SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eurostar

Eurostar is an international high-speed railway service connecting London with Amsterdam, Brussels, Bourg-Saint-Maurice, Disneyland Paris, Lille, Fréthun, Marseille and Rotterdam. All its trains travel through the Channel Tunnel between the United Kingdom and France and operated separately by Getlink; the London terminus is St Pancras International, the other British calling points are Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International in Kent. Intermediate calling points in France are Calais-Fréthun and Lille-Europe, with trains to Paris terminating at Gare du Nord. Trains to Belgium terminate at Midi/Zuid station in Brussels; the only intermediate calling station in the Netherlands is Rotterdam Centraal and trains terminate at Amsterdam Centraal. There are direct services from London to Disneyland Paris at Marne-la-Vallée – Chessy, direct services to southern France, seasonal direct services to the French Alps in winter; the service is operated by eighteen-coach Class 373/1 trains and sixteen-coach Class 374 trains which run at up to 320 kilometres per hour on a network of high-speed lines.

The LGV Nord line in France opened before Eurostar services began in 1994, newer lines enabling faster journeys were added later—HSL 1 in Belgium and High Speed 1 in south-east England. The French and Belgian parts of the network are shared with Paris–Brussels Thalys services and TGV trains. In the United Kingdom the two-stage Channel Tunnel Rail Link project was completed on 14 November 2007 and renamed High Speed 1, when the London terminus of Eurostar moved from London Waterloo International to St Pancras International; until 2010, Eurostar was operated jointly by the national railway companies of France and Belgium, SNCF and SNCB/NMBS, Eurostar Ltd, a subsidiary of London and Continental Railways that owned the high-speed infrastructure and stations on the British side. Eurostar has become the dominant operator on the routes it operates, carrying more passengers than all airlines combined. Other operators expressed an interest in starting competing services following deregulation in 2010.

On 1 September 2010, Eurostar was incorporated as a single corporate entity, Eurostar International Limited, replacing the joint operation between EUKL, SNCF and SNCB/NMBS. EIL is owned by SNCF, Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, Hermes Infrastructure and SNCB. In June 2014, the UK shareholding in Eurostar International Limited was transferred from London and Continental Railways / Department for Transport to HM Treasury; that October, it was announced that the UK government planned to raise £300 million by selling its stake. In March 2015, the UK government announced that it would sell its 40% share to an Anglo-Canadian consortium made up of the Caisse and Hermes Infrastructure; the sale was completed in May 2015. The history of Eurostar can be traced to the 1986 choice of a rail tunnel to provide a cross-channel link between Britain and France. A previous attempt to construct a tunnel between the two nations had begun in 1974, but was aborted. Construction began on a new basis in 1988. Eurotunnel was created to manage and own the tunnel, finished in 1993, the official opening taking place on 6 May 1994.

In addition to the tunnel's shuttle trains carrying cars and lorries between Folkestone and Calais, the decision to build a railway tunnel opened up the possibility of through passenger and freight train services between places further afield. British Rail and SNCF contracted with Eurotunnel to use half the tunnel's capacity for this purpose. In 1987, Britain and Belgium set up an International Project Group to specify a train to provide an international high-speed passenger service through the tunnel. France had been operating high-speed TGV services since 1981, had begun construction of a new high-speed line between Paris and the Channel Tunnel, LGV Nord. An order for 30 trainsets, to be manufactured in France but with some British and Belgian components, was placed in December 1989. On 20 June 1993, the first Eurostar test train travelled through the tunnel to the UK. Various technical difficulties in running the new trains on British tracks were overcome. On 14 November 1994, Eurostar services began running from Waterloo International station in London, to Gare du Nord in Paris, Brussels-South railway station in Brussels.

The train service started with a limited Discovery service. In 1995, Eurostar was achieving an average end-to-end speed of 171.5 km/h from London to Paris. On 8 January 1996, Eurostar launched services from a second railway station in the UK when Ashford International was opened. On 23 September 2003, passenger services began running on the first completed section of High Speed 1. Following a high-profile glamorous opening ceremony and a large advertising campaign, on 14 November 2007, Eurostar services in London transferred from Waterloo to the extended and extensively refurbished St Pancras International; the Channel Tunnel used by Eurostar services holds the record for having the longest underwater section of any tunnel in the world, it is the second-longest railway tunnel in the world. On 30 July 2003, a Eurostar train set a new British speed record of 334.7 km/h on the first section of the "High Speed 1" railway between the Channel Tunnel, Fawkham Junction in north Kent, two months before official public services began running.

