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Eustace III, Count of Boulogne

Eustace III was the count of Boulogne from 1087, succeeding his father Count Eustace II. His mother was Ida of Lorraine. In 1088, Eustace supported the rebellion against William II of England in favour of Robert Curthose. Eustace participated in the First Crusade of 1096 along with his brothers Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin of Boulogne, it is unclear whether he travelled eastward with Robert Curthose's army. His contingent included Hugh II of Saint-Pol and his son Engelrand, Eustace I Granarius, lord of Sidon and Caesarea, Fulk of Guînes, Hugh of Robecq, lord of Hebron. Throughout the crusade Eustace assisted Godfrey. Eustace was present at the Siege of Nicaea, helped rescue Bohemund of Taranto's beleaguered troops at the Battle of Dorylaeum, defeated an enemy ambush during the Siege of Antioch and was one of the commanders during the capture of Antioch on June 3, 1098. Eustace was a member of the council held at Ruj on January 4, 1099, mediating in the conflict over the control of Antioch between Bohemund of Taranto and Raymond IV of Toulouse.

Early December 1098 Eustace joined Raymond's attack on Maarrat al-Nu'man and an attack on Nablus in July 1099. He gained notoriety for his actions during the Siege of Jerusalem fighting relentlessly from a siege tower along with his brother Godfrey and the warriors they commanded, they were among the first to breach Jerusalem's city walls and participated in the ensuing massacre. Eustace commanded a division of the crusader army during the Battle of Ascalon. While his brothers stayed in the Holy Land, Eustace returned to administer his domains. To commemorate Eustace's crusading adventures the mint at Boulogne struck silver coins with a lion above the walls of Jerusalem stamped on the obverse. Eustace married daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland. Eustace and Mary had one daughter: Matilda of Boulogne; when his youngest brother king Baldwin I of Jerusalem died in 1118, the elderly Eustace was offered the throne. Eustace was convinced to accept it. Eustace returned to Boulogne and died about 1125.

On his death the county of Boulogne was inherited by his daughter and her husband Stephen de Blois, count of Mortain, afterwards king of England. Eustace was patron of the Knights Templar. Barlow, Frank. William Rufus. University of California Press. Howarth, David Armine. 1066: The Year of the Conquest, 1977 Oksanen, Eljas and the Anglo-Norman World, 1066-1216, Cambridge University Press, 2012. Payne, Robert. Dream and the Tomb, 1984

Stolpersteine in Prague-Josefov

The Stolpersteine in Prague-Josefov lists the Stolpersteine in the town quarter Josefov of Prague, the former Jewish quarter of the city. Stolpersteine is the German name for stumbling blocks collocated all over Europe by German artist Gunter Demnig, they remember the fate of the Nazi victims being murdered, exiled or driven to suicide. The stumbling blocks are posed in front of the building where the victims had their last self-chosen residence; the name of the Stolpersteine in Czech is: stones of the disappeareds. The project in the Czech Republic, namely in Josefov, was launched in 2008 by the Czech Union of Jewish Students. Josefov is a town quarter and the smallest cadastral area of Prague the Jewish quarter of the town, it is surrounded by the Old Town. Jews settled in Prague as early as the 10th century. In 1096 the first pogrom took place. All Jews were concentrated within the Ghetto, shut off from the outside world by fortified walls with gates; as early as in the 11th, 12th and 13th century, Prague developed into a center of rabbinical scholarship and formed a school of Tosafists.

In 1262 Přemysl Otakar II issued a Statuta Judaeorum which granted the community a certain degree of self-administration. On Easter Sunday of 1389 one of the worst pogroms took place, the probable number of victims during the massacre range from about 500 to more than 3,000; the ghetto was most prosperous towards the end of the 16th century and at the beginning of the 17th century when Judah Loew ben Bezalel served as Rabbi, when a Yeshiva was founded and when the Jewish Mayor, Mordecai Maisel, became the Minister of Finance. The wealthy man helped develop the ghetto. By Prague was seen as a Hebrew metropolis in Central Europe. By 1638 the Jewish population of Prague had increased to more than 7.800. In 1744 Empress Maria Theresa ordered all Jews to leave the city. Four years they were allowed to return. In 1848 Jews were granted permission to settle outside the ghetto; the small district housed about 18,000 inhabitants at a certain time. Soon the wealthy Jews moved to less crowded areas. In 1850 the quarter was renamed "Josefstadt" after Emperor Joseph II who emancipated Jews with the Toleration Edict in 1781.

