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Eurovision Song Contest 1970

The Eurovision Song Contest 1970 was the 15th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Amsterdam and was held at the RAI Congrescentrum on Saturday 21 March 1970; the show was hosted by Willy Dobbe. Due to there being four winners in the previous contest, a question was raised as to which nation would host the 1970 contest. With the UK having hosted in 1968 and Spain in 1969, only France and Netherlands were in consideration. A toss of a coin resulted in the host country being decided as the Netherlands. Twelve countries participated in the contest, it was the lowest number of participants since the 1959 edition. Finland, Norway and Sweden all withdrew from the contest, due to the outcome of the previous contest in Madrid. Austria stayed out for another year in response to the four-way-tie; the winner was Ireland with the song "All Kinds of Everything", performed by Dana, written/composed by Derry Lindsay and Jackie Smith. This was Ireland's first victory in the contest; the United Kingdom finished in second place for the seventh time, while Germany ended up in third place - the best result for the country at the time.

This was the only time that Luxembourg received'nul points'. The Congrescentrum, venue of the 1970 contest, is a semi-permanent exhibit at the Ferdinand Bolstraat to Amsterdam, was opened on 31 October 1922; this building was replaced in 1961 by the current RAI building on Europe's Square. The current congress and event center on Europe Square, was designed by Alexander Bodon and opened on 2 February 1961; the Dutch producers were forced to pad out the show as only 12 nations decided to make the trip to Amsterdam. The result was a format which has endured to the present day. An extended opening sequence set the scene, while every entry was introduced by a short video'postcard' featuring each of the participating artists, ostensibly in their own nation. However, the'postcards' for Switzerland and Monaco were all filmed on location in Paris; the long introduction film was followed by what is one of the shortest introductions by any presenter. Willy Dobbe only welcomed the viewers in English and Dutch, finishing her introduction after only 24 seconds.

On screen captions introduced each entry, with the song titles listed all in lower case and the names of the artist and composers/authors all in capitals. The set design was devised by Roland de Groot. To avoid an incident like in 1969, a tie rule was created, it stated that, if two or more songs gained the same number of votes and were tied for first place, each song would have to be performed again. After which each national jury would have a show of hands of which they thought was the best. If the countries tied again they would share first place. Austria, Finland, Norway and Sweden boycotted this contest as they were not pleased with the result of 1969 and the voting structure. Portugal did however being won by Sérgio Borges. Of the participating singers, a number were established performers. Notably, the United Kingdom sent Welsh singer and Apple recording artist Mary Hopkin, while David Alexandre Winter represented Luxembourg; the contest is notable for the appearance of the unknown Julio Iglesias, singing for Spain.

In the run-up to the Contest, the United Kingdom were favourites to win and the favourite with the 50-piece orchestra. So sure of victory, the UK delegation had organised a winner's party to be thrown after the contest. In the end, the only two countries in the running were the UK and Ireland, albeit the latter holding the lead throughout the voting. Ireland took the victory with 6 points ahead of the UK, with Germany a distant third. Luxembourg failed to score any points at all - their only time to do so. Ireland won the contest with "All Kinds of Everything", penned by Derry Lindsay and Jackie Smith, sung by another unknown, Dana, an 18-year-old schoolgirl from Derry, Northern Ireland; the song became the singer an international star. As the contest was held in the Netherlands this year, the country was one of the four winners in 1969, Dana received her awards from the Dutch winner Lenny Kuhr. Mary Hopkin downscaled her music career in 1971 after getting married, she commented on her appearance at the Contest as humiliating and said that she hated the song she had to sing.

Spanish entrant Julio Iglesias went on to achieve worldwide success in the decades that followed, becoming one of the top-selling singers of all time. Dana, continued to score hit singles throughout the 1970s with songs such as "Fairytale" and "It's Gonna be a Cold Cold Christmas". In the 1990s she became a politician, running for the Irish presidential election in 1997 and 2011, becoming an MEP in 1999. Of the other performers, Stella Maessen, Jean Vallée, Guy Bonnet and Katja Ebstein all took part in the Eurovision Song Contest again, the latter twice more; the following year, Finland, Norway and Sweden all returned to the contest. Each performance had a conductor. For the first time, no artists from previous contests returned. Below is a summary of all 4 points in the final: 1.^ Netherlands gave Ireland 5 points. 2.^ Switzerland gave Ireland 6 points. 3.^ Belgium gave Ireland 9 points The table below shows the order in which votes were cast during the 1970 contest along with the spokesperson who was

Christo and Jeanne-Claude

Christo Vladimirov Javacheff and Jeanne-Claude were a married couple who created environmental works of art. Christo and Jeanne-Claude were born on the same day, June 13, 1935, they first met in Paris in October 1958. They fell in love through creating art work together, their works include the wrapping of the Reichstag in Berlin and the Pont-Neuf bridge in Paris, the 39-kilometer-long artwork called Running Fence in Sonoma and Marin counties in California, The Gates in New York City's Central Park. Credit was given to "Christo" only, until 1994, when the outdoor works and large indoor installations were retroactively credited to "Christo and Jeanne-Claude", they flew in separate planes: in case one crashed, the other could continue their work. Jeanne-Claude died, aged 74, on November 2009, from complications of a brain aneurysm. Although their work is visually impressive and controversial as a result of its scale, the artists have denied that their projects contain any deeper meaning than their immediate aesthetic impact.