On 16 May 2006, Eurostar set a new record for the longest non-stop high-speed journey, a distance of 1,421 kilometres from London to Cannes taking 7 hours 25 minutes. On 4 September 2007, a record-breaking train le

Damascus, Georgia

Damascus is a city in Early County, United States. The population was 254 at the 2010 census. An early variant name was "Kestler". An act of Georgia General Assembly changed the name to "Damascus" in 1914; the present name is a transfer from nearby Old Damascus, bypassed when the railroad was built through the area. Damascus is located in eastern Early County at 31°17′55″N 84°43′3″W. Georgia State Route 45 passes through the community, leading north 10 miles to Arlington and south 9 miles to Colquitt. Georgia State Route 200 passes through the center of town, leading east 24 miles to Newton and northwest 15 miles to Blakely, the Early County seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, Damascus has a total area of 1.8 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.48%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 277 people, 100 households, 74 families residing in the town; the population density was 157.6 people per square mile. There were 115 housing units at an average density of 65.4 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the town was 36.10% White, 63.54% African American, 0.36% from two or more races. There were 100 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 24.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.0% were non-families. 19.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.16. In the town the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,333, the median income for a family was $19,318. Males had a median income of $31,500 versus $19,286 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,583.

About 31.4% of families and 23.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 61.9% of those 65 or over. Public school students are zoned to the Early County School District which operates three schools in Blakely: Early County Elementary School, Early County Middle School, Early County High School. Damascus is home to Southwest Georgia Academy, which began in 1970 and participates in the Georgia Independent School Association, its property housed Damascus High School. Blakely-Early County Chamber of Commerce Includes the City of Damascus and other cities in Early County Southwest Georgia Academy a Private School in this Community and its Adjoining Counties by Georgia Independent School Association Centerville United Methodist Church historical marker Centerville United Methodist Church historical marker

Rivière des Pins (Blanc Lake)

The Rivière des Pins is a freshwater stream, in Quebec, in Canada. This river crosses the municipalities of: Notre-Dame-des-Anges in the Mékinac Regional County Municipality, in the administrative region of Mauricie; the White River flows in agricultural and forest environments, being the main economic activities of this small valley. The lower part of this valley is served by the Chemin du Lac-Blanc which surrounds Lac Blanc, the Verrette road; the upper part is served by the paths around Lac des Pins and the chemin du Lac-de-la-Galette and the chemin des Quatre Côtes.. The surface of the Blanche River is frozen from the beginning of December to the end of March; the water level of the river varies with the precipitation. The Blanche River has its source in Notre-Dame-de-Montauban; this lake supplies the outlet of Lac à l'Équerre. This lake is located in the forest area for the eastern part. Lac de la Galette has a few chalets on its west shore. From the mouth of Lac de la Galette, the Pins river flows over 11 kilometres in the forest zone, with a drop of 65 metres according to the following segments: 3.4 kilometres southerly in a straight line, crossing an area of marshland including a small lake, collecting an unidentified stream and the outlet of Lac du Canard, crossing on 0.7 kilometres Lac des Pins until at its mouth.

Note: This lake is famous for vacationing because about 35 cottages are built there. From the mouth of the Pins River, the current flows on: 3.2 kilometres to the south by crossing Lac Blanc. The toponym "Rivière des Pins" was formalized on May 7, 1981 at the Place Names Bank of the Commission de toponymie du Québec. Mékinac Regional County Municipality Portneuf Regional County Municipality Notre-Dame-des-Anges Saint-Ubalde Blanc Lake Noire River Sainte-Anne River List of rivers of Quebec CAPSA. Plans directeurs de l’eau des secteurs d’intervention de la zone de gestion de la CAPSA: Sainte-Anne, Portneuf et La Chevrotière. Quebec: CAPSA. P. 691. "CAPSA"