The share of the Jewish population in Josefov decreased, with orthodox and poor Jews remaining there. Between 1893 and 1913 most of the quarter was demolished as part of a restoration of the city following the model of Paris. Due to protests of inhabitants six synagogues could be saved, furthermore the old cemetery and the Old Jewish Town Hall, they are now all part of the Jewish Museum in Prague. A new boulevard with luxurious buildings and shops was created, the Paris Street. Only rich Jews could afford housing in the newly built blocks, the poorer ones moved away. Josefov lost the quarter was integrated in the Old Town. In the 19th century, Jews got caught up in the culture wars between Czech-speaking middle class and German-speaking members of the Austro-Hungarian empire. Beginning in the 1830s many Jews tried hard to assimilate. In the 1870s, Czech nationalism increased and by the last quarter of the 19th Century, a network of Czech-Jewish institutions was created. Not all Jews supported this trend, many remained faithful to German language and culture while others favored the upcoming Zionism.

Conflict between the Zionists and the Czech Jewish nationalists evolved and the Jewish community was divided. German speaking and writing Jews as Franz Kafka, Max Brod and Franz Werfel became world-famous novelists of the early 20th century. After the destruction of Czechoslovakia by Hitler and the unlawful invasion of Nazi troupes in Prague all Czech Jews became victims of several sanctions. In June 1939, Adolf Eichmann arrived in Prague, confiscated a Jewish villa in Stresovice and established The Central Office for Jewish Emigration, he forced the Jewish representatives Emil Jakob Edelstein to comply with all his orders. At that time 56,000 Jews lived in Prague, they were step by step excluded from economic life, deprived of their property, segregated in Prague restaurants and prohibited from using public baths and swimming pools. They were excluded from the movie and theatre industries, restricted to the back of the second car on Prague trams and excluded from all hotels except the Fiser and the Star.

They had to wear the Judenstern and were banned from public service and all social and economic organizations. In August 1940 Jewish children were excluded from Czech schools and in October Jews were denied access to a wide range of rationed goods. On 10 October 1941 Reinhard Heydrich, Karl Hermann Frank and Eichmann developed the plan to deport all Jews from the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia to Łódź Ghetto and Riga, to establish Theresienstadt concentration camp; the Holocaust had begun. The quarter is represented by the flag of Prague's Jewish community, a yellow Magen David on a red field. A scientifically correct list of all Stolpersteine in Prague does not exist. Neither the artist, nor the organizers of the collocations do know how many Stolpersteine have been posed in Prague and where they have been collocated; the website all of a sudden disappeared in late 2016. Therefore, this list constitutes a work-in-progress. Step by step all Prague districts will be visited and all available addresses will be checked.

At this point we cannot guarantee that the list below contains all Stolpersteine of Josefov. You can help by adding reliable

Liberal Judaism (United Kingdom)

Liberal Judaism is one of the two WUPJ-affiliated denominations in the United Kingdom. It is more radical in comparison with the other one, the Movement for Reform Judaism; as of 2010 it was the fourth largest Jewish religious group in Britain, with 8.7% of synagogue-member households. The beliefs of Liberal Judaism are outlined in The Affirmations of Liberal Judaism, authored in 1992 by Rabbi John D. Rayner, the most prominent of the movement's theologians. Founder Claude Montefiore shared the ideals of worldwide Reform Judaism known as "Progressive" or "Liberal". So did Rayner, who affirmed a personal God; the centrality of the Prophets' moral teachings was stressed. As in the other branches of worldwide Reform, these convictions laid little emphasis on practical observance and regarded the mechanisms of Jewish Law as non-binding. British Liberal Judaism was defined by the radical purism of its founding father, exceptional among his peers worldwide in his desire to universalise and spiritualise Judaism, stripping it bare from whatever he considered overly particularist or ceremonial.

Liberal liturgy in the early 20th century was drastically abridged and more than half of it was in English. Bareheaded men and women sat together, ritual or practical observance were explicitly quite ignored; the Election of Israel was reinterpreted in universalist terms, toning down the separateness of Jews and stressing their mission to spread the Word of God among the nations. Prayers for the restoration of the sacrificial cult in Jerusalem by the Messiah, mentions of bodily resurrection, hostility toward gentiles and overt Jewish particularism were excised or at least reformulated; the sterile character of Liberal services and communal life was replaced in the postwar years since the 1970s, as part of a renewed turn to tradition in the WUPJ. Many congregants sought both more tangible means of religious expression and a link with their heritage. A greater proportion of Hebrew in prayer and ceremonies of little importance but great sentimental value, like the bar mitzvah, were introduced, as well as a greater importance of pronounced Jewish uniqueness.

