Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign; the kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929. Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April 1941. In 1943, a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In 1944 King Peter II living in exile, recognised it as the legitimate government; the monarchy was subsequently abolished in November 1945. Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946, when a communist government was established.
It acquired the territories of Istria and Zadar from Italy. Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito ruled the country as president until his death in 1980. In 1963, the country was renamed again, as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; the six constituent republics that made up the SFRY were the SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia, SR Slovenia. Serbia contained two Socialist Autonomous Provinces and Kosovo, which after 1974 were equal to the other members of the federation. After an economic and political crisis in the 1980s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics' borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars. From 1993 to 2017, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia tried political and military leaders from the former Yugoslavia for war crimes and other crimes. After the breakup, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro formed a reduced federation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which aspired to the status of sole legal successor to the SFRY, but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.
Serbia and Montenegro accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. In 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed to State Union of Montenegro; the union peacefully broke up when Serbia and Montenegro became independent states in 2006, while Kosovo proclaimed its independence from Serbia in 2008. The concept of Yugoslavia, as a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the Illyrian Movement of the 19th century; the name was created by the combination of the Slavic words "jug" and "slaveni". Yugoslavia was the result of the Corfu Declaration, as a project of the Serbian Parliament in exile and the Serbian royal Karađorđević dynasty, who became the Yugoslav royal dynasty; the country was formed in 1918 after World War I as the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by union of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia. It was referred to at the time as the "Versailles state"; the government renamed the country leading to the first official use of Yugoslavia in 1929.
On 20 June 1928, Serb deputy Puniša Račić shot at five members of the opposition Croatian Peasant Party in the National Assembly resulting in the death of two deputies on the spot and that of leader Stjepan Radić a few weeks later. On 6 January 1929 King Alexander I suspended the constitution, banned national political parties, assumed executive power and renamed the country Yugoslavia, he hoped to mitigate nationalist passions. He imposed a new constitution and relinquished his dictatorship in 1931. However, Alexander's policies encountered opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany, where Fascists and Nazis rose to power, the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin became absolute ruler. None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander I. In fact and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy.
Alexander attempted to create a centralised Yugoslavia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas; the banovinas were named after rivers. Many politicians were kept under police surveillance; the effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from the idea of unity. During his reign the flags of Yugoslav nations were banned. Communist ideas were banned also; the king was assassinated in Marseille during an official visit to France in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, an experienced marksman from Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization with the cooperation of the Ustaše, a Croatian fascist revolutionary organisation. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son Peter II and a regency council headed by his cousin, Prince Paul; the international political scene in the late 1930s was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, by the aggressive attitude of the totalitarian regimes and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I was losing its strongholds and its sponsors were
Greece in the Eurovision Song Contest
Greece has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 39 times since its debut in 1974, missing six contests in that time. Greece's first win came in 2005 with "My Number One"; the Greek national broadcaster, Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi, broadcasts the event each year and organises the process for the selection of the Greek entry. Greece has never finished last in the contest. Throughout the 20th century, Greece achieved only two top five results, finishing fifth with Paschalis, Marianna and Bessy in 1977 and again fifth with Kleopatra in 1992; the start of the 21st century saw Greece become one of the most successful countries in the contest, with ten top-ten results between 2001 and 2013, including third-place finishes for Antique in 2001, Sakis Rouvas in 2004 and Kalomira in 2008. In the last five contests, Greece has not reached the top ten, including twice failing to qualify from the semi-final to the grand final. Before Greece as a country participated in the contest, singers from Greece have represented other countries.
These singers were Jimmy Makulis for Austria, Yovanna for Switzerland, Nana Mouskouri and Vicky Leandros for Luxembourg. After debuting in the 1974 contest, Greece did not participate in 1975 for "unknown reasons" according to the EBU, but it was discovered that the withdrawal was in protest of Turkey's debut and its invasion of Cyprus in 1974. Greece was disqualified from the Eurovision Song Contest 1982 after it was revealed that Themis Adamantidis was to sing "Sarantapente Kopelies", a released song. A known Greek folk song, it had been revised for the competition, but this violated the rules which stated that all songs had to be original in terms of songwriting and instrumentation and cannot be cover songs. Greece was allowed to return the following year. Had Adamantidis been allowed to perform "Sarantapente Kopelies", he would have appeared second at Harrogate. After returning in 1983, ERT decided that all of the possible songs were of "low quality" and decided not to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest 1984.
