George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle, he was a patron of new forms of leisure and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle, his charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He forbade Caroline to attend his coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful attempt to divorce her. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister.
George's ministers found his behaviour selfish and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars, he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it, his only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; as the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Archbishop of Canterbury, his godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.
George was a talented student, learned to speak French and Italian, in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades, he was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783, obtained a grant of £60,000 from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 from his father, it was far too little for his needs – the stables alone cost £31,000 a year. He established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life. Animosity developed between the prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir apparent; the King, a political conservative, was alienated by the prince's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians.
Soon after he reached the age of 21, the prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, a Roman Catholic; the prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent; the couple went through a marriage ceremony on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. The union was void, as the King's consent was not granted. However, Fitzherbert believed that she was the prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it; the prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant.
The prince's relationship with Fitzherbert was suspected, revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince, he appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, granted the prince £161,000 to pay his debts and £60,000 for improvements to Carlton House. In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria, he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver th
Malta in the Eurovision Song Contest
Malta has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 31 times since its debut in 1971. The contest is broadcast in Malta on the PBS channel, TVM. Malta has yet to win the contest, but is the only non-winning country to have achieved four top three results. Malta finished last on its first two attempts in 1971 and 1972, had a 16-year absence from the contest between 1975 and 1991. Malta's return proved more successful, reaching the top 10 in 12 out of 15 contests from 1991 to 2005, including third-place results for Mary Spiteri and Chiara and second-place results for Ira Losco and Chiara. Since finishing last for the third time in 2006, Malta has struggled to make an impact, with its only top 10 result being Gianluca Bezzina's eighth-place in 2013. Malta first participated at Eurovision in 1971, although the history of National song contests organized in the Maltese islands dates back to 1960 when the first Malta Song Festival took place. Malta has never won the contest, although it twice finished third.
At first, the island state sent songs in its native language, but it failed to rank finishing last in its first two attempts in the contest in 1971 and 1972 and withdrew after the 1975 contest. Malta's return to the contest in 1991, after a 16-year absence, proved to be more successful, with eight consecutive top 10 placings and finishing in the top 10 in 12 out of 15 contests from 1991-2005; these results included third-place finishes in 1992 for Mary Spiteri and in 1998 for Chiara and second-place finishes in 2002 for Ira Losco and in 2005 for Chiara, who in 2009 became the first performer to represent Malta at three contests, finishing 22nd. Malta's two seconds and two thirds, make it the most successful country. In the last 12 contests, Malta has only once reached the top 10, when Gianluca Bezzina finished eighth in 2013. Fabrizio Faniello, who had finished ninth in 2001, finished last in the 2006 final, since the country has failed to qualify from the semi-final round seven times, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2015, 2017 and 2018.
Together with France, Spain and the United Kingdom, Malta is one of the few countries that has not missed a contest since 1991. All of Malta's entries since 1991 have been sung in its other official language, which it was one of the few countries allowed to use in the contest between 1977 and 1999, being a former British colony which has had a close relationship with the UK within the contest; the only use of the Maltese language was three lines in the 2000 entry "Desire", performed by Claudette Pace. The Maltese broadcasters of the show are the Public Broadcasting Services. All shows are transmitted live on Radio Malta. Along with Croatia and Sweden it was the only country never to be relegated, under the previous rules of the contest, that wasn't a part of the Big Four. Table key NOTE:a. If a country had won the previous year, they did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year. In addition, back in 2004-2007, the top ten countries who were not members of the big four did not have to compete in the semi finals the following year.
If, for example and France placed inside the top ten, the countries who placed 11th and 12th were advanced to the following year's grand final along with the rest of the top ten countries. B. ^ Spain gave its 12 points to Israel and 10 to Norway. After the broadcast it was announced that Spanish broadcaster wrongly tallied the votes and Germany should have got the top mark - 12 points - instead of being snubbed, as it happened; the mistake was corrected and so Germany was placed 7th over Norway. Israel and Norway both received 2 points less than and Croatia, Portugal, United Kingdom, Belgium and Turkey all received one point less than indicated during the broadcast.. As of 2018, Malta's voting history is as follows: Press Award All conductors are Maltese except Vince Tempera. Anthony "Twanny" Chirchop Charles Camilleri Vince Tempera Paul Abela Joseph Sammut Ray Agius Prior to 1999, the Maltese entry was performed without orchestral accompaniment in 1998. Cremona, George. "The Eurovision Song Contest within Formal Educational Learning Contexts: A Critical Multimodal Interpretation of Possible Inter-Disciplinary Connections".