Head coverings, prayer shawls and the like became more popular. Siddur Lev Chadash, the new 1995 prayerbook which replaced the older Service of the Heart from 1967, had far more Hebrew in the liturgy. Old concepts like kashrut, once totally rejected, were recast with a stress on the autonomy of the individual and ethical implications; the denomination was noted for its incorporation of progressive values and great proclivity to change, while the Movement for Reform Judaism appealed to a more conservative audience and had to be more moderate. In the 1950s, Liberal Judaism was the first in the WUPJ to accept patrilineal descent, allowing children of a single Jewish parent to inherit his status on condition he was raised Jewish. Egalitarianism, gender-neutral language in prayer and LGBT participation, ordaining both female and LGBT clergy and conducting same-sex marriage, were pioneered in British Jewry by the movement. "Brit Ahava", a guideline for LGBT weddings, was published before they were legalised.

Today, Liberal rabbis are allowed to perform "blessing" ceremonies for interfaith couples. The official stance is that the non-Jewish partner is being encouraged to "marry in" rather than the Jewish partner "marrying out" of the faith, it was the first to allow non-Jews to be buried alongside their Jewish spouses in cemeteries. Liberal Judaism is a national union of autonomous communities. In 2015 there were 37 affiliated congregations in England and one in Edinburgh, one in Dublin and one outside the British Isles, in Amsterdam; as of 2010, 7,197 households were registered with the movement, or 8.7% of synagogue-member families in Britain. In addition, Mumbay's Rodef Shalom congregation was founded as a member of the Jewish Religious Union, Liberal Judaism's antecedent; the denomination is chaired by Simon Benscher, who has held the role since 2015. Its Senior Rabbi and Chief Executive is Rabbi Danny Rich, in the post since 2004; the president of the movement is Rabbi Dr. Andrew Goldstein, elected in July 2013 after his predecessor, Baroness Rabbi Julia Neuberger.

The movement is steered and informed by three bodies – the Board of National Officers, the Conference of Liberal Rabbis and Cantors, the Council. The Board of National Officers handles issues of the movement's strategy. Liberal rabbis receive training and are ordained by Leo Baeck College, which the movement funds together with the Reform Movement; the Council is made up of representatives from synagogues, allowing them to


The farandole is an open-chain community dance popular in Provence, France. The farandole bears similarities to the gavotte and tarantella; the carmagnole of the French Revolution is a derivative. The farandole was first described in detail by the English folklorist Violet Alford in 1932; the following description is from the county of Nice: Traditionally led by the abbat-mage holding a ribboned halberd, the dancers hold hands and skip at every beat. In the village of Belvédère, on the occasion of the festival honoring patron Saint Blaise, the most married couple leads the dance. Musically, the dance is in 68 time, with a moderate to fast tempo, played by a flute and drum. Folklorists of the early 20th century interpreted most folk dances as being ancient, postulated for the farandole an ancestry traceable to ancient Greece, remaining more or less unchanged "during its two or three thousands years of life". Many recent websites, older encyclopedias, some music history books claim that the farandole is a medieval dance, but never provide an actual medieval quote mentioning the farandole.

While there exist Renaissance descriptions of chain and circle dances, medieval and renaissance iconography showing people dancing in chains and circles, there is no connection between these early dances and the recent folk farandole: Arbeau, the most well-known source for renaissance chain and circle dances such as the branle, does not contain any dance with farandole-specific steps and figures. The term "farandole" is not found in dictionaries of Old French or of Old Occitan "farandoulo", the earliest appearance in the French form farandoule is in 1776, its earliest appearance in English is younger, 1876. The medieval dance researcher Robert Mullally concludes that there is no evidence that the modern folk farandole resembles any kind of medieval dance. Charles Gounod used a farandole, set in front of the Arles Amphitheatre, to open the second act of his opera Mireille. Georges Bizet features the farandole as the fourth and concluding movement of his second L'Arlésienne suite. In Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty ballet, the dames propose a farandole in the fourth scene of the second act.

There is a farandole in Camille Saint-Saëns' opera Les Barbares, a farandole is present in the classical saxophone piece Tableaux de Provence by Paule Maurice, the first movement of five. In the 1940 Abbott and Costello film, "A Night in the Tropics," the movie ends with the singing and dancing of "The Farandola." In 1969, a band by the name of "Love Sculpture" had an album entitled Feelings. One of the songs was "Farandole" by Georges Bizet. Bob James on his album "Two" performed Bizet's Farandole in a jazz funk style. Released in 1975, the album charted at number two on the Jazz Album Charts. During his time as a member of the 1980s metal band Talas, Billy Sheehan performed another rock cover of Bizet's "The Farandole", subsequently covered, in a similar manner by Dream Theater. In Madeleine L'Engle's A Wind in the Door, the Farandolae are fictional organelles of mitochondria, which have a similar endosymbiotic relationship with mitochondria, as mitochondria have with eukaryotic cells. Over the course of the novel, characters physically journey inside a mitochondrion and encounter the farandolae as sentient creatures that do circular "dances" around their "trees of origin" that drain the elder fara of energy.

