SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eusociality

Eusociality, the highest level of organization of sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care, overlapping generations within a colony of adults, a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups. The division of labor creates specialized behavioral groups within an animal society which are sometimes called castes. Eusociality is distinguished from all other social systems because individuals of at least one caste lose the ability to perform at least one behavior characteristic of individuals in another caste. Eusociality exists in certain insects and mammals, it is observed and studied in the Hymenoptera and in Isoptera. A colony has caste differences: Queens and reproductive males take the roles of the sole reproducers, while soldiers and workers work together to create a living situation favorable for the brood. In addition to Hymenoptera and Isoptera, there are two known eusocial vertebrates among rodents: the naked mole-rat and the Damaraland mole-rat.

Some shrimps, such as Synalpheus regalis, are eusocial. E. O. Wilson and others have claimed that humans have evolved a weak form of eusociality, but these arguments have been disputed; the term "eusocial" was introduced in 1966 by Suzanne Batra, who used it to describe nesting behavior in Halictine bees. Batra observed the cooperative behavior of the bees and females alike, as they took responsibility for at least one duty within the colony; the cooperativeness was essential as the activity of one labor division influenced the activity of another. For example, the size of pollen balls, a source of food, depended on when the egg-laying females oviposited. If the provisioning by pollen collectors was incomplete by the time the egg-laying female occupied a cell and oviposited, the size of the pollen balls would be small, leading to small offspring. Batra applied this term to species. Batra described other species, wherein the founder is accompanied by numerous helpers—as in a swarm of bees or ants—as "hypersocial".

In 1969, Charles D. Michener further expanded Batra’s classification with his comparative study of social behavior in bees, he observed multiple species of bees in order to investigate the different levels of animal sociality, all of which are different stages that a colony may pass through. Eusociality, the highest level of animal sociality a species can attain had three characteristics that distinguished it from the other levels: "Egg-layers and worker-like individuals among adult females" The overlap of generations Cooperative work on the cells of the bees' honeycomb E. O. Wilson extended the terminology to include other social insects, such as ants and termites, it was defined to include organisms that had the following three features: Reproductive division of labor Overlapping generations Cooperative care of youngAs eusociality became a recognized widespread phenomenon, however, it was discovered in a group of chordates, the mole-rats. Further research distinguished another important criterion for eusociality known as "the point of no return".

This is characterized by eusocial individuals that become fixed into one behavioral group, which occurs before reproductive maturity. This prevents them from transitioning between behavioral groups and creates an animal society, dependent on each other for survival and reproductive success. For many insects, this irreversibility has changed the anatomy of the worker caste, sterile and provides support for the reproductive caste. Most eusocial societies exist in arthropods; the order Hymenoptera contains the largest group of eusocial insects, including ants and wasps—those with reproductive "queens" and more or less sterile "workers" and/or "soldiers" that perform specialized tasks. For example, in the well-studied social wasp Polistes versicolor, dominant females perform tasks such as building new cells and ovipositing, while subordinate females tend to perform tasks like feeding the larvae and foraging; the task differentiation between castes can be seen in the fact that subordinates complete 81.4% of the total foraging activity, while dominants only complete 18.6% of the total foraging.

Eusocial species with a sterile caste are sometimes called hypersocial. While only a moderate percentage of species in bees and wasps are eusocial, nearly all species of ants are eusocial; some major lineages of wasps are or eusocial, including the subfamilies Polistinae and Vespinae. The corbiculate bees contain four tribes of varying degrees of sociality: the eusocial Apini and Meliponini, primitively eusocial Bombini, the solitary or weakly social Euglossini. Eusociality in these families is sometimes managed by a set of pheromones that alter the behavior of specific castes in the colony; these pheromones may act across different species, as observed in Apis andreniformis, where worker bees responded to queen pheromone from the related Apis florea. Pheromones are sometimes used in these castes to assist with foraging. Workers of the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria, for instance, mark food sources with a pheromone, helping their nest mates to fi

List of Squadron Supreme members

This page lists the known members of the Squadron Supreme. The Institute of Evil was a group of the Squadron's arch-foes, they became members of the Squadron. Ape-X Lamprey Shape Doctor Decibel Quagmire Foxfire Nighthawk formed a group called the Redeemers from unknown superhumans and former supervillains. Redstone Moonglow Inertia Haywire Thermite Mink Remnant PinballIn addition, Nighthawk's group included former Institute of Evil members Lamprey and Shape, as well as expelled Squadron member Black Archer. In the post-Secret Wars world several superheroes from destroyed alternate universes form a new Squadron Supreme. Hyperion from Earth-13034 Doctor Spectrum from Earth-4290001 Nighthawk from Earth-31916 Thundra from Earth-715 Blur from Earth-148611 Warrior Woman The Squadron Supreme of America are simulacrums that were created by Mephisto and programmed by the Power Elite to serve as the United States of America's sanctioned superhero team. Among its members are Doctor Spectrum - Leader. In his personal time, he works as a colonel in the United States Air Force.

