Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west and Hungary to the north and Romania to the east, Albania and Greece to the south; the nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Vojvodina; the SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of King Peter II, thus ending the monarchy.
Until 1948, the new communist government sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, transitioned from a planned economy to market socialism; the SFRY maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, BTWC. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation; the economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in early 1990s. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation failed. In 1991 some European states recognized their independence; the federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.
Two of its republics and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" is now used retrospectively; the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug and slavija. The Slavic word jug means'south', while slavija denotes a'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be'South-Slavia' or'Land of the South Slavs'; the full official name of the federation varied between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades —the official name of the state. After the Kingdom was occupied by the Axis during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country.
The name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1945, King Peter II was deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution coming into force in 1946. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced; the state is most referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist"; the names are as follows: Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages Latin: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija Cyrillic: Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: Macedonian pronunciation: Slovene language Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most known as Yugoslavia.
The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans; the Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, under his command the movement soon began establishing "liberated territories" which attracted the attention of occupying forces. Unlike the various nationalist militias operating in occupied Yugoslavia, the Partisans were a pan-Yugoslav movement promoting the "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav nations, representing the republican, left-wing, socialist elements of the Yugoslav political
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Palais de Beaulieu
Palais de Beaulieu is the historical and emblematic building of the Lausanne convention and exhibition center, located in Lausanne, in the Vaud Canton, Switzerland. The Palais is a convention centre that welcomes conventions and events; the center includes the Théâtre de Beaulieu concert and theatre hall which hosted the 1989 Eurovision Song Contest. With 1,844 seats, the Théâtre de Beaulieu is the biggest theatre in Switzerland; the Prix de Lausanne, an international ballet competition, is hosted at the Palais de Beaulieu. La Télé, a regional TV-channel, has its studio and its offices at Beaulieu, as well as the Béjart Ballet Lausanne company. Located in the Beaulieu area in Lausanne, the Convention and Exhibition Center lies in more than 6 hectares of ground, it boasts of 12,000 sq. m. of public gardens. The Convention Center uses around 20 modular halls. Beaulieu Lausanne, part of MCH Group hosts some of Switzerland's major fairs and exhibitions; the first "Comptoir Vaudois d'échantillons" was inaugurated in Lausanne in 1916, thanks to the Société industrielle et commerciale de Lausanne, the Chambre vaudoise du commerce et de l'industrie, with support from the Lausanne Municipality.
This kind of event was a novelty in Switzerland. The first Comptoir suisse took place in September, 1920. Since only one edition never happened: the one of 1939, because of the war. Note that the first official event of the NASA in Europe took place during the 1962 Comptoir suisse; the great hall - to be known as Beaulieu's main building - was built in 1921. It is called the Palais de Beaulieu since 1957. During the Second World War, it hosted prisoners of war. Talks about creating a new theater began in 1949, involved the Lausanne Municipality and the Société Coopérative du Comptoir Suisse. In 1954, the Théâtre de Beaulieu was inaugurated. Nowadays, the Theater is used, among others, by well-known local institutions such as the Béjart Ballet Lausanne, the Orchestre de la Suisse romande and the Paternelle. On the western side of Beaulieu, buildings were added between 1920 and 1940. Between 1950 and 1954, development moved to the South and East of the site; the North Halls were built in 1960 and many renovations followed.
Thus, as well as the Comptoir suisse, Beaulieu hosted conventions, artistic activities and economic events. Since 2000, the buildings belong to a public law foundation named the Beaulieu Foundation, created by the Vaud Canton, the City of Lausanne and Vaud district councils; the Foundation is in charge of maintenance and logistics, as well as the strategic and economic development of the site. It manages the Convention Center and, along with Opus One SA, the Beaulieu Theater; as a tenant, MCH Beaulieu Lausanne SA, that took over from the Société Coopérative du Comptoir Suisse, organizes fairs and exhibitions in the South Halls. Since 2006, Eldora Traiteur SA, a branch of the Eldora SA Group, is in charge of the catering; the Beaulieu Foundation launched a renovation program named Beaulieu 2020, that encompasses years 2000 to 2020. Under the Beaulieu 2020 flag, the Palais de Beaulieu has undergone various renovations since 2001, work is still going on; the old South Halls were destroyed and new South Halls were built in 2011.