Greece returned once again to the Contest in 1985, Polina was picked in the 1986 national selection to represent Greece at the Eurovision Song Contest 1986 in Bergen, but ERT pulled out of the Contest unexpectedly. Polina stated that it was due to political troubles in Greece at the time, but she noted that a Eurovision website had learned that the real reason was that the Contest was to be held the night before Orthodox Easter. Had she performed, she would have appeared eighteenth and she would have performed the song "Wagon-lit". Greece returned to the Contest in 1987 and performed each year until the Eurovision Song Contest 1999, when it as not permitted to participate because its five-year points average had fallen under the limit for participation after Thalassa's 20th-place finish in 1998; the following year, ERT announced that it would not return at the Eurovision Song Contest 2000 due to financial reasons. Thirty-one years after its debut, Greece won for the first time in 2005 with Elena Paparizou singing "My Number One", which at the time tied for the record for the most number of twelve points allocated to a song along with Katrina and the Waves' 1997 "Love Shine A Light".
The song made Greece the first country not a member of Big Four to win the contest without going through a semifinal. After Eurovision, the song topped the charts in Greece and Sweden and entered the top ten in Romania, the Netherlands, Belgium, as well as the American Billboard Hot Dance Club Play Chart. In 2005, Eurovision held a commemorative program, Congratulations, to celebrate 50 years of the contest, in which "My Number One" came fourth in a vote for the show's most popular entry, behind "Hold Me Now", "Nel blu dipinto di blu" and ABBA's "Waterloo". Before Greece's win, the highest score was third place, achieved by duo Antique in 2001 with "Die for You" and again by Sakis Rouvas in 2004 with "Shake It". Greece's least successful result was at 16th place in the 2016 semi-final with the song "Utopian Land" by Argo, with 44 points. In 2006, the 51st Eurovision Song Contest was held in Athens, following Elena Paparizou's victory the previous year; the two hosts were popular singer, former contestant, Sakis Rouvas and Greek American presenter Maria Menounos.
The singer representing Greece in their own country was popular Greek Cypriot artist Anna Vissi. From 2004 to 2006, ERT had selected high-profile artists internally and set up national finals to choose the song, while in 2007 and 2008 it held a televised national final to choose both the song and performer. For the 2009 Eurovision Song Contest, ERT was able to secure a high-profile artist once again and planned a national final to choose the song. Greece has been one of the most successful countries in the Eurovision Song Contest in the 21st century, ten times finishing in the top-ten, including ninth in 2006, seventh in 2007, third in 2008, seventh in 2009, eighth in 2010 and seventh in 2011. After Eleftheria Eleftheriou placed 17th in 2012 with her song "Aphrodisiac", Greece achieved its 10th top-ten result of the century and 18th in total in 2013, finishing sixth with the song "Alcohol is Free". In 2014, Greece finished in 20th place, along with 1998, were the country's worst result in the contest at that time.
Greece was one of only three countries to have never failed to qualify from the semifinals since their 2004 introduction. In addition, Greece qualified from the 1996 audio-on
Switzerland in the Eurovision Song Contest
Switzerland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 58 times since making its debut at the first contest in 1956, missing only four contests, in 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2003. Switzerland hosted the first contest in 1956 in Lugano, won it. Switzerland won the contest with the 1989 contest being held in Lausanne. Lys Assia won the first contest in 1956 with the song "Refrain", she returned to place second in 1958. Switzerland would go on to finish second with Esther Ofarim and Daniela Simmons and third with Franca Di Rienzo and Arlette Zola, before winning the contest for the second time in 1988 with Celine Dion and the song "Ne partez pas sans moi". Annie Cotton gave the country its 15th top five result in 1993. Girl band Vanilla Ninja finished eighth in 2005, Switzerland's only top ten result of the 21st century. Sebalter gave the country its second-best result of the century, finishing 13th in 2014. Since the introduction of the semi-final round in 2004, Switzerland has failed to reach the final 11 times.