Symposia Melitensia: 151–160. ISSN 1812-7509. ESCMalta Community website EurovisionMalta.com Points to and from Malta eurovisioncovers.co.uk OGAE Malta - The local branch of the official Eurovision Fans Club
Waterloo (ABBA song)
"Waterloo" is the first single from the Swedish pop group ABBA's second album and their first under the Epic and Atlantic labels. This was the first single to be credited to the group performing under the name ABBA. On 6 April 1974 the song was the winning entry for Sweden in the 1974 Eurovision Song Contest; the victory began ABBA's path to worldwide fame. The Swedish version of the single was a double A-side with "Honey, Honey", while the English version featured "Watch Out" on the B-side; the single became a No. 1 hit in several countries. It reached the U. S. Top 10 and went on to sell nearly six million copies, making it one of the best-selling singles in history. At the 50th anniversary celebration of the Eurovision Song Contest in 2005, it was chosen as the best song in the competition's history. "Waterloo" was written to be entered into the 1974 Eurovision Song Contest, after the group finished third with "Ring Ring" the previous year in the Swedish pre-selection contest, Melodifestivalen 1973.
The original title of the song was "Honey Pie". "Waterloo" was written with simultaneous rock music and jazz beats. Recording of the song commenced on 17 December 1973, with instrumental backing from Janne Schaffer, Rutger Gunnarsson and Ola Brunkert; the song's production style was influenced by Phil Spector's "Wall of Sound": prior to recording "Ring Ring", engineer Michael B. Tretow had read Richard Williams' book Out of His Head: The Sound of Phil Spector, which inspired him to layer multiple instrumental overdubs on the band's recordings, becoming an integral part of ABBA's sound. Subsequently and French versions were recorded in March and April 1974 respectively: the French version was adapted by Claude-Michel Schönberg, who would go on to co-write Les Misérables."Waterloo" is about a woman who "surrenders" to a man and promises to love him, referencing Napoleon's surrender at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The band considered submitting another song to Eurovision, "Hasta Mañana", but decided on "Waterloo" since it gave equal weight to both lead vocalists Agnetha Fältskog and Anni-Frid Lyngstad, while "Hasta Mañana" was sung only by Fältskog.
ABBA performed the song at Melodifestivalen 1974 in February. The song won, therefore advanced to Eurovision; the song differed from the standard "dramatic ballad" tradition of the Eurovision Song Contest by its flavour and rhythm, as well as by its performance. ABBA gave the audience something that had more been seen before in Eurovision: flashy costumes, plus a catchy uptempo song and simple choreography; the group broke from convention by being the first winning entry in a language other than that of their home country. Compared to ABBA releases, the singers' Swedish accents are decidedly more pronounced in "Waterloo"; the song scored 24 points to win the Eurovision Song Contest 1974 final on 6 April, beating runner-up Gigliola Cinquetti of Italy's entry "Sì" by six points. The song shot to No. 1 in the UK and stayed there for two weeks, becoming the first of the band's nine UK No. 1's, the 16th biggest selling single of the year in the UK. It topped the charts in Belgium, Finland, West Germany, Norway, South Africa and Switzerland, while reaching the Top 3 in Austria, the Netherlands, ABBA's native Sweden.
The song spent 11 weeks on Svensktoppen, including 7 weeks at No. 1. Unlike other Eurovision-winning tunes, the song's appeal transcended Europe: "Waterloo" reached the Top 10 in Australia, New Zealand and the United States; the Waterloo album performed well in Europe, although in the US it failed to match the success of the single. ABBA had cited the song "See My Baby Jive", by English glam rock band Wizzard, as a major influence. "Waterloo" was re-released in 2004, to celebrate the 30th anniversary of ABBA's Eurovision win, reaching No. 20 on the UK charts. On 22 October 2005, at the 50th anniversary celebration of the Eurovision Song Contest, "Waterloo" was chosen as the best song in the competition's history. Dr. Harry Witchel and music expert at the University of Bristol, named "Waterloo" the quintessential Eurovision song. A. "Waterloo" – 2:45 b. "Honey Honey" – 2:55 a. "Waterloo" – 2:46b. "Watch Out" – 3:46 "Waterloo" "Waterloo" "Waterloo" - recorded 18 April 1974 in Paris, France "Waterloo" - overdubs of French and Swedish versions "Waterloo" "Waterloo" "Waterloo" was released on 1 June 2018 as the second single from the Mamma Mia!