In 2014, a vote of the population of Lausanne rejected by 52% the project of building a tower of 90 meters next to the Palais de Beaulieu. As a result, MCH Beaulieu Lausanne decided to reduce the conference activities and to concentrate on trade fairs; this triggered a reorganization of its partners. As from 2014, spaces in the Palais de Beaulieu are being reallocated; the Haute Ecole de la Santé La Source has decided to take premises at Beaulieu. The Court of Arbitration for Sport of the International Olympic Committee is planning to move from the Château de Béthusy to the south part of the Palais de Beaulieu. Habitat Jardin Comptoir suisse Baby & Kid Planet Swiss Expo Le Salon des métiers et de la formation Le Prix de Lausanne le Béjart Ballet Lausanne L'OSR La Paternelle Numerus general assemblies and conventions First International Congress on World Evangelization Eurovision Song Contest 1989 World Gymnaestrada Holiday on Ice Mamma Mia Official website Official website
Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest
Israel has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 41 times since making its debut in 1973. Israel was able to enter the contest as the Israel Broadcasting Authority is a member organisation of the European Broadcasting Union, responsible for the event. Israel has won the contest four times, has hosted the contest twice, in 1979 and 1999, both times in Jerusalem. Israel will host the contest for the third time in Tel Aviv in 2019. Israel's first appearance at the contest in 1973 was successful, with Ilanit finishing fourth. Israel achieved victories in 1978 and 1979, with wins for Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta, with the song "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" and Gali Atari and Milk and Honey, with "Hallelujah". In 1980, the IBA declined to host the contest for the second successive year for financial reasons, as the date for the contest in The Hague conflicted with Yom Hazikaron – Israeli Memorial Day – Israel did not participate; this is the only time. The country's best results in the 1980s were the second-place finishes for Avi Toledano in 1982 and Ofra Haza in 1983.
Former winner Izhar Cohen returned to place fifth in 1985, before Duo Datz finished third in 1991. Israel achieved its third victory in 1998, with Dana International and "Diva". Eden finished fifth in 1999; as of 2018, Israel has the record for most participations in the contest without coming last, but it has placed second to last in the final three times, in 1986, 1993 and 2006. Since the introduction of the semi-finals in 2004, Israel has failed to reach the final six times. In 2005, Shiri Maimon gave the country its tenth top five result. Having failed to qualify for the final for four consecutive years, Israel reached the final for the first time in five years, with Nadav Guedj finishing ninth in 2015, the country has participated in the final every year since. Israel's fourth victory came when Netta won the 2018 contest in Lisbon, with the song "Toy". To date there have been four Israeli victories in the contest. Izhar Cohen and Alphabeta won in Paris in 1978 with the uptempo A-Ba-Ni-Bi. On home ground in Jerusalem the following year, Israel won again, this time with the anthemic Hallelujah performed by Gali Atari & Milk and Honey.
Unusually, Israel did not defend the title in 1980. The third victory came 20 years in Birmingham in 1998. Singer Dana International took top honours with the song Diva, setting off widespread celebrations in Israel. Twenty years Israel earned their fourth victory at the 2018 contest in Lisbon, Portugal; the song was "Toy" by Netta Barzilai. Israel's earliest selections were picked by the Israel Broadcasting Authority; the first singer to represent the country in 1973 was Ilanit. Criticism increased after she was sent again four years leading to a rule that the winner of the established Hebrew Song and Chorus Festival would represent Israel at the contest; the Eurovision Song Contest winners of 1978 and 1979 were selected by this method. From 1981 the selection process was handled by the Kdam Eurovision with the exceptions of 1990, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002–2004, 2006–2007 and 2010 where the selections were again picked by the IBA. After winning the contest in 1978 and 1979, the IBA was financially and logistically unable to organise the event for the second consecutive year.
The organization of the festival was subsequently handed over to the Netherlands who agreed to stage it. Because much time had passed, it was difficult to find a suitable date for the Song Contest; the date chosen coincided with a memorial day in Israel, the country was forced to withdraw. This made Israel the only country to date unable to defend its title; the 1980 Hebrew Song and Chorus Festival therefore did not double as a national final that year unlike the last two years, the winning song "Pizmon Chozer" by the band The Brothers & the Sisters was never given the chance to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest. In 1984 Israel once again refrained from participating due to the same date conflict; the song "Balalaika" by Ilanit has been rumoured to have been intended as the Israel entry in Eurovision Song Contest 1984 but the rumours have never been confirmed. Apart from its victories, Israel's entries have had a mixed reception at the contest. Avi Toledano and Ofra Haza scored well with big revivalist numbers, but the all-singing, all-dancing style became less popular in the decade and Israel's 1986 entry, Yavo Yom by Moti Giladi & Sarai Tzuriel, came in 19th, the country's worst showing yet.