Switzerland had been absent from Eurovision four times since their participation began in the first contest. These absences, in 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2003 were caused by poor results in previous contests that relegated Switzerland from the contest. Switzerland has four official languages, German and Romansh. For decades, the song requirements stated that the song had to be performed in a national language, which gave Switzerland leeway as they could perform in any of the four languages. Out of their 58 appearances in the Contest, Switzerland has sent 52 songs, 24 of which were in French, 12 in German, 12 in English, 9 in Italian, 1 in Romansh. Both of Switzerland's winning songs have been sung in French. Table key NOTES: a. ^ The full results for the first contest in 1956 are unknown, only the winner was announced. The official Eurovision site lists all the other songs as being placed second. B. If a country had won the previous year, they did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year.
In addition from 2004-2007, the top ten countries who were not members of the big four did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year. If, for example and France placed inside the top ten, the countries who placed 11th and 12th were advanced to the following year's grand final along with the rest of the top ten countries; as of 2018, Switzerland's voting history is as follows: Over the years Switzerland has broadcast the Eurovision Song Contest on three television stations, SRF, RTS and RSI. All conductors are Swiss except those marked with a flag. NotesAnita Kerr changed her nationality to Swiss in 1970. Atilla Şereftuğ holds dual citizenship since 1985. Bela Balint changed his nationality to Swiss. Rui dos Reis holds dual citizenship since 2010. Prior to 1999, the Swiss entry was performed without orchestral accompaniment in 1987 and 1998. Table key Switzerland in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest – Junior version of the Eurovision Song Contest. Switzerland in the Eurovision Dance Contest – Dance version of the Eurovision Song Contest.
Switzerland in the Eurovision Young Dancers – A competition organised by the EBU for younger dancers aged between 16 and 21. Switzerland in the Eurovision Young Musicians – A competition organised by the EBU for musicians aged 18 years and younger. Points to and from Switzerland eurovisioncovers.co.uk
Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, was an American-born violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in Britain. He is considered one of the greatest violinists of the 20th century. Yehudi Menuhin was born in New York City to a family of Lithuanian Jews. Through his father Moshe, a former rabbinical student and anti-Zionist, he was descended from a distinguished rabbinical dynasty. In late 1919, Moshe and his wife Marutha became American citizens, changed the family name from Mnuchin to Menuhin. Menuhin's sisters were concert pianist and human rights activist Hephzibah, pianist and poet Yaltah. Menuhin's first violin instruction was at age four by Sigmund Anker. Menuhin displayed exceptional musical talent at an early age, his first public appearance, when he was seven years old, was as solo violinist with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra in 1923. Persinger agreed to teach him and accompanied him on the piano for his first few solo recordings in 1928–29. Julia Boyd records: On 12 April 1929 it cancelled its advertised programme to make way for a performance by the twelve-year-old Yehudi Menuhin.
That night he played the Bach and Brahms violin concertos to an ecstatic audience... The week before, Yehudi had played in Berlin with the Philharmonic under Bruno Walter to an rapturous response. In the Berlin performance, "There steps a fat little blond boy on the podium, wins at once all hearts as in an irresistably ludicrous way, like a penguin, he alternately places one foot down the other, but wait: you will stop laughing when he puts his bow to the violin to play Bach's violin concerto in E major no.2." When the Menuhins moved to Paris, Persinger suggested Menuhin go to Persinger's old teacher, Belgian virtuoso and pedagogue Eugène Ysaÿe. Menuhin did have one lesson with Ysaÿe, but he disliked Ysaÿe's teaching method and his advanced age. Instead, he went to Romanian composer and violinist George Enescu, under whose tutelage he made recordings with several piano accompanists, including his sister Hephzibah, he was a student of Adolf Busch. According to Henry A. Murray, Menuhin wrote: Actually, I was gazing in my usual state of being half absent in my own world and half in the present.
I have been able to "retire" in this way. I was thinking that my life was tied up with the instrument and would I do it justice? His first concerto recording was made in 1931, Bruch's G minor, under Sir Landon Ronald in London, the labels calling him "Master Yehudi Menuhin". In 1932 he recorded Edward Elgar's Violin Concerto in B minor for HMV in London, with the composer himself conducting. Between 1934 and 1936, he made the first integral recording of Johann Sebastian Bach's sonatas and partitas for solo violin, although his Sonata No. 2, in A minor, was not released until all six were transferred to CD. His interest in the music of Béla Bartók prompted him to commission a work from him – the Sonata for Solo Violin, completed in 1943 and first performed by Menuhin in New York in 1944, was the composer's penultimate work, he performed for Allied soldiers during World War II and, accompanied on the piano by English composer Benjamin Britten, for the surviving inmates of a number of concentration camps in July 1945 after their liberation in April of the same year, most famously the Bergen-Belsen.
