Un jour, un enfant
"Un jour, un enfant" is one of four winning songs in the Eurovision Song Contest 1969, this one being sung in French by Frida Boccara representing France. The other three winners were Salomé representing Spain with "Vivo cantando", Lulu representing the United Kingdom with "Boom Bang-a-Bang" and Lenny Kuhr representing the Netherlands with "De troubadour"; the song was performed fourteenth on the night, following Germany's Siw Malmkvist with "Primaballerina" and preceding Portugal's Simone de Oliveira with "Desfolhada portuguesa". At the close of voting, it had received 18 points, placing equal first in a field of 16; the song is a classical ballad. Boccara recorded the song in five languages, English, German and Italian; the song was succeeded as Contest winner in 1970 by Dana singing "All Kinds of Everything" for Ireland. It was succeeded as French representative at the 1970 contest by Guy Bonnet with "Marie-Blanche". ABBA's Agnetha Fältskog covered the song in Swedish on her 1970 solo album "Som jag är", under the title "Sov gott, min lilla vän".
An instrumental version of the song by Paul Mauriat was used as a theme for the Philippine television drama anthology Lovingly Yours, Helen in 1981. Official Eurovision Song Contest site, history by year, 1969 Detailed info & lyrics, The Diggiloo Thrush, "Un jour, un enfant". Vivien Leigh Viv & Larry
Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest
For the candidacy of Spain in 2018, see Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2018 and for the edition of the Festival, see Eurovision Song Contest 2018 Spain has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 58 times since making its debut in 1961, where they finished ninth. Since 1999, Spain is one of the "Big Five", along with France, Germany and the United Kingdom, who are automatically allowed to participate in the final because they are the five biggest financial contributors to the European Broadcasting Union. Spain has competed in the contest continuously since the country's debut in 1961; the only country with a longer run of uninterrupted Eurovision appearances is the United Kingdom, ever-present since 1959. Spain has won the contest twice, first in 1968 with the song "La, la, la" sung by Massiel and again in 1969, when Salomé's "Vivo cantando" was involved in a four-way tie with France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; the 1969 contest in Madrid is the only time Spain has hosted the event, since lots were drawn after 1969's four way tie and the 1970 contest was hosted by the Netherlands.
Spain has finished second in the contest four times, with Karina in 1971, Mocedades in 1973, Betty Missiego in 1979 and Anabel Conde in 1995, third in 1984 with Bravo. The country finished last with "Nul points" three times: in 1962, 1965 and 1983, finished last in 1999 and 2017. Spain has had less success in recent years, failing to reach the top 10 in 12 of the last 14 contests, the exceptions being 10th-place finishes for Pastora Soler in 2012 and Ruth Lorenzo in 2014. Spain has changed the selection process used in order to find the country's entry for the contest, either a national final or internal selection has been held by the broadcaster at the time. Between 1977 and 1999, Spain's entries were selected internally by TVE. Before that, internal selections and national contests, like Pasaporte a Dublín in 1971, were alternated. From 2000, Spain has used various selection formats with different results. In 2000 and 2001, TVE organised a national final called Eurocanción, where the Spanish representative was selected for the contest.
From 2002 to 2004, the reality television talent competition Operación Triunfo was used to select the entry, a format that renewed the Spanish audience's interest in the contest and brought three top 10 results in a row, until TVE decided not to host any further editions of the series. In 2005, the national final Eurovisión 2005: Elige nuestra canción was organised, where the audience chose their favourite song among a pre-selection made by TVE of unknown artists submitted to them by record labels; the result in the Eurovision final was not good and for 2006, the selection was made internally for the first time since 1999, with a similar result. In 2007, Spain's entry was decided through the Misión Eurovisión 2007 show, with a disappointing result once again. From 2008 to 2010, the Internet was the key element of the competitions used by TVE to select the Spanish entry. In 2008, the social networking website MySpace was involved in the national final Salvemos Eurovisión. A website was created to make it possible for anyone to upload a song and proceed to a televised final if chosen by online voters or an expert jury.
