Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Monaco in the Eurovision Song Contest
Monaco has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 24 times since its debut in 1959. The country's only win in the contest came in 1971 when Séverine performed "Un banc, un arbre, une rue". In 1972, Monaco declined. Monaco is still the only microstate. Monaco finished last at its first contest in 1959 before achieving three top three results in the 1960s. Two of these were achieved by François Deguelt, who finished third in 1960 and second in 1962. Romuald finished third in 1964. Severine's victory in 1971 was the first of five top four results in eight years; the others were achieved by Romauld, Mary Christy, third in 1976, Michèle Torr, fourth in 1977 and Caline & Olivier Toussaint who were fourth in 1978. After participating in 1979, Monaco was absent from the contest for 25 years. Monaco returned to the contest for three years from 2004 to 2006 but failed to qualify for the final on all three occasions; the Monegasque broadcaster withdrew from the contest saying that regional voting patterns in the contest have given Monaco no chance of qualifying for the final.
Monaco participated in the contest 21 times between its debut in 1959 and 1979. Afterwards the country withdrew from the contest for financial reasons, it only returned 25 years after its last participation. It withdrew again after failing to qualify for the final for three consecutive years. Monaco won the contest in 1971, with the song "Un banc, une rue", performed by Séverine; the Monegasque victory is rather particular in the history of Eurovision because the songwriter, the singer and the director were not from the country they represented, but from France. Séverine declared to journalists that she had never set foot in Monaco, forgetting that the video-clip was filmed there. Séverine's producer was dishonest with her and stole her prize, thus she never got paid for her victory after suing him; the singer is still a great fan of the contest. Monaco's next best placing has been second which it has achieved once at the 1962, it has been third three times, in 1960, 1964 and 1976. Monaco is among the eight countries which finished last on their first participation, the others being Austria, Malta, Lithuania, the Czech Republic and San Marino.
Monaco never organised the contest. After winning in 1971, the country decided to organise the 1972 contest as an open-air show, setting the date in June rather than early spring. However, because of a lack of funds and material, Télé Monte Carlo sought help from the French public broadcaster, ORTF, which accepted to organise the contest; because TMC wanted the show to be held in Monaco while ORTF wanted it in France, negotiations never succeeded. Monaco left it up to the EBU; the EBU asked Spain and Germany, who finished second and third at the 1971 contest, but the countries were not interested in organising the 1972 contest. It was organised by the BBC in Edinburgh. Monaco was absent from the contest between 1980 and 2003, before returning for three years from 2004–2006, but Maryon, Lise Darly and Séverine Ferrer all failed to progress from the semi-finals. TMC broadcast the 2007 contest, opening the way for participation in the Eurovision Song Contest 2008. However, TMC decided against it. TMC had announced that it was possible Monaco would return to the contest in 2009 after a two-year absence, following talks with the European Broadcasting Union, the organiser of the contest, as well as new voting measures implemented in the contest that year.
Despite this, Monaco did not compete in Moscow in 2009. The EBU announced they would work harder to bring Monaco back into the Contest in 2010 alongside other lapsed participants. Officials have denounced geopolitical voting between the countries in East Europe and the ones in Scandinavia, leaving no chance for the principality to qualify, they regret that the contest is now more about the show than singing. Furthermore, Monaco does not have a public broadcaster anymore. TMC is now part of the TF1 Group, the leading private broadcaster in France and is now available everywhere in France. TMC programs no longer revolve around the principality. TF1 Group being the biggest competitor to the French public channels, it is unlikely that TMC will broadcast again the Eurovision Song Contest; when TMC did so between 2004 and 2006, its audience was much lower than the one of the French public channel. In those years, it was the government and the municipality of Monaco who chose the contestant and funded the delegation, while it is the responsibility of a broadcaster or a producer.