He returned to Germany in 1947 to play concerto concerts with the Berlin Philharmonic under Wilhelm Furtwängler as an act of reconciliation, the first Jewish musician to do so in the wake of the Holocaust, saying to Jewish critics that he wanted to rehabilitate Germany's music and spirit. He and Louis Kentner gave the first performance of William Walton's Violin Sonata, in Zürich on 30 September 1949, he continued performing, conducting, to an advanced age, including some nonclassical music in his repertory. Menuhin credited German philosopher Constantin Brunner with providing him with "a theoretical framework within which I could fit the events and experiences of life". Following his role as a member of the awards jury at the 1955 Queen Elisabeth Music Competition, Menuhin secured a Rockefeller Foundation grant for the financially strapped Grand Prize winner at the event, Argentine violinist Alberto Lysy. Menuhin made Lysy his only personal student, the two toured extensively throughout the concert halls of Europe.
The young protégé established the International Menuhin Music Academy in Gstaad, in his honor. Menuhin made several recordings with the German conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler, criticized for conducting in Germany during the Nazi era. Menuhin defended Furtwängler, noting that the conductor had helped a number of Jewish musicians to flee Nazi Germany. In 1957, he founded the Menuhin Festival Gstaad in Switzerland. In 1962, he established the Yehudi Menuhin School in Stoke Surrey, he established the music program at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, sometime around then. In 1965 he received an honorary knighthood from the British monarchy. In the same year, Australian composer Malcolm Williamson wrote a violin concerto for Menuhin, he performed the concerto many times and recorded it at its premiere at the Bath Festival in 1965. Known as the Bath Assembly, the festival was first directed by the impresario Ian Hunter in 1948. After the first year the city in 1955 asked Hunter back. In 1959 Hunter invited Menuhin to become artistic director of the festival.
Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest
Israel has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 41 times since making its debut in 1973. Israel was able to enter the contest as the Israel Broadcasting Authority is a member organisation of the European Broadcasting Union, responsible for the event. Israel has won the contest four times, has hosted the contest twice, in 1979 and 1999, both times in Jerusalem. Israel will host the contest for the third time in Tel Aviv in 2019. Israel's first appearance at the contest in 1973 was successful, with Ilanit finishing fourth. Israel achieved victories in 1978 and 1979, with wins for Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta, with the song "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" and Gali Atari and Milk and Honey, with "Hallelujah". In 1980, the IBA declined to host the contest for the second successive year for financial reasons, as the date for the contest in The Hague conflicted with Yom Hazikaron – Israeli Memorial Day – Israel did not participate; this is the only time. The country's best results in the 1980s were the second-place finishes for Avi Toledano in 1982 and Ofra Haza in 1983.
Former winner Izhar Cohen returned to place fifth in 1985, before Duo Datz finished third in 1991. Israel achieved its third victory in 1998, with Dana International and "Diva". Eden finished fifth in 1999; as of 2018, Israel has the record for most participations in the contest without coming last, but it has placed second to last in the final three times, in 1986, 1993 and 2006. Since the introduction of the semi-finals in 2004, Israel has failed to reach the final six times. In 2005, Shiri Maimon gave the country its tenth top five result. Having failed to qualify for the final for four consecutive years, Israel reached the final for the first time in five years, with Nadav Guedj finishing ninth in 2015, the country has participated in the final every year since. Israel's fourth victory came when Netta won the 2018 contest in Lisbon, with the song "Toy". To date there have been four Israeli victories in the contest. Izhar Cohen and Alphabeta won in Paris in 1978 with the uptempo A-Ba-Ni-Bi. On home ground in Jerusalem the following year, Israel won again, this time with the anthemic Hallelujah performed by Gali Atari & Milk and Honey.