The result not much. For 2009, MySpace was still involved in the selection process Eurovisión 2009: El retorno, although some changes were introduced in the format; the result was the worst in the 2000s: 24th place. In 2010, a similar format, Eurovisión: Destino Oslo, selected the Spanish entry, with the best result since 2004. In 2011, Internet voting was scrapped from the new selection method Destino Eurovisión. After a further disappointing result, for 2012, TVE decided to approach an established act, Pastora Soler, organise a national final to select her song. A top ten result was achieved for the first time since 2004; the same procedure was repeated in 2013, with El Sueño de Morfeo as the established act, which turned out one of the most disappointing results in the country's Eurovision history. In 2014, TVE decided to return to a multi-artist national final procedure, called Mira quién va a Eurovisión. A top ten result was achieved for the second time in three years. In 2015, for the first time since 2006, both the artist and the song were selected internally by TVE.
On 18 December 2015, TVE announced that it would organise a national final in order to select the Spanish entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2016. Six acts competed in the national final named Objetivo Eurovisión, Barei won the selection process; the same format was used in 2017, Manel Navarro won the selection process. In 2017, TVE commissioned a new season of Operación Triunfo, which returned to TVE after 13 years, the series served for the fourth time as the platform to select the Spanish entry for the 2018 contest; the result was disappointing, but the 2018 Eurovision final was the most-watched in Spain since 2008. A further season of the talent show will choose the Spanish entry for the 2019 contest. Since 1999, four particular countries have automatically qualified for the Eurovision final, regardless of their positions on the scoreboard in previous Contests, they earned this specia
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
Televisión Española is the national state-owned public-service television broadcaster in Spain. TVE belongs to the RTVE Corporation which has overall responsibility for national public-service radio and television under a Parliament-appointed General Manager who, as well as being answerable to a Board of Directors, reports to an all-party committee of the national parliament, as provided for in the Public Radio and Television Law of 2006. TVE's activities were financed by a combination of advertising revenue and subsidies from the national government, but since January 2010 it has been supported by subsidies only. Both the international channel and La 1 have regular news-bulletins marketed under the Telediario name. La 1 broadcasts regional news bulletins at 14:00. La 2 has its own national news bulletin, "La 2 Noticias", which began as an original nightly news bulletin in the late 1980s but it was turned into a breakfast news-programme in the mid-1990s and was revamped as a nightly news bulletin, reverting to its original timeslot at 22:00.
In 2015, La 2 Noticias moved to a timeslot, 01:05. In addition, various regions have their own regional newscasts which may either supplement or replace Telediario in those regions. Examples include: TVE Andalucía: Noticias de Andalucía - since 1970 TVE Aragón: Noticias de Aragón - since 1979 TVE Asturias: Panorama regional - since 1974 TVE Baleares: Informatiu Balear - since 1979 TVE Canarias: Telecanarias - since 1971 TVE Cantabria: Telecantabria - since 1984 TVE Castilla-La Mancha: Noticias de Castilla-La Mancha - since 1989 TVE Castilla y León: Noticias de Castilla y León - since 1982 TVE Catalunya: L'informatiu - since 1977 TVE Ceuta: Noticias de Ceuta TVE Comunitat Valenciana: L'informatiu-Comunitat Valenciana - since 1971 TVE Extremadura: Noticias de Extremadura - since 1989 TVE Galicia: Telexornal-Galicia - since 1971 TVE La Rioja: Informativo La Rioja / Telerioja - since 1986 TVE Madrid: Informativo de Madrid TVE Melilla: Noticias de Melilla TVE Murcia: Noticias de Murcia - since 1982 TVE Navarra: Telenavarra - since 1981 TVE País Vasco: Telenorte - since 1971 Official Site
Finland in the Eurovision Song Contest
Finland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 52 times since its debut in 1961. Finland won the contest for the first time in 2006 with Lordi's "Hard Rock Hallelujah"; the country's best result before was achieved by Marion Rung with the song "Tom Tom Tom" in 1973, which placed sixth. Finland has finished last in the contest ten times, receiving "nul points" in 1963, 1965 and 1982. Since the introduction of the semi-finals in 2004, Finland has failed to reach the final seven times. In 2014, the country had its best result in eight years. In 2015, Finland finished last in the first semi-final with the shortest-ever Eurovision entry, "Aina mun pitää" performed by Pertti Kurikan Nimipäivät. Before the 2006 victory, Finland was considered by many as the ultimate under-achiever of Eurovision. Prior to its triumph, it had placed last a total of eight times, once with "nul points" after the introduction of the current scoring method. Finland's entry in 1982, "Nuku pommiin" by Kojo, was one of only fifteen songs since the modern scoring system was instituted in 1975 to earn no points..
