A cabinet was a private room in the houses and palaces of early modern Europe serving as a study or retreat for a man. The cabinet would be furnished with books and works of art, sited adjacent to his bedchamber, the equivalent of the Italian Renaissance studiolo. In the Late Medieval period, such newly perceived requirements for privacy had been served by the solar of the English gentry house, a similar, less secular purpose had been served by a private oratory; such a room might be used as a office, or just a sitting room. Heating the main rooms in large palaces or mansions in the winter was difficult, small rooms were more comfortable, they offered more privacy from servants, other household members, visitors. Such a room would be for the use of a single individual, so that a house might have at least two and more. Names varied: cabinet, study, a range of more female equivalents, such as a boudoir. With its origins in requirements for increased privacy for reading and meditation engendered by the humanist avocation of many of the Italian noble and mercantile elite in the Quattrocento, the studiolo provided a retreat reachable only through the, comparatively public, bedroom.
This was true for the elaborate Studiolo of Francesco I de' Medici located in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. The standard fittings of the late medieval and early modern study can be inventoried among the conventional trappings in portrayals of Saint Jerome in illuminated manuscripts, in paintings, or in engravings like those of Albrecht Dürer: a chair. In Domenico Ghirlandaio's Saint Jerome in his Study, shelving runs around the room at the level of the frieze, on it are curious objects, containers of various types, large volumes lying on their sides. Studioli inlaid in intarsia for the ducal palaces of Urbino and Gubbio with simulated shelves and built-in cabinets filled with books, scientific instruments and examples of geometric solids, all rendered in striking trompe-l'oeil evoke the character of the pursuits of the cabinet. For Ferdinando Gonzaga's studiolo at Mantua, in about 1619, Domenico Fetti painted a series of New Testament parables, suitable for private contemplation. Isabella d'Este called her room with paintings commissioned from Andrea Mantegna and others a studiolo.
A studiolo would have a Latin motto painted or inlaid round the frieze. Heraldry and personal devices and emblems would remind the occupant of his station in life. Series of portraits of exemplary figures were popular, whether the Nine Worthies or the classical philosophers, in imaginary ideal portrait heads; the grandest studiolo was the Camerino of Alfonso d'Este in Ferrara, for which the greatest painters of the day were commissioned from about 1512-1525 to paint mythological canvases large by the standards of the time. Fra Bartolommeo died before starting work, Raphael got no further than a drawing, but Giovanni Bellini completed The Feast of the Gods in 1514. Titian was brought in and added three of his finest works: Bacchus and Ariadne, The Andrians and The Worship of Venus, as well as repainting the background of the Bellini to match his own works better. Dosso Dossi, Alphonso's court painter, completed the room with a large painting and ten small oblong subjects to go as a frieze above the others.
In Elizabethan England, such a private retreat would most be termed a closet, the most recent in a series of developments in which people of means found ways to withdraw by degrees from the public life of the household as it was lived in the late medieval great hall. This sense of "closet" has continued use in the term "closet drama", a literary work in the form of theatre, intended not to be mounted nor publicly presented, but to be read and visualised in privacy. Two people in intimate private conversation were until said to be "closetted". In his closet at Christ Church, Robert Burton wrote The Anatomie of Melancholy. Cabinet in English was used for strongrooms, or treasure-stores - the tiny but exquisite Elizabethan tower strongroom at Lacock Abbey might have been so called - but in the wider sense. David Rizzio was murdered when dining with his putative lover Mary, Queen of Scots in "a cabinet abowte xii footes square, in the same a little low reposinge bedde, a table". A rare surviving cabinet, or closet, with its contents little changed since the early 18th century, is at Ham House in Richmond, England.
It is less than 10 feet square, leads off from the Long Gallery, well over 100 feet long by 20 feet wide, giving a rather startling change in scale and atmosphere. As is the case, it has an excellent view of the front entrance to the house, so that comings and goings can be discreetly observed. Most surviving large houses or palaces from before 1700, have such rooms, but they are often not displayed to visitors. Since the reign of King George I, the Cabinet – derived from the room – has been the principal e
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,147 as of 2018. Vilnius is the second largest city in the Baltic states. Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania and the Vilnius District Municipality. Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies, is known for the architecture in its Old Town, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. Before World War II, Vilnius was one of the largest Jewish centres in Europe, its Jewish influence has led to it being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and Napoleon named it "the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz; the name of the city originates from the Vilnia River. The city has been known by many derivate spellings in various languages throughout its history: Vilna was once common in English; the most notable non-Lithuanian names for the city include: Polish: Wilno, Belarusian: Вiльня, German: Wilna, Latvian: Viļņa, Russian: Вильна, Ukrainian: Вільно, Yiddish: ווילנע.