Unusually, Israel did not defend the title in 1980. The third victory came 20 years in Birmingham in 1998. Singer Dana International took top honours with the song Diva, setting off widespread celebrations in Israel. Twenty years Israel earned their fourth victory at the 2018 contest in Lisbon, Portugal; the song was "Toy" by Netta Barzilai. Israel's earliest selections were picked by the Israel Broadcasting Authority; the first singer to represent the country in 1973 was Ilanit. Criticism increased after she was sent again four years leading to a rule that the winner of the established Hebrew Song and Chorus Festival would represent Israel at the contest; the Eurovision Song Contest winners of 1978 and 1979 were selected by this method. From 1981 the selection process was handled by the Kdam Eurovision with the exceptions of 1990, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002–2004, 2006–2007 and 2010 where the selections were again picked by the IBA. After winning the contest in 1978 and 1979, the IBA was financially and logistically unable to organise the event for the second consecutive year.
The organization of the festival was subsequently handed over to the Netherlands who agreed to stage it. Because much time had passed, it was difficult to find a suitable date for the Song Contest; the date chosen coincided with a memorial day in Israel, the country was forced to withdraw. This made Israel the only country to date unable to defend its title; the 1980 Hebrew Song and Chorus Festival therefore did not double as a national final that year unlike the last two years, the winning song "Pizmon Chozer" by the band The Brothers & the Sisters was never given the chance to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest. In 1984 Israel once again refrained from participating due to the same date conflict; the song "Balalaika" by Ilanit has been rumoured to have been intended as the Israel entry in Eurovision Song Contest 1984 but the rumours have never been confirmed. Apart from its victories, Israel's entries have had a mixed reception at the contest. Avi Toledano and Ofra Haza scored well with big revivalist numbers, but the all-singing, all-dancing style became less popular in the decade and Israel's 1986 entry, Yavo Yom by Moti Giladi & Sarai Tzuriel, came in 19th, the country's worst showing yet.
In 1987 Israel finished 8th with Shir Habatlanim by the satiric duo Lazy Bums. Due to its satiric nature, it prompted Israeli Minister of Culture, Yitzhak Navon, to threaten to resign, if the song went on to represent Israel on the night of the contest. However, he didn't. In 1990 Rita's sensuous ballad was not well received, but in 1991, Orna and Moshe Datz finished third, Israel's best result since 1983. Israel's third victory occurred in 1998, when Dana International won the crown with her song "Diva." Israel had a 5th-place finish by Eden when it hosted the 1999 contest. However, Ping-Pong's disco effort in 2000 failed badly, though the group was noted for their optimistic lyrics and message of reconciliation and peace in Western Asia, they went as far as waving Syrian flags at the end of their performance. In 2004 David D'Or came in 11th in the semifinal with the song "Leha'amin", leaving Israel out of the finals for the first time since 1997. Shiri Maymon's performance in Kiev in 2005 brought Israel back to the top five, ensured a place in the Athens 2006 final
17th arrondissement of Paris
The 17th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as dix-septième; the arrondissement, known as Batignolles-Monceau, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine. The land area of this arrondissement is 5.669 km2. Situated on the right bank of the River Seine, this arrondissement is divided in 4 administrative districts: Ternes and Monceau in the southwestern part, two upper-class districts which are more Haussmannian in style; the town hall of the 17th arrondissement is on Rue des Batignolles. It is the only town hall of Paris to be located in a modern building; the original building was torn down in 1971 to make room for the current edifice. The 17th arrondissement hosts the Palais des Congrès of Paris, a large exhibition center with an associated high-rise hotel, the Hyatt Regency Paris Étoile, the largest in the city; the peak population of Paris's 17th arrondissement was reached in 1954, when it had 231,987 inhabitants.
Today, the arrondissement remains dense in population and business activity, with 160,860 inhabitants and 92,267 jobs as of the most recent census. The southwestern part of the arrondissement is dense in offices for services. Several big companies have their headquarters there; the head office of Dailymotion is located in the Immeuble Horizons 17. When it existed, Gaz de France had its head office in the 17th arrondissement. Batignolles and Épinettes, two former industrial areas, are now residential; the area around the avenue de Clichy, shared with the 8th, 9th and 18th arrondissement of Paris, is occupied by a lot of shops. This is the third biggest avenue of Paris in terms of sales. Arc de Triomphe Marché des Batignolles Marché Poncelet Rue de Levis Musée national Jean-Jacques Henner Palais des Congrès and Hôtel Concorde Lafayette Square des Batignolles Cité des Fleurs Place de Clichy Parc Clichy-Batignolles Square des Épinettes The Swedish school Svenska Skolan Paris is in the arrondissement.
17th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage