Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française was the French national public broadcasting organization established on 9 February 1949 to replace the post-war "Radiodiffusion Française", founded on 23 March 1945 to replace Radiodiffusion Nationale, created on 29 July 1939. It was replaced in its turn, on 26 June 1964, by the notionally less-strictly government controlled Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française, which itself lasted until the end of 1974. RTF was both state-controlled. With a budget set by the French National Assembly under the direction of the Ministry of Information, all of its spending and investment plans had to be directly agreed by the Minister of Information and the Minister of Finance. Alain Peyrefitte, Minister of Information, speaking in a debate in the National Assembly on 26 May 1964, described RTF as "the government in every Frenchman's dining-room" – La RTF, c'est le gouvernement dans la salle à manger de chaque Français. A public monopoly on broadcasting in France had been established with the formation of Radiodiffusion Française in 1945.
RDF was renamed "Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française" in 1949 and ORTF in 1964. From the beginning, the public broadcaster experienced fierce competition from the "peripheral stations": French-speaking stations aimed at the French public but transmitting on longwave from neighbouring countries, such as Radio Monte Carlo from Monaco, Radio Luxembourg from Luxembourg, Europe 1 from Germany. RTF's head offices were located in the avenue de Friedland in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, its television studios and technical buildings were at 13–15 rue Cognacq-Jay. By the start of the 1960s, the RTF had established five radio and two television channels: France I on long wave France II on high-power medium-wave transmitters France III on low-power medium-wave transmitters France IV on FM only France V La première chaîne, broadcast in black and white from 25 July 1948 on VHF 819 lines, until 3 January 1956 on 441 lines. For a period, experimental 625-line transmissions in colour using the French SECAM system were made on the channel's VHF network each Tuesday morning.
La deuxième chaîne, created on 21 December 1963 and broadcast on UHF 625 lines in black and white only. Colour transmissions in SECAM were introduced on 1 October 1967. Regional television, for areas outside Paris, was slow to develop compared with the situation in the United States of America and the United Kingdom; the first regional station, known as Télé-Lille, began broadcasting on 10 April 1950 with two hours a day of programming for Lille and its surrounding area. The station's main news programme was called Images du Nord. Télé-Lille's signal did not stop at the country's borders, with the result that the station had five times more viewers in the Belgian provinces of West Flanders, East Flanders, Hainaut than it had in northern France. By February 1952, the establishment of a co-axial link with the RTF's studios in Paris meant that Télé-Lille, when not televising its own programmes, could relay RTF's main Paris-originated programming. In an attempt to counter the spread in Alsace of the viewing of programmes from regional television in the neighbouring German Land of Baden-Württemberg – the inhabitants of Strasbourg had, for example, been able to watch the coronation in June 1953 of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom only on West German television – Télé-Strasbourg began broadcasting on 15 October 1953.
Marseille followed on 20 September 1954, Lyon on 8 November 1954, Toulouse in August 1961, Bordeaux on 25 January 1962, most other regional centres opened shortly thereafter. From late 1963, the regional programmes were broadcast on La deuxième chaîne by using optical standard conversion in the regional centres in order to better adapt the regional coverage to the new "regions" created in France, they remained after the opening of La troisième chaîne under the ORTF on 31 December 1972, all three networks broadcasting the regional news, sometimes from two or three different production centres; the directors of the RTF were directly appointed by the Minister of Information. Directors-general: Wladimir Porché: 9 Feb 1949 – 1 Feb 1957 Gabriel Delaunay: 1 February 1957 – 07/1958 Christian Chavanon: 07/1958 – 21 March 1960 Raoul Ergman: 21 March 1960 – 02/1962 Robert Bordaz: 02/1962 – 23 July 1964Assistant directors-general: Raymond Janot: 21 March 1960 – 02/1962Directors of programmes, television: Jean Luc: 04/1949 – 02/1951 Jean Arnaud: 02/1951 – 06/1952 Jean d'Arcy: 06/1952 – 10/1959 Albert Ollivier: 10/1959 – 23 July 1964Directors of news: Louis Terrenoire: 7 July 1958 – 11/1958 Albert Ollivier: 11/1958 – 06/1961 André-Marie Gérard: 06/1961 – 04/1963Directors of news: Raymond Marcillac: 04/1963Directors of sport: Raymond Marcillac: 12 September 1958 France Televisions Groupe TF1
Monaco in the Eurovision Song Contest
Monaco has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 24 times since its debut in 1959. The country's only win in the contest came in 1971 when Séverine performed "Un banc, un arbre, une rue". In 1972, Monaco declined. Monaco is still the only microstate. Monaco finished last at its first contest in 1959 before achieving three top three results in the 1960s. Two of these were achieved by François Deguelt, who finished third in 1960 and second in 1962. Romuald finished third in 1964. Severine's victory in 1971 was the first of five top four results in eight years; the others were achieved by Romauld, Mary Christy, third in 1976, Michèle Torr, fourth in 1977 and Caline & Olivier Toussaint who were fourth in 1978. After participating in 1979, Monaco was absent from the contest for 25 years. Monaco returned to the contest for three years from 2004 to 2006 but failed to qualify for the final on all three occasions; the Monegasque broadcaster withdrew from the contest saying that regional voting patterns in the contest have given Monaco no chance of qualifying for the final.
Monaco participated in the contest 21 times between its debut in 1959 and 1979. Afterwards the country withdrew from the contest for financial reasons, it only returned 25 years after its last participation. It withdrew again after failing to qualify for the final for three consecutive years. Monaco won the contest in 1971, with the song "Un banc, une rue", performed by Séverine; the Monegasque victory is rather particular in the history of Eurovision because the songwriter, the singer and the director were not from the country they represented, but from France. Séverine declared to journalists that she had never set foot in Monaco, forgetting that the video-clip was filmed there. Séverine's producer was dishonest with her and stole her prize, thus she never got paid for her victory after suing him; the singer is still a great fan of the contest. Monaco's next best placing has been second which it has achieved once at the 1962, it has been third three times, in 1960, 1964 and 1976. Monaco is among the eight countries which finished last on their first participation, the others being Austria, Malta, Lithuania, the Czech Republic and San Marino.
Monaco never organised the contest. After winning in 1971, the country decided to organise the 1972 contest as an open-air show, setting the date in June rather than early spring. However, because of a lack of funds and material, Télé Monte Carlo sought help from the French public broadcaster, ORTF, which accepted to organise the contest; because TMC wanted the show to be held in Monaco while ORTF wanted it in France, negotiations never succeeded. Monaco left it up to the EBU; the EBU asked Spain and Germany, who finished second and third at the 1971 contest, but the countries were not interested in organising the 1972 contest. It was organised by the BBC in Edinburgh. Monaco was absent from the contest between 1980 and 2003, before returning for three years from 2004–2006, but Maryon, Lise Darly and Séverine Ferrer all failed to progress from the semi-finals. TMC broadcast the 2007 contest, opening the way for participation in the Eurovision Song Contest 2008. However, TMC decided against it. TMC had announced that it was possible Monaco would return to the contest in 2009 after a two-year absence, following talks with the European Broadcasting Union, the organiser of the contest, as well as new voting measures implemented in the contest that year.
Despite this, Monaco did not compete in Moscow in 2009. The EBU announced they would work harder to bring Monaco back into the Contest in 2010 alongside other lapsed participants. Officials have denounced geopolitical voting between the countries in East Europe and the ones in Scandinavia, leaving no chance for the principality to qualify, they regret that the contest is now more about the show than singing. Furthermore, Monaco does not have a public broadcaster anymore. TMC is now part of the TF1 Group, the leading private broadcaster in France and is now available everywhere in France. TMC programs no longer revolve around the principality. TF1 Group being the biggest competitor to the French public channels, it is unlikely that TMC will broadcast again the Eurovision Song Contest; when TMC did so between 2004 and 2006, its audience was much lower than the one of the French public channel. In those years, it was the government and the municipality of Monaco who chose the contestant and funded the delegation, while it is the responsibility of a broadcaster or a producer.