Due to low results, Finland was excluded from the contest in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003. In 2015, Finland finished last in the first semi-final with the shortest-ever Eurovision song, the one minute and 27 second "Aina mun pitää" performed by Pertti Kurikan Nimipäivät. Finland reached the final for the first time with Saara Aalto placing 25th. In 2006, Finland won with the band Lordi and its song Hard Rock Hallelujah, an entry different from the mainstream Europop that dominated the competition; the song broke records scoring the highest number of points in the history of the Eurovision Song Contest, with 292. The record was broken by Norway in 2009, with 387. All of Finland's entries were in English between 1973 and 1976 and again since 2000. Two entries, 1990 and 2012, were in Swedish, an official language in Finland alongside Finnish. All of Finland's other songs have been in Finnish. In voting patterns, Finland has traditionally supported and been supported by the other Nordic countries, but Estonia, which shares close cultural and linguistic ties with Finland.
Besides, Hungary with shared Finno-Ugric descents, as well as other Baltic nations such as Latvia have gained votes from Finland, the other way around. In 2004, Finland's first-place vote went to Sweden; the first time in Eurovision history that Sweden gave Finland 12 points was in 2006 for Lordi's song "Hard Rock Hallelujah." In 2007, they repeated this, giving 12 points to Hanna Pakarinen with "Leave Me Alone." Finland has given notably high points to Italy, a country that had not competed in various periods from 1998 to 2010, but returned in 2011. Finland has been a strong supporter of Israel; the jury vote seems to adversely affect Finnish results, given that three of its non-qualifications were on account of the juries when the televote alone would have carried them through to the grand final. Finland's best results, including their victory, came during all-televote years. Table key NOTES: a. ^ In 2009, Finland qualified through the back-up jury selection. B. If a country had won the previous year, they did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year.
In addition from 2004-2007, the top ten countries who were not members of the big four did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year. If, for example and France placed inside the top ten, the countries who placed 11th and 12th were advanced to the following year's grand final along with the rest of the top ten countries; as of 2018, Finland's voting history is as follows: Press Award Fan Award George de Godzinsky Ossi Runne Henrik Otto Donner Olli Ahvenlahti Finland in the Eurovision Dance Contest – Dance version of the Eurovision Song Contest. Finland in the Eurovision Young Dancers – A competition organised by the EBU for younger dancers aged between 16 and 21. Finland in the Eurovision Young Musicians – A competition organised by the EBU for musicians aged 18 years and younger. National Final 2009 Points to and from Finland eurovisioncovers.co.uk
Francisco Franco Bahamonde was a Spanish general and politician who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975. This period in Spanish history is known as Francoist Spain. During the 1924–1930 dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Franco was promoted general at age 33, the youngest in Europe; as a conservative and a monarchist, Franco opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic secular republic in 1931. With the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin, the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in launching a coup that failed to take control of most of the country and precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the other generals, Franco became his faction's only leader. Franco gained military support from various authoritarian regimes and groups Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side was supported by Spanish communists and anarchists as well as the Soviet Union and the International Brigades.