A Russian name from the time of the Russian Empire was Вильна. The names Wilno and Vilna have been used in older English, German and Italian language publications when the city was one of the capitals of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and an important city in the Second Polish Republic; the name Vilna is still used in Finnish, Portuguese and Hebrew. Wilna is still used in German, along with Vilnius; the neighborhoods of Vilnius have names in other languages, which represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the area. According to the legend, Grand Duke Gediminas was hunting in the sacred forest near the Valley of Šventaragis, near where Vilnia River flows into the Neris River. Tired after the successful hunt of a wisent, the Grand Duke settled in for the night, he fell soundly asleep and dreamed of a huge Iron Wolf standing on top a hill and howling as strong and loud as a hundred wolves. Upon awakening, the Duke asked the krivis Lizdeika to interpret the dream, and the priest told him: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site.
This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, the glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world." Therefore, obeying the will of the gods, built the city, gave it the name Vilnius – from the stream of the Vilnia River. Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with Voruta, one of the castles of Mindaugas, crowned in 1253 as King of Lithuania. During the reign of Vytenis a city started to emerge from a trading settlement and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built; the city was first mentioned in written sources in 1323 as Vilna, when the Letters of Grand Duke Gediminas were sent to German cities inviting Germans to settle in the capital city, as well as to Pope John XXII. These letters contain the first unambiguous reference to Vilnius as the capital. According to legend, Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling on a hilltop and consulted a pagan priest Lizdeika for its interpretation, he was told: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site.
This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, the glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world". The location offered practical advantages: it lay in the Lithuanian heartland at the confluence of two navigable rivers, surrounded by forests and wetlands that were difficult to penetrate; the duchy had been subject to intrusions by the Teutonic Knights. Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the residence of the Grand Duke. Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy through warfare along with strategic marriages. At its height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Ukraine and portions of modern-day Poland and Russia, his grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, fought civil wars. During the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, Vytautas besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from Jogaila; the two settled their differences. The rulers of this federation held either or both of two titles: Grand Duke of Lithuania or King of Poland.
In 1387, Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, granted Magdeburg rights to the city. The city underwent a period of expansion; the Vilnius city walls were built for protection between 1503 and 1522, comprising nine city gates and three towers, Sigismund August moved his court there in 1544. Its growth was due in part to the establishment of Alma Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Iesu by the Polish King and Grand Duke of Lithuania Stefan Bathory in 1579; the university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most notable scientific centre of the Commonwealth. During its rapid development, the city was open to migrants from the territories of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy and further. A variety of languages were spoken: Polish, Yiddish, Lithuanian, Old
Table of Ranks
The Table of Ranks was a formal list of positions and ranks in the military and court of Imperial Russia. Peter the Great introduced the system in 1722 while engaged in a struggle with the existing hereditary nobility, or boyars; the Table of Ranks was formally abolished on 11 November 1917 by the newly established Bolshevik government. The Table of Ranks re-organised the foundations of feudal Russian nobility by recognising service in the military, in the civil service, at the imperial court as the basis of an aristocrat's standing in society; the table divided ranks in 14 grades, with all nobles regardless of birth or wealth beginning at the bottom of the table and rising through their service to the tsar. While all grades were open by merit, promotion required qualification for the next rank, grades 1 through 5 required the personal approval of the tsar himself. Despite initial resistance from noblemen, many of whom were still illiterate in the 18th century and who shunned the paper-pushing life of the civil servant, the eventual effect of the Table of Ranks was to create an educated class of noble bureaucrats.
Peter's intentions for a class of nobles bound to the tsar by their personal service to him were watered down by subsequent tsars. In 1762 Peter III abolished the compulsory 25-year civilian service for nobles. In 1767 Catherine the Great bought the support of the bureaucracy by making promotion up the 14 ranks automatic after seven years regardless of position or merit, thus the bureaucracy became populated with time servers. Achieving a certain level in the table automatically granted a certain level of nobility. A civil servant promoted to the 14th grade gained personal nobility, holding an office in the 8th grade endowed the office holder with hereditary nobility. Nicholas I raised this threshold to the 5th grade in 1845. In 1856 the grades required for hereditary nobility were changed to the 4th grade for the civil service and to the 6th grade for military service; the father of Vladimir Lenin progressed in the management of education, reaching the 4th rank and becoming an "active state councillor", which gave him the privilege of hereditary nobility.
With occasional revisions, the Table of Ranks remained in effect until the Russian Revolution of 1917. An abridged version of the Table of Ranks with time expiration set for promotion is shown below: The table below contains the military ranks of the Guards 1722 until 1917. Peter I stipulated that "princes related to us or married to our princesses always take precedence" and that when military officers of the army and navy were of the same rank, "the naval officer is superior at sea to the land officer, he laid down that fines of two months' salary should be assessed against those falsely claiming a higher rank or gaining a rank without qualification. He stated that service with a foreign monarch would not automatically confer the rank until approved by the tsar, as "we do not grant any rank to anyone until he performs a useful service to us or to the state", while women were to "advance in rank with their husbands". In a way the government, court and clergy ranks represented the gentry class of the Russian Empire.
To the noble titles, the rank holders each had their specific style of address: Outside that table are the rank of Generalissimus, a honorary title and not a military rank and the title of Patriarch, which theoretically equaled the eminence of the Russian Emperor, but which Peter the Great kept vacant between 1700 and 1720 and substituted for the collective board of the Most Holy Synod turning the Church into a department of the state. The first complete translation into English of the original Table of Ranks promulgated by Peter the Great in 1722 was presented by Brazilian historian Angelo Segrillo in 2016, it is available online at http://lea.vitis.uspnet.usp.br/arquivos/arttableofrankslea.pdf. Wohlgeboren List of Japanese court ranks and hereditary titles Waliszewski, Kazimierz. "The Social Reform — The Table of Ranks". Peter the Great: his life and work. Forgotten books. Pp. 454–456. Table of Ranks Peter I's original Table of Ranks
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus commonly constructed on top of burials; the internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Maeshowe; the word tumulus is Latin for'mound' or'small hill', derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-,'to bulge, swell' found in tumor, thumb and thousand.
The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat; the barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing. Beowulf's body is taken to Hronesness. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."
Archaeologists classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below: Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow – generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape. Long barrow Oval barrow – a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound. Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch, they occur across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow – a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the Bronze Age. Ring barrow – a bank that encircles a number of burials. Round barrow – a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and the Romans and Saxons.
Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow—the Six Hills are a rare Roman example. Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank. Square barrow – burial site of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may have been covered by a mound. In 2015, the first long barrow in thousands of years, inspired by those built in the Neolithic Period, was built near All Cannings in England; the project was steward of Stonehenge. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns; the structure received significant media attention, with national press writing extensively about the revival of the structures, various episodes of filming, for example by BBC Countryfile as it was being built. It was subscribed within eighteen months; this was followed soon after by a new barrow near St Neots. Further plans to revive barrows are at Soulton in Shropshire.
The word kurgan is of Turkic origin, derives from Proto-Turkic *Kur-. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv, Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Novgorod. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians and early Indo-Europeans The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan. Salweyn in northern Somalia contains a large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization; the interred objects included pottery shards from Samos, some well-crafted enamels, a mask of Ancient Greek design. Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania.
Some well-known local tumuli are: Kamenica Tumulus Lofkënd Tumulus Pazhok Tumulus More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres- the skeleton found
Leliwa coat of arms
Leliwa is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by several hundred szlachta families during the existence of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, remains in use today by many of the descendants of these families. There are several forms of the arms, all of which bear the name, but which may be distinguished as variations of the same arms by the addition of a Roman numeral. In 19th century during a pan South-Slavic Illyrian movement heraldic term Leliwa entered Croatian heraldry as a name for the coat of arms considered to be the oldest known symbol. Original coat of arms of Leliwa, otherwise referred to as Leliwa I include Azure Shield, a crescent or, surmounted by a mullet of six points of the second, a Polish nobleman's helm, Crest out of a Polish nobleman's coronet, a fan of seven peacock's feathers proper, charged with the elements of the shield. Azure Mantling and or Motto Leliwa, signifying the battle cry,'to the Liwa', of these proclamatio-arms. Bearers resided in the regions Kraków, Poznań and Sandomierz of Poland and Podolia of Ukraine.