Within the Society for Creative Anachronism and other associations who attempt to recreate dances of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the farandole is sometimes danced due to its assumed medieval origin. Examples can be found on YouTube. Dances and traditional musics used in the county of Nice A more extensive description of steps

Doris Buffett

Doris Buffett is an American philanthropist known as the'retail' philanthropist and the founder of The Sunshine Lady Foundation, The Learning By Giving Foundation, The Letters Foundation who she co-founded alongside her younger brother, billionaire Warren Buffett. She is the daughter of U. S. politician and stockbroker Howard Homan Buffett. Doris Buffett intends to give all of her money. Doris Buffett is the granddaughter of Ernest Buffett who operated a family grocery store in Omaha, Nebraska, her father Howard Homan Buffett, founded the Omaha based investment business Buffett-Falk & Company in 1931. She is the oldest sister of Warren Buffett, the chief executive of Berkshire Hathaway, the third-wealthiest person in the world. Buffett grew up in Kansas, suffered through the Great Depression and saw frugal times as a young wife before her inheritance that now allows her to do philanthropic work, she has fought two bouts of cancer. Buffett attracted attention with the publication of a 2010 book titled, “Giving It All Away: The Doris Buffett Story,”, authored by Michael Zitz.

The book, which she pursued at the urging of her brother Warren Buffett and the lead singer of U2 Bono, describes Doris' background and life as a philanthropist. Buffett has donated $100 million of her own money to needy individuals taking the time to call and write to them and determine the best way to help. Through her Sunshine Lady Foundation she has helped thousands of children get an education or attend camp, sponsored young women in Afghanistan and supports prison education programs amongst other philanthropy work, her goal is to give away her entire fortune, which remains substantial despite her generosity and the stock market crash of 2008. She established the Letters Foundation alongside her brother Warren Buffett to provide humanitarian grants to people experiencing a crisis through no fault of their own, when no other options exist. A hand-up and not hand-out is her philanthropy principle, her brother Warren Buffett helped fund some of the foundation’s early projects though she began providing funds herself from Berkshire Hathway stocks she owned.

Unlike brother Warren Buffett who grants in'wholesale', Doris Buffett believes in small and direct grants to people with financial difficulties hence the nickname'retail' philanthropist. "She is far more philanthropic. She identifies with the underdog. I do it in a wholesale way, but not on a one-on-one basis, she wants to know their stories," Warren Buffett said to the Wall Street Journal. Doris Buffett established the Learning By Giving Foundation which promotes the study of experiential philanthropy at various undergraduate colleges across the United States. Buffett made her home in Fredericksburg and moved to Boston in 2016 to be closer to family, to receive treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. In December 2018, Doris released a second book titled Letters to Doris: One Woman's Quest to Help Those With Nowhere Else to Turn. Warren Buffett Howard Buffett Peter Buffett Susan Alice Buffett Official website Buffett interview

Charles K. Fletcher

Charles Kimball Fletcher was an American banker and Republican politician from San Diego, California. Fletcher was born 1902 to "Colonel" Ed Fletcher and Mary C. Fletcher in San Diego and graduated from San Diego High School where he set several swimming records, including an unofficial world record time in the 220 yard breaststroke. Fletcher went on to Stanford University, where he was captain of the school's water polo team, which won the national championship in 1924, the year he graduated, he is the San Diego Hall of Champions. Fletcher attended Pembroke College, Oxford University, England, in 1934. After graduation, he went into the savings and loan business, he founded Home Federal Savings & Loan Association in 1934, serving as its president until 1959 when he became chairman of the board of directors. During World War II, Fletcher served as a lieutenant with the United States Naval Reserve from 1943 to 1945, he served as a member of California Commission on Correctional Facilities and Services from 1955 to 1957.

Fletcher was elected to the 80th United States Congress, serving one term from 1947–1949. He lost his bid for reelection in 1948. Fletcher married and had at least one son, Charles K. "Kim", Jr., chair of Home Federal. He lived in San Diego until his death from cancer in 1985, he was cremated and the ashes were scattered off the coast of Del Mar, California. Biography of Father, Col. Ed Fletcher. Based on biography in Carl Heilbron's History of San Diego County. URL