Due to the country's small size, all Monaco's entrants came from outside the principality. The large majority of them were French, with one Yugoslavian, Tereza Kesovija, one Italian, Mary Christy. Several singers selected to represent Monaco are key figures of the French scene, such as Françoise Hardy and Michèle Torr. Luxembourg, another small country sent a great number of French artists to the contest. At the 1967 contest, the Monegasque entry, "Boum Badaboum", sung by Minouche Barelli, was written by Serge Gainsbourg, he had composed the winning entry in 1965, "Poupée de cire, poupée de son", sung by France Gall for Luxembourg. Jean Jacques, who represented Monaco in 1969, was the first child to take part in Eurovision, he was 12. Table key Between 1959 and 2006, Monaco's voting history was as follows: From 1959 to 1979, Monaco did not have its own commentators in the festival, Télé Monte Carlo used French commentary instead. Between 2004 and 2006, TMC did b
Jean-Claude Pascal, born Jean-Claude Villeminot, was a French comedian and singer. After surviving World War II in Strasbourg, Pascal studied at the Sorbonne before turning to fashion-designing for Christian Dior. While working on costumes for the theater production of the play Don Juan, he was exposed to acting, his first acting role was in the film Quattro rose rosse opposite Anouk Aimée, followed by several films including Die schöne Lügnerin with Romy Schneider and Angelique and the Sultan with Michèle Mercier. Pascal won the 1961 Eurovision Song Contest for Luxembourg with the song "Nous les amoureux", with music composed by Jacques Datin and lyrics by Maurice Vidalin, he represented Luxembourg again in the 1981 contest and finished 11th of 20 with the song "C'est peut-être pas l'Amérique", with words and music he composed together with Sophie Makhno and Jean-Claude Petit. "Lili Marleen" "Nous les amoureux" "C'est peut-être pas l'Amérique" Great Man, as L'interne Marcillac Ils étaient cinq, as Philippe Quattro rose rosse, as Pietro Leandri La Forêt de l'adieu, as Jean-Pierre Judgement of God, as Albert III, Duke of Bavaria Le Plus Heureux des hommes, as Michel Brissac The Crimson Curtain, as The officer Un caprice de Caroline chérie, as Livio Children of Love, as Doctor Jacques Baurain Alarm in Morocco, as Jean Pasqier Le Chevalier de la nuit, as Chevalier Georges de Ségar Tempest in the Flesh, as Gino Royal Affairs in Versailles, as Axel von Fersen Flesh and the Woman, as Pierre Martel The Three Thieves, as Gastone Cascarilla Caroline and the Rebels, as Juan d'Aranda / de Sallanches Bad Liaisons, as Blaise Walter Milord l'Arsouille, as Lord Henry Seymour Le Salaire du péché, as Jean de Charvin The Lebanese Mission, as Jean Domèvre Les Lavandières du Portugal, as Jean-François Aubray Guinguette, as Marco Pêcheur d'Islande, as Guillaume Floury Le Fric, as Jacques Moulin Die schöne Lügnerin, as Tsar Alexander I The Opportunists, as Philippe Brideau Préméditation, as Bernard Sommet The Crossroads, as Javier Le Rendez-vous, as Pierre La Salamandre d'or, as Antoine de Montpezat Sans merveille, as Franck Vol 272, as Marc Le Faux Pas, as Robert The Poppy Is Also a Flower, as Galam Khan Comment ne pas épouser un milliardaire, as Commandant Jean Leroy-Dantec Las cuatro bodas de Marisol, as Frank Moore Indomptable Angélique, as Osman Ferradji Angélique et le Sultan, as Osman Ferradji Unter den Dächern von St. Pauli, as Doctor Pasucha Au théâtre ce soir: Les Français à Moscou, as Blanchet Le Temps de vivre, le temps d'aimer, as Jean Moser Le Chirurgien de Saint-Chad, as Doctor Patrick Villaresi Liebe läßt alle Blumen blühen, as Marquis de Formentière Au théâtre ce soir: Adieu Prudence, as Fred Russel Jean-Claude Pascal Myspace Page: https://www.myspace.com/jeanclaudepascal Jean-Claude Pascal on IMDb
Franck Pourcel was a French composer and conductor of popular music and classical music. Born in Marseille on 11 August 1913, Pourcel started learning the violin at the age of six. Pourcel studied violin at the Conservatoire in Marseille, drums because he loved jazz, spent a year in Paris at the Conservatoire. By 1931, he was working as a violinist in several theaters in Marseille, marrying Odette eight years later, he became the musical director for Lucienne Boyer, with whom he went on a world tour. He immigrated to the United States in 1952 but returned to France the following year to record "Blue Tango" and the follow-up "Limelight". In 1954, Pourcel recorded his first album on the Pathé-Marconi record label, with whom he would record a total of nine albums in a three-year period. In 1956, he recorded his version of "Only You", which sold over three million copies by 1959, was awarded a gold disc, it peaked at #9 on the United States Billboard pop chart during a 16 weeks chart run. Between 1956 and 1972, he was the conductor for France at the Eurovision Song Contest with the exceptions of 1957 and 1968.
