she spent some time in India and founded the'Skippo' Fund in London in 1945. The fund was set up with royalties from her book Skippo of Nonesuch about a goat named'Skippo', donations and gifts from Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence and Isobel Cripps; the Fund paid for a mobile health van that custom built in the UK, other health vans to serve isolated villages in India and Pakistan. The Fund's'Asoka-Akbar Mobile Health Vans' were given to the All India Women's Conference to administer. Hilda wrote two other small books: When Peacocks Called, Emperor of India. Rabindranath Tagore wrote the foreword to. In 1999, Hilda's papers were given as a gift to the Women's Library, London School of Economics, where they are still held.
Hilda created a bust of Haile Selassie, from life, it is now displayed in Cannizaro Park. The bust stood in the grounds of Lincoln House, where Hilda and Richard lived, until the building was demolished in 1957, her bronze sculpture,'J. P. Blake, Esq.' was displayed at the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts Eighty-Second Annual Exhibition, 1943. Hilda made and donated a 0.74 meters high bust of Chandragupta Maurya, one of the greatest figures in Indian history and founder of the Maurya Empire, who reigned from 321 B. C. to 296 B. C. for installation in The Indian Parliament complex. It today stands in the courtyard opposite Gate No. 5 of Parliament House, on a red sandstone pedestal, bearing the following inscription "Shepherd boy-Chandragupta Maurya dreaming of India he was to create"
Barry B. Hughes is the John Evans Professor at the University of Denver, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, he is the current director of the Pardee Center for International Futures, a center for long-term, systemic thinking on political, economic and environmental issues. Hughes has spent the majority of his career developing the International Futures global integrated assessment model; this model has been used by a wide range of international organizations and governments, including the European Commission, the National Intelligence Council, the United States Institute of Peace and the United Nations Environment Programme. Hughes received his bachelor's degree from Stanford University and master's and Ph. D. from the University of Minnesota. Improving Global Health Advancing Global Education Reducing Global Poverty Exploring and Shaping International Futures International Futures Continuity and Change in World Politics Disarmament and Development World Futures World Modeling The Domestic Context of American Foreign Policy Club of Rome Biography, Pardee Center for International Futures
Usha Kiran Palace is a heritage hotel, adjacent to Jai Vilas Mahal on a 9-acre land in Gwalior built by the royal Scindia dynasty of the Marathas. The management of the five-star hotel is done by Taj Hotels Palaces; the hotel makes use of solar power energy produced at Kadodiya Solar Park, built by Vivaan Solar. It was built in 1902 as a guest residance for the Prince of Wales, visiting, it became the guest house of Jivajirao Scindia where he brought Vijayaraje Scindia after the marriage. Subsequently moving from Mumbai to Gwalior, Priyadarshini Raje Scindia, the wife of Jyotiraditya Scindia, transformed the Palace into a hotel; the Palace has preserved its tradition with the usage of rosewood elevator from 1930 and two-blade ceiling fans. Jai Vilas Mahal Official Website
Father Ken Vavrina is a Roman Catholic priest and activist in Omaha, Nebraska. He has been involved in many events in North Omaha since returning to Omaha from various mission work abroad in 1993. Vavrina was born into a Czech family in Nebraska. After being ordained in 1962, he served in Omaha, South Sioux City, on the Winnebago Indian Reservation, he decided that his mission should go abroad in 1977, after meeting with Mother Teresa's Sisters of Mercy in Rome, he flew to Yemen to work with lepers. After four years in Yemen, he was jailed and subsequently deported, he went to Calcutta, India, to work directly with Mother Teresa. From 1993 to 1996 he headed the Catholic Relief Services mission in Liberia, a period which brought him into contact with Liberian President and Dictator, Charles Taylor, he returned to the United States in 1996, became pastor at St. Richard's Catholic Church in 1998. In 2007, he was transferred to St. Benedict The Moor Church and St. Therese of the Child Jesus, where he served until his retirement in 2011.
All three are located in North Omaha. Vavrina was ordained in 1962, his initial posts were on the Winnebago Indian Reservation in northeastern Nebraska, with the Hispanic Catholic community in South Sioux City, at Sacred Heart in predominately black North Omaha. In 1973, he gathered donations of medicine from Omaha's Creighton University and brought them to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, where members of the radical American Indian Movement were holed up in a standoff with the FBI in what is known as the Wounded Knee Incident. Ken remained at Wounded Knee until the shooting was ended, helping treat the wounded and administering religious services to the Native American Catholics there, his mission turned global when he visited the slums in Thailand. While there, he and reflected on a recent speech he attended given by Mother Teresa at Boys Town and decided that his mission to be to serve the poorest of the poor. On July 13, 1977 he flew to London to meet with the Sisters of Mercy to their headquarters in Rome.
His first posting was in Yemen where he worked in a leper village and said mass for the Sisters living there. He joined the Catholic Relief Services in Italy as a part of the group giving aid in the wake of an earthquake there. In 1986, he went to Calcutta, he became the head of the Catholic Relief Services mission there. In 1993, he went to Liberia, he headed the CRS mission in Liberia until 1996, when bouts with malaria forced him to return to the United States. Upon returning to the United States, he worked in the small town of Nebraska. In 1998, he was called to St. Richard's where Priest Daniel Herek was removed after being convicted of sexual assault of a child, he is involved in the Omaha community. He has invited African refugees in Omaha to take part in a Catholic African mass he helped set up at St. Richard's, to attend St. Richard's Catholic School; this has put him in close contact with the Sudanese refugee population in Omaha, prominent Sudanese peace activists such as Bishop Paride Taban have worked with Vavrina and St. Richard's.
Most of the students at St. Richard's Catholic School are African American, Vavrina has been a part of that community in North Omaha as well, he is a member of various North Omaha minister's organizations, has been outspoken in his attempts to calm racial tension in Omaha. When Albert Rucker shot and killed Omaha policeman Jason Tye Pratt, was himself killed in the shootout that followed, Vavrina invited Rucker's children to attend school at St. Richard's, saying that these children are innocent victims. Vavrina has been vocal in Omaha media writing letters to the Omaha World Herald newspaper and the Omaha Catholic Voice news-monthly calling for peace in Iraq, forgiveness of terrorists and criminals, openness of the church towards homosexuals. Kelly, Michael. On a Mission School to Stay Omaha World Herald Franke, Warren. Kissing Lepers. Omaha Reader