SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eurozone

The eurozone called the euro area, is a monetary union of 19 of the 27 European Union member states which have adopted the euro as their common currency and sole legal tender. The monetary authority of the eurozone is the Eurosystem; the other eight members of the European Union continue to use their own national currencies, although most of them are obliged to adopt the euro in the future. The eurozone consists of Austria, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovakia and Spain. Other EU states are obliged to join. No state has left, there are no provisions to do so or to be expelled. Andorra, San Marino, Vatican City have formal agreements with the EU to use the euro as their official currency and issue their own coins. Kosovo and Montenegro have adopted the euro unilaterally, but these countries do not form part of the eurozone and do not have representation in the European Central Bank or in the Eurogroup; the ECB, governed by a president and a board of the heads of national central banks, sets the monetary policy of the zone.

The principal task of the ECB is to keep inflation under control. Though there is no common representation, governance or fiscal policy for the currency union, some co-operation does take place through the Eurogroup, which makes political decisions regarding the eurozone and the euro; the Eurogroup is composed of the finance ministers of eurozone states, but in emergencies, national leaders form the Eurogroup. Since the financial crisis of 2007–08, the eurozone has established and used provisions for granting emergency loans to member states in return for enacting economic reforms; the eurozone has enacted some limited fiscal integration: for example, in peer review of each other's national budgets. The issue is political and in a state of flux in terms of what further provisions will be agreed for eurozone change. In 1998, eleven member states of the European Union had met the euro convergence criteria, the eurozone came into existence with the official launch of the euro on 1 January 1999.

Greece qualified in 2000, was admitted on 1 January 2001 before physical notes and coins were introduced on 1 January 2002, replacing all national currencies. Between 2007 and 2015, seven new states acceded. Four of the dependent territories of EU member states not part of the EU have adopted the euro: Akrotiri and Dhekelia Territorial collectivity of Saint Barthélemy Overseas Collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon French Southern and Antarctic Lands The euro is used in countries outside the EU. Four states – Andorra, San Marino, Vatican City — have signed formal agreements with the EU to use the euro and issue their own coins, they are not considered part of the eurozone by the ECB and do not have a seat in the ECB or Euro Group. Several currencies are pegged to the euro, some of them with a fluctuation band and others with an exact rate. For example, the West African and Central African CFA francs are pegged at 655.957 CFA to 1 EUR. In 1998, in anticipation of Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, the Council of the European Union addressed the monetary agreements France had with the CFA Zone and Comoros and ruled that the ECB had no obligation towards the convertibility of the CFA and Comorian francs.

The responsibility of the free convertibility remained in the French Treasury. Kosovo and Montenegro adopted the euro as their sole currency without an agreement and, have no issuing rights; these states are not considered part of the eurozone by the ECB. However, sometimes the term eurozone is applied to all territories that have adopted the euro as their sole currency. Further unilateral adoption of the euro, by both non-euro EU and non-EU members, is opposed by the ECB and EU; the chart below provides a full summary of all applying exchange-rate regimes for EU members, since the European Monetary System with its Exchange Rate Mechanism and the related new common currency ECU was born on 13 March 1979. The euro replaced the ECU 1:1 at the exchange rate markets, on 1 January 1999. During 1979–1999, the D-Mark functioned as a de facto anchor for the ECU, meaning there was only a minor difference between pegging a currency against ECU and pegging it against the D-mark. Sources: EC convergence reports 1996-2014, Italian lira, Spanish peseta, Portuguese escudo, Finish markka, Greek drachma, UK pound The eurozone was born with its first 11 member states on 1 January 1999.

The first enlargement of the eurozone, to Greece, took place on 1 January 2001, one year before the euro had physically entered into circulation. The next enlargements were to states which joined the EU in 2004, joined the eurozone on 1 January in the year noted: Slovenia, Malta, Estonia and Lithuania. All new EU members joining the bloc after the signing of the Maastricht treaty in 1992 are obliged to adopt the euro under the terms of their accession treaties. However, the last of the five economic convergence criteria which need first to be complied with in order to qualify for euro adoption, is the exchange rate stability criterion, which requires having been an ERM-member for a minimum of two years without the presence of "severe