In 1939, Franco won the war. He established a military dictatorship and proclaimed himself Head of State and Government under the title El caudillo. In April 1937, Franco merged the fascist and traditionalist political parties in the rebel zone, as well as other conservative and monarchist elements, into FET y de las JONS. At the same time, he outlawed all other political parties, thus Spain became a one-party state. Upon his rise to power, Franco implemented policies that repressed political opponents and dissenters, as many as 400,000 of whom died through the use of forced labor and executions in the concentration camps his regime operated. During World War II, he espoused neutrality as Spain's official wartime policy. However, he provided military support to the Axis in numerous ways: he allowed German and Italian ships and submarines to use Spanish harbors and ports, the Abwehr operated in Spain, the Blue Division fought alongside the Axis against the Soviet Union until 1944. Scholars consider it as conservative and authoritarian, rather than fascist.
Historian Stanley G. Payne states, "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the Generalissimo to have been a core fascist."Spain was isolated by many other countries for nearly a decade after World War II. By the 1950s, the nature of his regime changed from being totalitarian and using severe repression to an authoritarian system with limited pluralism. During the Cold War, Franco was one of the world's foremost anti-Communist figures: his regime was assisted by the West, it was asked to join NATO. After chronic economic depression in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Franco presided over the Spanish miracle, abandoning autarky and pursuing economic liberalization, delegating authority to liberal ministers. Franco died in 1975 at the age of 82, he restored the monarchy before his death, which made King Juan Carlos I his successor, who led the Spanish transition to democracy. Franco was born on 4 December 1892 at 108 Calle Frutos Saavedra in Galicia, he was baptised thirteen days at the military church of San Francisco, with the baptismal name Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo.
His father was of Andalusian ancestry. After relocating to Galicia, the family was involved in the Spanish Navy, over the span of two centuries produced naval officers for six uninterrupted generations, down to Franco's father Nicolás Franco y Salgado Araújo, his mother was María del Pilar Bahamonde y Pardo de Andrade and she was an upper middle-class Roman Catholic. His parents married in 1890; the young Franco spent much of his childhood with his two brothers, Nicolás and Ramón, his two sisters, María del Pilar, María de la Paz. The latter died in infancy. Nicolás was a naval officer and diplomat who in time married María Isabel Pascual del Pobil y Ravello. Ramón was a pioneer aviator, a Freemason with leftist political leanings, killed in an air accident on a military mission in 1938. María del Pilar married Alonso Jaráiz y Jeréz. Francisco was to follow his father into the Navy, but as a result of the Spanish–American War the country lost much of its navy as well as most of its colonies. Not needing any more officers, the Naval Academy admitted no new entrants from 1906 to 1913.
To his father's chagrin, Francisco decided to try the Spanish Army. In 1907, he entered the Infantry Academy in Toledo. At 19, Franco was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in June 1912. Two years he obtained a commission to Morocco. Spanish efforts to occupy their new African protectorate provoked the protracted Rif War with native Moroccans, their tactics resulted in heavy losses among Spanish military officers, provided an opportunity to earn promotion through merit. It was said. Franco gained a reputation as a good officer. In 1913, Franco transferred into the newly formed regulares: Moroccan colonial troops with Spanish officers, who acted as shock troops; this transfer into a perilous role m
Yugoslavia in the Eurovision Song Contest
Yugoslavia participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 27 times, debuting in 1961 and competing every year until its last appearance in 1992, with the exceptions of 1977–1980 and 1985. Yugoslavia hosted the 1990 contest. Ljiljana Petrović placed eighth. In 1962, Lola Novaković gave the country its first top five result; this would remain Yugoslavia's only top five result until 1983, when Danijel finished fourth with the song "Džuli". Novi Fosili finished fourth in 1987 with "Ja sam za ples". In 1989, the country achieved its only victory in the contest, when Riva won with the song "Rock Me"; the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia debuted in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1961 along with Spain and Finland. The national pre-selection organized by the Yugoslav broadcaster Yugoslav Radio Television was Jugovizija, it featured entries submitted by the subnational public broadcasting centers based in the capitals of each of the constituent republics of the Yugoslav federation: SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia and SR Slovenia and the broadcasting services of the autonomous provinces within SR Serbia: SAP Kosovo and SAP Vojvodina.