Here We Go Again soundtrack, by Capitol and Polydor Rec
Olivia Newton-John, is an English-Australian singer, actress and activist. She is a four-time Grammy award winner who has amassed five number-one and ten other top ten Billboard Hot 100 singles, two number-one Billboard 200 solo albums. Eleven of her singles and 14 of her albums have been certified gold by the RIAA, she has sold an estimated 100 million records worldwide, making her one of the world's best-selling artists of all time. She starred in the musical film Grease, its soundtrack is one of the most successful in history, with the single "You're the One That I Want", with John Travolta, one of the best selling singles. Newton-John has been a long-time activist for environmental and animal rights issues, she has been an advocate for health awareness, becoming involved with various charities, health products, fundraising efforts. Her business interests have included launching several product lines for Koala Blue and co-owning the Gaia Retreat & Spa in Australia. Newton-John has been married twice.
She is the mother of Chloe Rose Lattanzi, with her first husband, actor Matt Lattanzi. She married John Easterling in 2008. Newton-John was born in England, to Welshman Brinley "Bryn" Newton-John and Irene Helene, her Jewish maternal grandfather, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Max Born, fled with his family to England from Germany before World War II to escape the Nazi regime. Newton-John's maternal grandmother was of paternal Jewish ancestry as well, she is a third cousin of comedian Ben Elton. Her maternal great-grandfather was jurist Victor Ehrenberg and her matrilineal great-grandmother's father was jurist Rudolf von Jhering. Newton-John's father was an MI5 officer on the Enigma project at Bletchley Park who took Rudolf Hess into custody during World War II. After the war he became Headmaster at Cambridgeshire High School for Boys and was in that role when Olivia was born. Newton-John is the youngest of three children, following brother Hugh, a doctor, sister Rona. In 1954, when Olivia was six, the Newton-Johns emigrated to Melbourne, where her father worked as a professor of German and as Master of Ormond College at the University of Melbourne.
She attended Christ Church Grammar School, University High School, near to Ormond College. At 14, Newton-John formed a short-lived all-girl group, Sol Four, with three classmates performing in a coffee shop owned by her brother-in-law, she became a regular on local Australian radio and television shows including HSV-7's The Happy Show where she performed as "Lovely Livvy". She appeared on The Go!! Show where she met future duet partner, singer Pat Carroll, future music producer, John Farrar, she entered and won a talent contest on the television program Sing, Sing, hosted by 1960s Australian icon Johnny O'Keefe, performing the songs "Anyone Who Had a Heart" and "Everything's Coming Up Roses". She was reluctant to use the prize she had won, a trip to Great Britain, but traveled there nearly a year after her mother encouraged her to broaden her horizons. Newton-John recorded her first single, "Till You Say You'll Be Mine", in Britain for Decca Records in 1966. While in Britain, Newton-John missed her then-boyfriend, Ian Turpie, with whom she had co-starred in the Australian telefilm, Funny Things Happen Down Under.
She booked trips back to Australia which her mother would subsequently cancel. Newton-John's outlook changed when Pat Carroll moved to the UK; the two formed a duo toured nightclubs in Europe. After Carroll's visa expired forcing her to return to Australia, Newton-John remained in Britain to pursue solo work until 1975. Newton-John was recruited for the group Toomorrow formed by American producer Don Kirshner. In 1970, the group starred in a "science fiction musical" film and recorded an accompanying soundtrack album, on RCA records, both named after the group; that same year the group made two single recordings, "You're My Baby Now/Goin' Back" and "I Could Never Live Without Your Love/Roll Like A River". Neither track became the project failed with the group disbanding. Newton-John released her first solo album, If Not For You, in 1971; the title track, written by Bob Dylan and recorded by former Beatle George Harrison for his 1970 album All Things Must Pass, was her first international hit (US No. 25 Pop, No. 1 Adult Contemporary.