Due to the country's small size, all Monaco's entrants came from outside the principality. The large majority of them were French, with one Yugoslavian, Tereza Kesovija, one Italian, Mary Christy. Several singers selected to represent Monaco are key figures of the French scene, such as Françoise Hardy and Michèle Torr. Luxembourg, another small country sent a great number of French artists to the contest. At the 1967 contest, the Monegasque entry, "Boum Badaboum", sung by Minouche Barelli, was written by Serge Gainsbourg, he had composed the winning entry in 1965, "Poupée de cire, poupée de son", sung by France Gall for Luxembourg. Jean Jacques, who represented Monaco in 1969, was the first child to take part in Eurovision, he was 12. Table key Between 1959 and 2006, Monaco's voting history was as follows: From 1959 to 1979, Monaco did not have its own commentators in the festival, Télé Monte Carlo used French commentary instead. Between 2004 and 2006, TMC did b
Greece in the Eurovision Song Contest
Greece has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 39 times since its debut in 1974, missing six contests in that time. Greece's first win came in 2005 with "My Number One"; the Greek national broadcaster, Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi, broadcasts the event each year and organises the process for the selection of the Greek entry. Greece has never finished last in the contest. Throughout the 20th century, Greece achieved only two top five results, finishing fifth with Paschalis, Marianna and Bessy in 1977 and again fifth with Kleopatra in 1992; the start of the 21st century saw Greece become one of the most successful countries in the contest, with ten top-ten results between 2001 and 2013, including third-place finishes for Antique in 2001, Sakis Rouvas in 2004 and Kalomira in 2008. In the last five contests, Greece has not reached the top ten, including twice failing to qualify from the semi-final to the grand final. Before Greece as a country participated in the contest, singers from Greece have represented other countries.
These singers were Jimmy Makulis for Austria, Yovanna for Switzerland, Nana Mouskouri and Vicky Leandros for Luxembourg. After debuting in the 1974 contest, Greece did not participate in 1975 for "unknown reasons" according to the EBU, but it was discovered that the withdrawal was in protest of Turkey's debut and its invasion of Cyprus in 1974. Greece was disqualified from the Eurovision Song Contest 1982 after it was revealed that Themis Adamantidis was to sing "Sarantapente Kopelies", a released song. A known Greek folk song, it had been revised for the competition, but this violated the rules which stated that all songs had to be original in terms of songwriting and instrumentation and cannot be cover songs. Greece was allowed to return the following year. Had Adamantidis been allowed to perform "Sarantapente Kopelies", he would have appeared second at Harrogate. After returning in 1983, ERT decided that all of the possible songs were of "low quality" and decided not to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest 1984.
Greece returned once again to the Contest in 1985, Polina was picked in the 1986 national selection to represent Greece at the Eurovision Song Contest 1986 in Bergen, but ERT pulled out of the Contest unexpectedly. Polina stated that it was due to political troubles in Greece at the time, but she noted that a Eurovision website had learned that the real reason was that the Contest was to be held the night before Orthodox Easter. Had she performed, she would have appeared eighteenth and she would have performed the song "Wagon-lit". Greece returned to the Contest in 1987 and performed each year until the Eurovision Song Contest 1999, when it as not permitted to participate because its five-year points average had fallen under the limit for participation after Thalassa's 20th-place finish in 1998; the following year, ERT announced that it would not return at the Eurovision Song Contest 2000 due to financial reasons. Thirty-one years after its debut, Greece won for the first time in 2005 with Elena Paparizou singing "My Number One", which at the time tied for the record for the most number of twelve points allocated to a song along with Katrina and the Waves' 1997 "Love Shine A Light".
The song made Greece the first country not a member of Big Four to win the contest without going through a semifinal. After Eurovision, the song topped the charts in Greece and Sweden and entered the top ten in Romania, the Netherlands, Belgium, as well as the American Billboard Hot Dance Club Play Chart. In 2005, Eurovision held a commemorative program, Congratulations, to celebrate 50 years of the contest, in which "My Number One" came fourth in a vote for the show's most popular entry, behind "Hold Me Now", "Nel blu dipinto di blu" and ABBA's "Waterloo". Before Greece's win, the highest score was third place, achieved by duo Antique in 2001 with "Die for You" and again by Sakis Rouvas in 2004 with "Shake It". Greece's least successful result was at 16th place in the 2016 semi-final with the song "Utopian Land" by Argo, with 44 points. In 2006, the 51st Eurovision Song Contest was held in Athens, following Elena Paparizou's victory the previous year; the two hosts were popular singer, former contestant, Sakis Rouvas and Greek American presenter Maria Menounos.
The singer representing Greece in their own country was popular Greek Cypriot artist Anna Vissi. From 2004 to 2006, ERT had selected high-profile artists internally and set up national finals to choose the song, while in 2007 and 2008 it held a televised national final to choose both the song and performer. For the 2009 Eurovision Song Contest, ERT was able to secure a high-profile artist once again and planned a national final to choose the song. Greece has been one of the most successful countries in the Eurovision Song Contest in the 21st century, ten times finishing in the top-ten, including ninth in 2006, seventh in 2007, third in 2008, seventh in 2009, eighth in 2010 and seventh in 2011. After Eleftheria Eleftheriou placed 17th in 2012 with her song "Aphrodisiac", Greece achieved its 10th top-ten result of the century and 18th in total in 2013, finishing sixth with the song "Alcohol is Free". In 2014, Greece finished in 20th place, along with 1998, were the country's worst result in the contest at that time.
Greece was one of only three countries to have never failed to qualify from the semifinals since their 2004 introduction. In addition, Greece qualified from the 1996 audio-on
Johnny Logan (singer)
Johnny Logan is an Australian-born Irish singer and composer. He is known as being the only performer to have won the Eurovision Song Contest twice, in 1980 and 1987, he composed the winning song in 1992. Logan first won the Eurovision Song Contest in 1980, with the song "What's Another Year" written by Shay Healy. In 1984, Logan composed the song "Terminal 3" which placed second at Eurovision, performed by Linda Martin, he won the contest for a second time in 1987 with "Hold Me Now", which he wrote himself. His third win came in 1993, as composer of Linda Martin's winning entry "Why Me?". Johnny Logan was born on May 13, 1954 as Seán Patrick Michael Sherrard in Frankston, Australia. Logan's father Charles Alphonsus Sherrard was Derry-born Irish tenor known by the artistic name Patrick O'Hagan; the family moved back to Ireland. He began composing his own songs by the age of thirteen. On leaving school he apprenticed while performing in folk and blues clubs, his earliest claim to fame was starring as "Adam" in the 1977 Irish musical Adam and Eve and Joseph in Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat.
Logan adopted the stage name Johnny Logan for the main character of the film Johnny Guitar and released his first single in 1978. He first attempted to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1979, when he placed third in the Irish National Final with the song "Angie". Readers of the Connaught Telegraph in Ireland voted Logan as Best New Male Artist. In 1980, Logan again entered the Irish National selection for the Eurovision Song Contest with the Shay Healy song "What's Another Year", winning the Irish final on 9 March in Dublin. Representing Ireland in the Netherlands, Logan won the Eurovision Song Contest on 19 April; the song became a hit all over Europe and reached number one in the UK."In London" was released in June and "Save Me" shortly after. With confusion by radio stations over which to play, both singles flopped. Another single released in late 1980, a cover of a recent Cliff Richard song, "Give A Little Bit More" was a more concerted effort and although it narrowly missed the chart.
Logan blames his lack of success in the UK on his inexperience. In early 1983, Logan attempted a comeback in the UK with the song "Becoming Electric" with a new sound and image and promotional push, but the failed to chart. In 1985, Logan released his third studio album Straight From The Heart, he collaborated on the charity single "You'll Never Walk Alone" in aid of the Bradford City Disaster Fund. In 1986, Logan rebranded himself as Logan with the song "Stab in the Back", which failed to chart. In 1987, Logan made another attempt at Eurovision and with his self-penned song, "Hold Me Now", he represented Ireland at the Eurovision Song Contest in Belgium; the song won Logan became the first person to win the contest twice. "Hold Me Now" became a major European and reached number two in the UK. Logan released a cover of the 10cc song "I'm Not in Love", produced by Paul Hardcastle as a follow-up, an album Hold Me Now. In 1988, Logan released "Heartland" which became a hit in the Irish charts and from on, concentrated on his career in Ireland and Europe.
In 1990, Logan recorded a country version of "Miss You Nights" with Elvis Presley's backing band The Jordanaires. He wrote and sung the theme song Angels Don't Hide for the German television show Blue Blood. Having composed the Irish Eurovision Song Contest 1984 entry for Linda Martin, "Terminal 3", Logan repeated the collaboration in 1992 when he gave Martin another of his songs, "Why Me"; the song became the Irish entry at the finals in Sweden. The song took the title and cemented Logan as the most successful artist in Eurovision history with three wins. Author and historian John Kennedy O'Connor notes in his book The Eurovision Song Contest – The Official History that Logan is the only lead singer to have sung two winning entries and one of only five authors/composers to have written/composed two winning songs. On 16 April 1997 Logan left his handprints in concrete on the Walk of Fame in Rotterdam. Logan continues to write songs, he is sometimes referred to as "Mister Eurovision" by fans of the media at large.
He has continued his love of participating in musical theatre, having toured Norway with Which Witch, an opera-musical originating in that country. In October 2005, "Hold Me Now" was voted as the third most popular song in Eurovision history at the 50th anniversary concert in Copenhagen, Denmark. "What's Another Year" was nominated amongst the 14 finalists. Logan has sold more than 3 million copies worldwide. "Hold Me Now" is a global million-seller. Logan has continued to have success in the Scandinavian countries, his 2007 album, The Irish Connection went platinum in Denmark, twice platinum in Norway and gold in Sweden. In 2009 and 2010, he performed in the Celtic rock opera Excalibur, continued to do so in 2011. Logan was one of the recording artists that appeared in the Irish TV series The Hit going against Duke Special, he shortlisted the song "Prayin'" by Alan Earls and Jamie Wilson's "Rain" from the pitching rooms. He chose to release "Prayin'" for the chart battle against Special who chose a song called "1969" by Aaron Hackett.
Logan won the chart battle with his song charting at number three in the charts while Special's charted at number five. Logan returned for the final where he performed "Prayin" with the RTÉ Concert Orchestra and was runner-up to Finbar Furey. In 2002, he took part in the UK television quiz show Never Mind the Buzzcocks as a team panelist in a Eurovision-special."Hold Me Now" has been
Don't Go (Hothouse Flowers song)
"Don't Go" is the first single released by Irish rock group Hothouse Flowers from their 1988 album People. It is their most successful single worldwide, reaching the top 10 in New Zealand and Sweden and the top 40 in other European countries. In the band's native Ireland, the song peaked at number two on the Irish Singles Chart, their highest chart position until the release of their next single "Feet On the Ground", which reached number one. In the United States, the song did not chart on the Billboard Hot 100, but reached numbers seven and 16 on the Modern Rock Tracks and Mainstream Rock Songs charts, respectively; the single version is different from the LP version. It has never been released on CD. In 2005, Shane Lynch released a cover version of the song; the song was performed by the Hothouse Flowers as the interval act of the 1988 Eurovision Song Contest held in Dublin, Ireland. The version used was the single version, not the LP mix, with the exception that the broadcast version was longer.
The song is featured on an episode of the Irish sitcom Moone Boy. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Céline Marie Claudette Dion ChLD is a Canadian singer. Born into a large family from Charlemagne, she emerged as a teen star in her homeland with a series of French-language albums during the 1980s, she first gained international recognition by winning both the 1982 Yamaha World Popular Song Festival and the 1988 Eurovision Song Contest, where she represented Switzerland. After learning to speak English, she signed on to Epic Records in the United States. In 1990, Dion released her debut English-language album, establishing herself as a viable pop artist in North America and other English-speaking areas of the world. During the 1990s, she achieved worldwide fame after releasing several best-selling English albums, such as Falling into You and Let's Talk About Love, which were both certified diamond in the US, she scored a series of international number-one hits, including "The Power of Love", "Think Twice", "Because You Loved Me", "It's All Coming Back to Me Now", "My Heart Will Go On", "I'm Your Angel".