Families: Tarnowski family, Sieniawski family, Morsztyn family, Hlebowicz family, Czapski family, Tyszkiewicz family, Średziński families Notable bearers of this coat of arms include: Krzysztof Monwid Dorohstajski, Rafał Jarosławski, Jan Andrzej Morsztyn, Adam Sieniawski, Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski, Mikołaj Sieniawski, Mikołaj Hieronim Sieniawski, Konstanty Słotwinski, Jędrzej Śniadecki, Jan Tarnowski, Jan z Tarnowa, Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, Ludwik Skumin Tyszkiewicz, Jan Janowicz Zabrzeziński, Jan Jurejewicz Zabrzeziński, Juliusz Słowacki, Witold Pilecki, Andrzej Bobola, Józef Czapski, Karol Hutten-Czapski, Emeryk Hutten-Czapski, Agenor Romuald Gołuchowski, Spytek I Jarosławski, Jan Chrucki, Henryk Dobrzański, Kazimierz Antoni Wodzicki, Michael Bisping There are also: Lipka Tatar families of Aksan, Adamowicz, Musicz and Smolski. Zaporozhian Cossack families of Hłasko. Hungarian families of Urak and Czobor. Circassian families of Szymkowicz and Temruk. French families of de Virion and de Spiner. German, Prussian families of Morstyn, Brandt, Przywidzki, Kappel, Lipen.
Flemish family of Bremer and Dutch/Netherlands families of De Kunder/Kunter/Kunther. Moldavian family Brăescu. Drawings of Leliwa during the ages Paintings Standard variations Standard variations from ennoblements Standard variations Aristocratic variations Families from Kashubia In Croatian and Illyrian heraldry Polish heraldry Heraldic family List of Polish nobility coats of arms Bartosz Paprocki: Herby rycerstwa polskiego na pięcioro ksiąg rozdzielone, Kraków, 1584. Tadeusz Gajl: Herbarz polski od średniowiecza do XX wieku: ponad 4500 herbów szlacheckich 37 tysięcy nazwisk 55 tysięcy rodów. L&L, 2007. ISBN 978-83-60597-10-1. Alfred Znamierowski: Herbarz rodowy. Warszawa: Świat Książki, 2004. ISBN 83-7391-166-9. Jan Długosz: Liber Beneficiorum. T. I,II. Włodzimierz Dworzaczek: Leliwici Tarnowscy. Instytut Wydawniczy PAX, 1971. ISBN 8390150468. Sławomir Górzyński: Herby szlachty polskiej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego i Wydawnictwo ALFA, 1990. ISBN 83-230-0349-1. Szymon Okolski: Orbis Poloni..
T. 2. Kraków: 1641-1643. Juliusz Karol Ostrowski: Księga herbowa rodów polskich. T. 1-2. Warszawa: Główny skład księgarnia antykwarska B. Bolcewicza, 1897. Franciszek Piekosiński: Heraldyka polska wieków średnich. Kraków: Akademia Umiejętności, 1899. Hipolit Stupnicki: Herbarz polski Kaspra Niesieckiego. T. 6. Lipsk: Breitkopf i Haertl, 1841. Alfred Znamierowski: Herbarz rodowy. Warszawa: Świat Książki, 2004. ISBN 83-7391-166-9. Oleg Odnorozhenko, Rodova heral"dyka Ruso-Vlaxiyi kincya XIV-XVI st. Harkiv, 2008, p. 65. Album paléographique moldave. Documents du XIVe, XVe et XVIe siècle. Recueillis par Jean Bogdan et publiés avec une instruction et des résumés par N. Iorga. Album paleografic moldovenesc. Documente din secolele al XIV-lea, al XV-lea şi al XVI-lea. Adunate de Ioan Bogdan şi publicate cu o introducere şi resumate de N. Iorga, Bucarest/Bucureşti – Paris, 1926, planşa 98