Her follow-up single, "Banks of the Ohio", was a top 10 hit in the Australia. She was voted Best British Female Vocalist two years in a row by the magazine Record Mirror, she made frequent appearances on Cliff Richard's weekly show, It's Cliff Richard, starred with him in the telefilm The Case. In the United States, Newton-John's career foundered after If Not For You. Subsequent singles including "Banks of the Ohio" and remakes of George Harrison's "What Is Life" and John Denver's "Take Me Home, Country Roads" made minimal chart impact until the release of "Let Me Be There" in 1973; the song reached the American Top 10 on the Pop, AC charts and earned her a Grammy for Best Country Female and an Academy of Country Music award for Most Promising Female Vocalist. In 1974, Newton-John represented the United Kingdom in the
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Finland in the Eurovision Song Contest
Finland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 52 times since its debut in 1961. Finland won the contest for the first time in 2006 with Lordi's "Hard Rock Hallelujah"; the country's best result before was achieved by Marion Rung with the song "Tom Tom Tom" in 1973, which placed sixth. Finland has finished last in the contest ten times, receiving "nul points" in 1963, 1965 and 1982. Since the introduction of the semi-finals in 2004, Finland has failed to reach the final seven times. In 2014, the country had its best result in eight years. In 2015, Finland finished last in the first semi-final with the shortest-ever Eurovision entry, "Aina mun pitää" performed by Pertti Kurikan Nimipäivät. Before the 2006 victory, Finland was considered by many as the ultimate under-achiever of Eurovision. Prior to its triumph, it had placed last a total of eight times, once with "nul points" after the introduction of the current scoring method. Finland's entry in 1982, "Nuku pommiin" by Kojo, was one of only fifteen songs since the modern scoring system was instituted in 1975 to earn no points..
Due to low results, Finland was excluded from the contest in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003. In 2015, Finland finished last in the first semi-final with the shortest-ever Eurovision song, the one minute and 27 second "Aina mun pitää" performed by Pertti Kurikan Nimipäivät. Finland reached the final for the first time with Saara Aalto placing 25th. In 2006, Finland won with the band Lordi and its song Hard Rock Hallelujah, an entry different from the mainstream Europop that dominated the competition; the song broke records scoring the highest number of points in the history of the Eurovision Song Contest, with 292. The record was broken by Norway in 2009, with 387. All of Finland's entries were in English between 1973 and 1976 and again since 2000. Two entries, 1990 and 2012, were in Swedish, an official language in Finland alongside Finnish. All of Finland's other songs have been in Finnish. In voting patterns, Finland has traditionally supported and been supported by the other Nordic countries, but Estonia, which shares close cultural and linguistic ties with Finland.
Besides, Hungary with shared Finno-Ugric descents, as well as other Baltic nations such as Latvia have gained votes from Finland, the other way around. In 2004, Finland's first-place vote went to Sweden; the first time in Eurovision history that Sweden gave Finland 12 points was in 2006 for Lordi's song "Hard Rock Hallelujah." In 2007, they repeated this, giving 12 points to Hanna Pakarinen with "Leave Me Alone." Finland has given notably high points to Italy, a country that had not competed in various periods from 1998 to 2010, but returned in 2011. Finland has been a strong supporter of Israel; the jury vote seems to adversely affect Finnish results, given that three of its non-qualifications were on account of the juries when the televote alone would have carried them through to the grand final. Finland's best results, including their victory, came during all-televote years. Table key NOTES: a. ^ In 2009, Finland qualified through the back-up jury selection. B. If a country had won the previous year, they did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year.
In addition from 2004-2007, the top ten countries who were not members of the big four did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year. If, for example and France placed inside the top ten, the countries who placed 11th and 12th were advanced to the following year's grand final along with the rest of the top ten countries; as of 2018, Finland's voting history is as follows: Press Award Fan Award George de Godzinsky Ossi Runne Henrik Otto Donner Olli Ahvenlahti Finland in the Eurovision Dance Contest – Dance version of the Eurovision Song Contest. Finland in the Eurovision Young Dancers – A competition organised by the EBU for younger dancers aged between 16 and 21. Finland in the Eurovision Young Musicians – A competition organised by the EBU for musicians aged 18 years and younger. National Final 2009 Points to and from Finland eurovisioncovers.co.uk