Dion continued releasing French albums between each English record. During the 2000s, she built her reputation as a successful live performer with A New Day... in Las Vegas Strip, which remains the highest-grossing concert residency of all time, as well as the Taking Chances World Tour, one of the highest-grossing concert tours of all time. Dion's music has been influenced by genres, ranging from R&B to gospel and classical, her recordings are in French and English, although she sings in Spanish, German, Latin and Mandarin Chinese. While her releases have received mixed critical reception, she is regarded as one of pop music's most influential voices, she has won five Grammy Awards, including Record of the Year. Billboard named her the "Queen of Adult Contemporary" for having the most number ones on the radio format for a female artist, she is the second best-selling female artist in the US during the Nielsen SoundScan era. In 2003, she was honoured by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry for selling over 50 million albums in Europe.
She remains the best-selling Canadian artist and one of the best-selling artists of all time with record sales of over 200 million copies worldwide. Dion was born in Charlemagne, Quebec, 15 miles northeast of Montreal, the youngest of 14 children of Thérèse, a homemaker, Adhémar Dion, a butcher, both of French-Canadian descent, she was raised a Roman Catholic in a poor, but, by her own account, happy home in Charlemagne. Music had always been a major part of the Dion family, she was named after the song "Céline", which French singer Hugues Aufray had recorded two years before her own birth. On 13 August 1973, at the age of five, the young Céline made her first public appearance at her brother Michel's wedding, where she performed Christine Charbonneau's song "Du fil des aiguilles et du coton", she continued to perform with her siblings in her parents' small piano bar called Le Vieux Baril, "The Old Barrel". From an early age, she had dreamed of being a performer. In a 1994 interview with People magazine, she recalled, "I missed my family and my home, but I don't regret having lost my adolescence.
I had one dream: I wanted to be a singer." At age 12, she collaborated with her mother and her brother Jacques to write and compose her first song, "Ce n'était qu'un rêve", whose title translates as "It Was Only a Dream" or "Nothing But A Dream". Her brother Michel sent the recording to music manager René Angélil, whose name he discovered on the back of a Ginette Reno album. Angélil was decided to make her a star. In 1981, he mortgaged his home to fund her first record, La voix du bon Dieu, which became a local No. 1 hit and made her an instant star in Quebec. Her popularity spread to other parts of the world when she competed in the 1982 Yamaha World Popular Song Festival in Tokyo and won the musician's award for "Top Performer" as well as the gold medal for "Best Song" with "Tellement j'ai d'amour pour toi". By 1983, in addition to becoming the first Canadian artist to receive a gold record in France for the single "D'amour ou d'amitié", Dion had won several Félix Awards, including "Best Female performer" and "Discovery of the Year".
Further success came when she represented Switzerland in the 1988 Eurovision Song Contest with the song "Ne partez pas sans moi" and won the contest by a close margin in Dublin, Ireland. At age eighteen, after seeing a Michael Jackson performance, Dion told Angélil that she wanted to be a star like Jackson. Though confident in her talent, Angélil realized that her image needed to be changed for her to be marketed worldwide, she receded from the spotlight for a number of months, during which she underwent dental surgery to improve her appearance, was sent to the École Berlitz in 1989 to polish her English. In 1989, during a concert on the Incognito tournée, she injured her voice, she consulted the otorhinolaryngologist William Gould, who gave her an ultimatum: have immediate surgery on her vocal cords or do not utilize them at all for three weeks. Dion underwent vocal training with William Riley. Two years after she learned English, Dion made her debut into the Anglophone market with Unison, the lead single having been recorded by Laura Branigan.
She incorporated the help of many established musicians, including Vito Luprano and Canadian producer David Foster. The album was la