Four of the songs that he conducted won first place for France. As a result, France became the most successful country in the contest's early years, until Luxembourg matched its four wins in 1973. By 1958, Pourcel started recording classical music, his series of Pages Célèbres led him to conduct the London Symphony Orchestra, The Society of Concerts for the Conservatoire, The BBC Orchestra at the Royal Festival Hall, the Lamoureux Orchestra at the Salle Pleyel in Paris. In 1961, he co-composed with Paul Mauriat the hit "Chariot", recorded by Petula Clark and followed up by Peggy March as "I Will Follow Him"; the song became the main theme for Sister Act. In 1975, at the request of Air France, Pourcel composed an anthem for their new supersonic plane, Concorde. Pourcel recorded 250 albums, over 3000 songs, he conducted famous orchestras such as London Symphonic Orchestra, BBC Orchestra and Orchestre des concerts Lamoureux, he created the classical series Pages Célébres. His first recordings from 1956 to 1962 were released under the series Originals.
Pourcel recorded until 1995 with EMI. He died at the age of 87, from Parkinson's disease, his daughter Françoise Pourcel, is taking care of his musical legacy. He was rewarded with the following distinctions: 1956: The Grand prix du disque Français 1957: The Grand prix du disque in Brazil 1963: The Golden disc in Venezuela Discomoda 1965: Amsterdam: The Edison Prize for his orchestrations of pop music 1966: Gold record for his sales in France 1968: Golden disc in Colombia for Disco Mundo 1969: Grand Prix du disque of the Charles Cros Academy in Paris 1969: Gold record in Japan for the album Continental Tango 1970: Gold record in Japan for album Adoro, featuring "Adoro" 1972: Tokyo Music Festival.
Sweden in the Eurovision Song Contest 1961
Sweden chose their entrant for the Eurovision Song Contest 1961 through Melodifestivalen 1961. The song "April, april", performed once with Siw Malmkvist, once with Gunnar Wiklund, won. However, none of them was considered acceptable for singing in ESC, so Lill-Babs was chosen as representative instead. In the contest, once more held in Cannes, she finished in 14th place. Melodifestivalen 1961 was the Swedish national final and it was the third time that this system of picking a song had been used. One singer performed the song with one with a smaller orchestra. 550 songs were submitted to SVT for the competition. The final was not broadcast on radio. Siw Malmkvist won with "April, april" but Lill-Babs went to Eurovision. ^1: Performer with large orchestra ^2: Performer with smaller orchestra On the night of the final Lil-Babs performed 7th in the running order, following the Netherlands and preceding Germany. At the close of the voting "April, April" had received only 2 points, placing Sweden 14th of the 16 competing entries.
Every country had a jury of ten people. Every jury member could give one point to her favourite song. Sweden in the Eurovision Song Contest Eurovision Song Contest 1961 Swedish National Final page
Promenade de la Croisette
The Promenade de la Croisette is a prominent road in Cannes, France. It is about 2 km long; the Croisette is known for the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, where the Cannes Film Festival is held. Many expensive shops and hotels line the road, it goes along the coastline of Cannes. The Croisette is listed in the cultural heritage general inventory of France
United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest
The United Kingdom has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 61 times and is one of the most successful countries to compete in the contest. They first participated in the second contest in 1957; the UK has entered every year since 1959, along with Sweden, is one of only two countries with Eurovision victories in four different decades. The United Kingdom is one of the "Big 5", along with France, Germany and Spain who are automatically allowed to participate in the final as they are the five biggest financial contributors to the European Broadcasting Union; the British public broadcaster, the BBC, broadcasts the event each year and organises the national selection for the entry. The UK has won the contest five times; the United Kingdom's five winners are Sandie Shaw with the song "Puppet on a String", Lulu with "Boom Bang-a-Bang", Brotherhood of Man with "Save Your Kisses for Me", Bucks Fizz with "Making Your Mind Up" and Katrina and the Waves with "Love, Shine a Light". The UK has finished as runner-up on a record 15 occasions.