The purpose of their art, they contend, is to create works of art for joy and beauty and to create new ways of seeing familiar landscapes. Art critic David Bourdon has described Christo's wrappings as a "revelation through concealment". To his critics Christo replies, "I am an artist, I have to have courage... Do you know that I don't have any artworks that exist? They all go away. Only the preparatory drawings, collages are left, giving my works an legendary character. I think it takes much greater courage to create things to be gone than to create things that will remain." Christo was born in Bulgaria. His father, Vladimir Javacheff, was a businessman and ran a fabric factory, his mother, Tsveta Dimitrova, was the secretary at the Academy of Fine Arts in Sofia. Professors from the Academy who visited his family observed Christo's artistic talent while he was still young. Christo studied art at the Sofia Academy from 1953 to 1956 and went to Prague, until 1957, when he left for the West by bribing a railway official and stowing away with several others on board a train transporting medicine and medical supplies to Austria.

Christo settled in Vienna and enrolled at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. After only one semester there, he travelled to Geneva and moved to Paris in 1958, his life in Paris was characterized by financial hardship and social isolation, worsened by his difficulty learning the French language. He earned money by painting portraits, which he likened to prostitution and signed with his family name "Javachef" while his early works were signed "Christo." In 1973, after 17 stateless years, Christo became a United States citizen. Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon came from an old French family, she was born in Casablanca, where her father, an army officer, was stationed. Her mother, Précilda, was 17 when she married Major Léon Denat. Précilda and Léon Denat divorced shortly after Jeanne-Claude was born, Précilda remarried three times. Jeanne-Claude earned philosophy in 1952 from the University of Tunis. During World War II, Jeanne-Claude lived with her father's family while her mother fought in the French Resistance.

In 1946, Précilda married the influential General Jacques de Guillebon. The family lived in Berne from 1948 to 1951 in Tunisia from 1952 to 1957, when they returned to Paris, she was described as "extroverted" and with natural organizational abilities. Her hair was dyed red, a colour she claimed was selected by her husband and she smoked cigarettes, tried to quit many times until her weight would balloon, she did not enjoy cooking. She took responsibility for raising funds, she said. Jeanne-Claude died in New York City on November 18, 2009, from complications due to a brain aneurysm, her body was to be donated to one of her wishes. Former Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg described The Gates as "one of the most exciting public art projects put on anywhere in the world—and it would never have happened without Jeanne-Claude." Jeanne-Claude said, "Our art has no purpose, except to be a work of art. We do not give messages." She said, "Artists don't retire. They die. That's all; when they stop being able to create art, they die."When she died and Christo were at work on Over the River, a set of fabric panels over the Arkansas River in Colorado and The Mastaba, a stack of 410,000 oil barrels configured as a mastaba, a trapezoidal prism, in the United Arab Emirates.

Christo and Jeanne-Claude met in October 1959, when he was commissioned to paint a portrait of her mother, Précilda de Guillebon. Christo was attracted to Jeanne-Claude's half-sister, Joyce. Jeanne-Claude was engaged to Philippe Planchon. Shortly before her wedding, Jeanne-Claude became pregnant by Christo. Although she married Planchon, Jeanne-Claude left him after their honeymoon. Christo and Jeanne-Claude's son, was born 11 May 1960. Jeanne-Claude's parents were displeased with the relationship because of Christo's refugee status, temporarily estranged themselves from their daughter. In 1961, Christo and Jeanne-Claude covered barrels at the port of Cologne, their first collaboration. In 1962, the couple tackled Rideau de Fer. Without consent of authorities and as a statement against the Berlin Wall, they blocked off Rue Vi

Fritz Lubrich

Fritz Lubrich was a German organist and composer. Lubrich was born in Neustädtel, his father was a hymnologist. Lubrich jr. attended the teacher's seminar in Żagań from 1905 to 1908 and was appointed in 1907 at the University of Music and Theatre Leipzig, a student of Reger and Straube. At the end of his studies he received the Arthur Nikisch Prize for composition. From 1911 to 1919 Lubrich was a music teacher at the Protestant Teachers' Seminar in Bielsko-Biała, in 1917 he received the Austrian title of professor. In 1919 Lubrich became chief organist at the Pauluskirche in Breslau. In 1923 he received the German and Polish professorial titles. In the 1920s, Lubrich became organist at the Church of the Katowice. After the Second World War he continued his work as an organist and pedagogue. Among Lubricht students were Günter Bialas, Gerd Zacher and Kurt Schwaen. Lubricht died in Hamburg at age 83. Kyrie eleison, Op. 9 Drei Stücke, Op. 13 Drei Stimmungsbilder Op. 24 Fünf Choral-Improvisationen, Drei romantische Tonstücke, Op. 37, dedicated to Charles-Marie Widor Totenklage, Op. 46 Sphärenmusik in der Weihenacht, Op. 50.

Erich Barutzki, Fritz Lubrich jr in Deutsche Monatshefte in Polen, Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Gegenwart des Deutschtums in Polen, edited by Viktor Kauder, Viktor Kauder u. Alfred Lattermann 1934/1935, pp. 490–496. Fritz Lubrich discography at Discogs