The first to compete in 1961 were Belgrade and Zagreb, while the others joined in the following years. Yugoslavia was represented by a variety of artists from five of the eight Yugoslav federal units; these artists were from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Slovenia, with Macedonia and Kosovo never passing the national pre-selection. Croatia was the most successful constituent republic, as its performers won the national contest 13 out of the 26 times SFR Yugoslavia took part in the contest. From 1977 to 1980, in 1985, Yugoslavia did not participate in the contest. Yugoslavia won the Eurovision Song Contest 1989 with the song "Rock Me" by the group Riva. Following the rules of the contest, the Eurovision Song Contest 1990 took place in Zagreb, as the entry came from Croatia. During the process of breakup of SFR Yugoslavia in 1991, the former constituent republics of Croatia and Macedonia proclaimed independence and hence withdrew from Jugovizija, while the then-leaderships of Serbia and Montenegro agreed to maintain a close alliance.
On 28 March 1992, the republics that still constituted the fading and shrunken former Yugoslav federation took part in 1992's Jugovizija held in Belgrade. It included artists not only from Serbia and Montenegro, but from Bosnia and Herzegovina, although the latter declared independence on 1 March of that year. Among its candidates was Alma Čardžić; the winner of that pre-selection was "Ljubim te pesmama" performed by Extra Nena from Serbia. Before that year's ESC took place, on 28 April, a new federal state was formed consisting of Serbia and Montenegro called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, represented by the mentioned Extra Nena in the Eurovision Song Contest 1992 held on 9 May. Yugoslavia was banned from participating in the Song Contest until 2004 due to UN sanctions during the Yugoslav Wars. After the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia its former constituent republics proclaimed independence; the once subnational public radio and TV stations changed to national but under new names, including: RTV Slovenia, HRT, RTS, MKRTV and so on.
Since joining the EBU all of the ex-Yugoslav countries have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest: Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and North Macedonia. Overall the results of the new republics have been mixed: Croatia had some top 10 finishes in the mid-1990s, the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina have enjoyed high scores in the 2000s, while the Republic of North Macedonia has never secured a top 10 result despite making it through to the final each year until 2008, in which it lost at the semi-final stage. In 2004, the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro debuted and came in 2nd and in 2007, Montenegro joined the contest but failed to qualify for the final, while Serbia won the Eurovision Song Contest the first time it entered as an independent nation. In 2013, no ex-Yugoslav country secured a spot in the final, as Bosnia and Herzegovina withdrew before the contest began; the following lists the 27 contestants that won the local competition and went on to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest.
Note that the selected entries of 1978–1980 and 1985 did not compete at the contest, as Yugoslavia did not participate during those years because of internal political reasons. Yugoslavia is one of the few countries that have sent all the songs in one of the official languages. Table key NOTES: 1 ^ Yugoslavia intended to enter the contest in 1985. However, due to the Contest being held on the national memorial day marking the fifth anniversary of former Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito's death, broadcasting any musical program wasn't allowed and JRT was forced to withdraw. Between 1961 and 1991, Yugoslavia's voting history was as follows: Due to Croatia and Slovenia becoming independent countries in the breakup of Yugoslavia, in 1992 there was no Croatian or Slovene commentator. All conductors are listed by their republic flags. All but one conductor was Yugoslav. In all, Yugoslavia did not participate in five contests: from 1977 to 1980 and again in 1985, due to the Contest being held on Yugoslavia's national memorial day for Josip Broz Tito.