The United Kingdom finished outside the top ten on only three occasions at the contest in the 20th century. In the 21st century, the United Kingdom has only reached the top ten twice, with Jessica Garlick third and Jade Ewen fifth. Since 2003, the UK have finished outside the top 20 on nine occasions, including Jemini's infamous 2003 "nul points" result, the first time that the country had come last in the contest; the UK finished last in 2008 with Andy Abraham and in 2010 with Josh Dubovie. It was alleged that the United Kingdom were expected to take part in the first contest in 1956, that they missed the submission deadline and therefore could not take part; this was revealed by the EBU in January 2017 to be a mythical fact created by fans of the contest. The EBU further went on to explain that the Festival of British Popular Song, a contest created by the BBC for the United Kingdom, was the inspiration that brought in format changes to the contest elements from the Eurovision Song Contest 1957 onwards.
Patricia Bredin was the first performer to represent the UK at Eurovision, finishing seventh in 1957. The UK was the first choice to stage the third contest in 1958, however following a failure to get an agreement from various artistic unions, the BBC withdrew their bid in the summer of 1957 and the UK did not enter for the second and last time to date. At their second attempt in the contest in 1959, the UK achieved the first of their record fifteen runner-up positions, when Pearl Carr and Teddy Johnson sang "Sing, Little Birdie"; the UK would achieve four more second-place finishes with Bryan Johnson in 1960, The Allisons in 1961, Matt Monro in 1964 and Kathy Kirby in 1965, before winning for the first time in 1967. Sandie Shaw was a successful performer, having twice topped the UK singles chart and she comfortably won in Vienna with "Puppet on a String", which became her third UK number one and topped the charts all around Europe. In 1968, another successful performer was selected to represent the UK with the song "Congratulations".
In London, Cliff Richard gave the UK their sixth second-place finish. "Congratulations" remains one of only two non-winning UK Eurovision songs to top the UK charts. The UK's second victory was provided by the Scottish singer Lulu, who won with the song "Boom Bang-a-Bang" in 1969, in a four-way tie with France and the Netherlands. Another established performer, she had reached the US #1 spot with "To Sir with Love" in 1967. Having finished second on three further occasions in the 1970s, with Mary Hopkin in 1970, The New Seekers in 1972 and The Shadows in 1975; the UK achieved their third victory in 1976 with Brotherhood of Man and "Save Your Kisses for Me", who won with 164 points, which would remain the highest points total for ten years. In 1977, the UK finished second for the tenth time represented by singer-songwriters Lynsey de Paul and Mike Moran; the UK's fourth victory came in 1981, with Bucks Fizz and "Making Your Mind Up". The group was created for the UK televised selection contest, "A Song for Europe".
At Eurovision in Dublin, they defeated Germany's Lena Valaitis by four points. The group went with 13 UK top 40 hits over the next five years; this would be the last UK win for 16 years, although the country continued to be competitive at the contest with four more second-place results during this time. In 1988, Scott Fitzgerald lost to Celine Dion, representing Switzerland, by just one point. In 1989, Live Report lost out to Yugoslavia by seven points. Michael Ball in 1992 finished second, behind Linda Martin of Ireland; the 1993 entry, had had 10 UK top 30 hits, including a 1989 number one with "You'll Never Stop Me Loving You", when she was selected to represent the UK in Millstreet. With one country left to vote, Ireland's Niamh Kavanagh led Sonia by 11 points. By the time it got to the announcement of the 12 points, neither the UK or Ireland had been mentioned. If the UK had received the 12, they would have won by one point. In the end Ireland won by 23 points. Despite only finishing eighth in the 1996 contest, Gina G went on to huge success with her entry "Ooh Ah Just a Little Bit", which became only the