In 1987 Israel finished 8th with Shir Habatlanim by the satiric duo Lazy Bums. Due to its satiric nature, it prompted Israeli Minister of Culture, Yitzhak Navon, to threaten to resign, if the song went on to represent Israel on the night of the contest. However, he didn't. In 1990 Rita's sensuous ballad was not well received, but in 1991, Orna and Moshe Datz finished third, Israel's best result since 1983. Israel's third victory occurred in 1998, when Dana International won the crown with her song "Diva." Israel had a 5th-place finish by Eden when it hosted the 1999 contest. However, Ping-Pong's disco effort in 2000 failed badly, though the group was noted for their optimistic lyrics and message of reconciliation and peace in Western Asia, they went as far as waving Syrian flags at the end of their performance. In 2004 David D'Or came in 11th in the semifinal with the song "Leha'amin", leaving Israel out of the finals for the first time since 1997. Shiri Maymon's performance in Kiev in 2005 brought Israel back to the top five, ensured a place in the Athens 2006 final
Cyprus in the Eurovision Song Contest
Cyprus has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 35 times since making its debut in 1981. Cyprus' first entry was the group Island; the country's best result in the contest is a second-place finish with Eleni Foureira in 2018. Since 2004, Cyprus failed to qualify from the semi-final round for six out of eight years, before withdrawing from the 2014 contest. On 14 July 2014, CyBC confirmed Cyprus' return to the contest, with the country reaching the final four times in a row in 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018. Since its first entry, Cyprus has participated every year except 1988, 2001 and 2014. In 1988, Cyprus withdrew its entry after broadcaster CyBC determined that the intended entry was ineligible. In 2001, the country did not qualify for the contest due to insufficiently high average scores in previous contests, according to the qualification process at the time. In 2014, the broadcaster decided to withdraw from the contest and cited public indifference and the economic difficulties for not taking part.
As of 2018, Cyprus now holds the record for the most times competing in the Eurovision Song Contest without a single win with 35 entries into the contest. Most of the Cypriot entries have been sung in Greek or English. On 3 October 2013, the Cypriot broadcaster Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation withdrew from the 2014 contest. Reasons that were cited are public opinion regarding the 2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis and budget restrictions as factors that influenced this decision. Cyprus is famous for always exchanging 12 points with Greece in the Semi Final and Final, though there have been exceptions; the last time Cyprus gave Greece less than 12 points was in 2015. Since the advent of televoting in 1998, the two countries have given each other the maximum 12 points until the 2015 Contest, where neither country gave their 12 to the other, but curiously both gave them to Italy. Cyprus and Turkey never exchanged votes until 2003, a taboo attributed to the ongoing Cyprus dispute. Since its first entry in 1981, Cyprus has had a mixture of bad results.
The best result achieved so far is a second place, reached by Eleni Foureira at the 2018 Contest. In the 1980s and 1990s, Cyprus had managed to reach the top 10 a number of times, something which made the Contest become popular in the Cypriot public. Since 2004, Cyprus' performance has dropped notably. From 2006 to 2009 and again in 2011 & 2013, the country didn't manage to reach the final. At the same time when Cyprus' performance in the contest dropped vertically, Greece's performance improved fast by one win and seven top ten results in one decade; this created a shift of interest, with the Cypriot public being more interested in the success of the Greek entry. This is because Greece, since 2004, seems to send popular singers that have a well established fan-club in Cyprus, while Cyprus elects their contestants through an open contest, which results in young and somewhat unknown artists representing the country. On 14 July 2014, CyBC confirmed their return to the contest in 2015. Cyprus hosted the Eurovision Song Project, which included 2 semi-finals, 1 second chance round and a final.
Since their return in 2015 the country has never failed to qualify, made their best result with Eleni Foureira coming second in 2018. Table key NOTES a. ^ In 2012, Cyprus and Ukraine were both awarded with 65 points each in the final, according to tie-break procedures, Ukraine finished 15th overall and Cyprus 16th because Ukraine received points from a greater number of countries between the two. B. ^ If a country had won the previous year, they did not have to compete in the semi-finals the following year. In addition, back in 2004-2007, the top ten countries who were not members of the big four did not have to compete in the semi finals the following year. If, for example and France placed inside the top ten with Spain and the United Kingdom finishing after 15th place, the countries who placed 11th and 12th were advanced to the following year's grand final along with the rest of the top ten countries. C. ^ Although the lyrics are in English, the Spanish title'Fuego' is repeated throughout the song.
As of 2018, Cyprus' voting history is as follows: In addition, since 2009, British writer and TV presenter Nathan Morley has provided the CyBC Radio commentary. All conductors are Cypriot except those with a flag. Cyprus in the Eurovision Young Musicians Cyprus in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest National Final Cyprus Points to and from Cyprus eurovisioncovers.co.uk Music.net.cy - Cyprus National Finals 2010