Hyperion - Hyperion was programmed to be a mild-mannered man raised by farmers who had the strength of an Eternal. In his personal time, he works as a history teacher at Buscema High School in Maryland. Power Princess - Power Princess was programmed to be a lustful power woman from Utopia Isle who wore a special necklace to dampen her powers when in her secret identity as a professional boxer. Nighthawk - An African-American variation of Kyle Richmond. Nighthawk was programmed to be in top physical condition while sporting some doubt and jealousy for his teammates enough for him to brood. In his personal time, he is a U. S. congressman elected to the House of Representatives to represent Washington DC. Blur - Blur was programmed to forcefully watch endless loops to keep up his brain speed while watching numerous S. H. I. E. L. D. Files and unscrupulous videos. In his personal time, he works as a computer programmer at an office building in Washington DC. A handful of other heroes and villains were seen in the Squadron series and elsewhere, most of whom were directly analogous to specific DC characters.

Bollix and the Rustler Brain-Child Cerebrax. Master Menace Professor Imam Mysterium. Neal Richmond - Kyle Richmond adopted the biological son of the Huckster after the villain's death and raised him as his own. Neal becomes the new Nighthawk. New World Order mentioned a number of other unseen characters with DC Universe analogues, such as the Erl King and Nighthawk's archfoe the Huckster. There are occasional references to a past super-hero team called the Golden Agency, which included among its members Power Princess and Professor Imam

Downsview Airport

Downsview Airport or Toronto/Downsview Airport is located in the North York district of Toronto, Canada. An air field air force base, it has been a testing facility for Bombardier Aerospace since 1994. Bombardier has sold the facility and manufacturing plant and its future is uncertain. Downsview Airport has its own fire service. Bombardier Emergency Services employees are cross-trained as firefighters, first responders and airport security. Downsview Airfield opened in 1929 as one of two airports in the area, it was built by de Havilland Canada for testing aircraft at the plant at the site. The site was expanded during World War II by the Royal Canadian Air Force and renamed RCAF Station Downsview; the Downsview Airport was developed in 1939 as an airfield next to an aircraft manufacturing plant operated by de Havilland Canada. In 1947, the Department of National Defence purchased property surrounding the airfield and expanded it, creating RCAF Station Downsview to provide an air base for Royal Canadian Air Force units.

The base was renamed Canadian Forces Base Toronto in 1968 and retained this name until its closure in 1996. Since 1998, the property has been administered by a civilian Crown corporation, Parc Downsview Park, which co-manages the airfield with Bombardier Aerospace. In recent years the property has been undergoing various landscape usage plans and some redevelopment has taken place; the airfield was used in recent years to host the 1984 and 2002 papal visits by Pope John Paul II, as well as to host the Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto concert headlined by The Rolling Stones to revive the local economy after the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in 2003. The airfield has served as a test site for several famous aircraft produced by de Havilland and Avro Canada, including the Beaver, the Twin Otter, the Dash 8; the airport is available to pilots only with prior permission. Bombardier Aerospace owns 12 hangars in the southwest corner of the airport, where the Dash 8 is built and assembled.

The Bombardier Global Express and the Bombardier Global 5000 are assembled here at the Downsview plant, as are the wings and wingboxes of the Learjet 45. The Bombardier CSeries jet is assembled in Montreal; the airport has 15/33 at 7,000 ft with a parallel taxiway. Runway 09/27 at 3,164 ft is closed, as is runway 04/22 at 4,000 ft. Bombardier has an agreement to sell the Downsview Airport and its manufacturing plant to PSP Investments. Under the agreement, Bombardier can use Downsview for up to five years. Bombardier signed a lease agreement with the Greater Toronto Airports Authority to build a new facility at Pearson Airport on 38 acres where it would move the production of its Global series planes. Plans for Dash 8 production were not announced at that time. In November 2018, Bombardier sold the Dash 8 business and the DeHavilland name to Viking Air, which has not disclosed its long-term plans for Dash 8 production beyond the existing agreed-upon timeframe for Downsview. A series of homes were built for Canadian Forces personnel at the corner of Keele Street and Sheppard Avenue West and at the south end of the base property.

Access to the north end housing on Robert Woodhead Crescent and John Drury Drive was restricted to base personnel and fenced off from the neighbouring properties. With most of the military base being closed down, the housing has been torn down. Parc Downsview Park – Government of Canada Bombardier Aerospace Tree City The Hangar Sports Complex Toronto Roller Derby The Toronto Wildlife Centre Toronto Football Club Training Facility and Academy Canadian Armed Forces 4th Canadian Division headquarters Area Support Unit Toronto Denison Armoury 32 Canadian Brigade Group headquarters 2 Intelligence Company 32 Combat Engineer Regiment 25 Service Battalion The Governor General's Horse Guards Toronto Transit Commission Wilson Subway YardBuildings located within or next to the airport: Bombardier Aerospace facility – southwest end of the airport CFB Downsview hangars – northeast end of the airport Farmers market – northwest end Downsview Park station – north end, combined subway/commuter train stationFormer tenants Canadian Air and Space Museum the Toronto Aerospace Museum and before that the original factory for de Havilland Aircraft of Canada Most of the roads at Downsview are city-owned roadways: John Drury Drive - portions are a private access road for Canadian Forces Yukon Lane Carl Hall Road Canuck Avenue Hanover Road Beffort Road Robert Woodhead Crescent - private access road for Canadian Forces Garratt Blvd Plewes Road February 14, 1956, a pre-delivery de Havilland U-1A Otter for the United States Army broke up mid-air and crashed near Downsview, killing all five on board.

List of airports in the Greater Toronto Area Canadian Air & Space Museum Parc Downsview Park 410 to 419 Squadrons Bruce Forsyth's Military History Page