Carnarvon, Northern Cape

Carnarvon is a small town in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Carnarvon was established in 1853 on a route between Cape Town and Botswana, followed by early explorers and traders, it was established as a mission station of the Rhenish Missionary Society and named Harmsfontein. The Rhenish missionaries established Schietfontein to the west, which developed into a village. In 1874 Harmsfontein was renamed Carnarvon in honour of the British Colonial Secretary, Lord Carnarvon; the town is known for its corbelled houses - domed-roof houses constructed from flat stones - which were built between 1811 and 1815. The Afrikaans poet A. G. Visser had strong associations with Carnarvon, the house where he lived in the town still stands. Carnarvon Museum contains exhibits on the region's cultural history; the building was constructed in 1907, was the community hall for the Dutch Reformed Church before being donated to the municipality when a new community centre was constructed in 1973. The museum holds a number of antiques related to the area, including an old hearse used by the Dutch Reformed Church.

A corbelled house is preserved outside the museum, relocated from a nearby farm. An English-built fort was constructed on top of the hill that overlooks Carnarvon during the Second Boer War; the hill, now named Koeëlkop, is now used for a water reservoir. Carnarvon is a busy farming centre, its main agricultural activity is sheep farming. The town centre has a Spar store; the MeerKAT radio telescope array is under construction at a site around 90 km from Carnarvon. The core of the Square Kilometre Array will be constructed on the same site. Carnarvon Nature Reserve is home to 11 species of game. Carnarvon has a private tortoise reserve, containing 60 leopard tortoises. There are three tarred roads out of Carnarvon; the road west to the picturesque Williston and Calvinia and the road south and east to Victoria West are numbered as part of the R63 provincial route, while the road east to Britstown is numbered as the R384 regional route. Carnarvon Airport accommodates ultra-light aircraft. Carnarvon was served by a station on the branch railway line from Hutchinson to Calvinia, closed in 2001.

The modern public library meets the needs of all readers and the local high school is capable of preparing pupils to follow any career path. With a hostel, the school offers accommodation to pupils. In 1875, the NG Church was established and the first pastor was Rev. WP de Villiers, pastor of NG Beaufort West. For 30 Years Rev. de Villiers was head of the NG Church. As there were no schools, the pastor, when his duties allowed, his wife started a teaching school; the first church was built using stone. At a total cost of £12,000 equivalent to £1,139,000 in 2019 the first church was inaugurated in February 1882, but the cornerstone reads: "Deze steen werd gelegd in Zoon en Heilige Geest. 23 September 1880.", stating 23 September 1880 as the inaugurated date. The adult professing NG Church membership was 830 in 1979, 660 in 1999, 468 in 2000, 406 in 2007 and 375 in 2012. History of Carnarvon Carnarvon

Morodvis

Morodvis is a village in Zrnovci municipality, located in the base of mountain Plačkovica, 7 kilometres south of Kočani, Republic of North Macedonia. The village is the site of a complex of late-antique and medieval localities; the village was inhabited from the 5th to 7th centuries. A church dating from the 5th century was discovered with a tomb as its centre. With its marble flooring and pillars and capitals decorated with medieval motifs, it has been concluded that this church represents a great example of the highest technical level of construction and decoration. In the 9th century, the Slavs settled in the area. From the 10th to the 15th century, the settlement was a religious center of the Bregalnica region. During the last years of the First Bulgarian Empire under the reign of Tsar Samuil it became a bishopric center in the framework of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid; the prosperity of the city of the Morobizdon and Morodvis bishopric ended towards the end of the 12th century, when the Serbian church became dominant in the region.

A Romanesque church was discovered, it originates from this period. The church is an example of the medieval architectural concept, fresco-painted, with flooring made in sextuple technique and church furniture made of carved stone. During the 13th century, a new smaller church was built on the site of the older church, around which a necropolis was discovered, dating between the 12th and the 19th centuries, with more than 350 graves that contained artifacts made of gold, bone and textile. In 1347, as a result of a decision by the church council at its meeting held in Skopje, the headquarters of the bishopric was moved to Zletovo. According to the Census of population and dwellings of 2002, Morodvis had a population of 524 inhabitants, they were recorded on the census as speaking Macedonian with a Štip - Kočani dialect and of Macedonian Orthodox Church