SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Euthanasia

Euthanasia is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering. Different countries have different euthanasia laws; the British House of Lords select committee on medical ethics defines euthanasia as "a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering". In the Netherlands and Belgium, euthanasia is understood as "termination of life by a doctor at the request of a patient"; the Dutch law, does not use the term'euthanasia' but includes the concept under the broader definition of "assisted suicide and termination of life on request". Euthanasia is categorized in different ways, which include voluntary, non-voluntary, or involuntary: Voluntary euthanasia is legal in some countries. Non-voluntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries. Involuntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries and is considered murder; as of 2006 euthanasia had become the most active area of research in bioethics. In some countries divisive public controversy occurs over the moral and legal issues associated with euthanasia.

Passive euthanasia is legal under some circumstances in many countries. Active euthanasia, however, is legal or de facto legal in only a handful of countries, which limit it to specific circumstances and require the approval of counselors and doctors or other specialists. In some countries - such as Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan - support for active euthanasia is non-existent. Like other terms borrowed from history, "euthanasia" has had different meanings depending on usage; the first apparent usage of the term "euthanasia" belongs to the historian Suetonius, who described how the Emperor Augustus, "dying and without suffering in the arms of his wife, experienced the'euthanasia' he had wished for." The word "euthanasia" was first used in a medical context by Francis Bacon in the 17th century, to refer to an easy, happy death, during which it was a "physician's responsibility to alleviate the'physical sufferings' of the body." Bacon referred to an "outward euthanasia"—the term "outward" he used to distinguish from a spiritual concept—the euthanasia "which regards the preparation of the soul."In current usage, euthanasia has been defined as the "painless inducement of a quick death".

However, it is argued that this approach fails to properly define euthanasia, as it leaves open a number of possible actions which would meet the requirements of the definition, but would not be seen as euthanasia. In particular, these include situations where a person kills another, but for no reason beyond that of personal gain. Another approach incorporates the notion of suffering into the definition; the definition offered by the Oxford English Dictionary incorporates suffering as a necessary condition, with "the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma", This approach is included in Marvin Khol and Paul Kurtz's definition of it as "a mode or act of inducing or permitting death painlessly as a relief from suffering". Counterexamples can be given: such definitions may encompass killing a person suffering from an incurable disease for personal gain, commentators such as Tom Beauchamp and Arnold Davidson have argued that doing so would constitute "murder simpliciter" rather than euthanasia.

The third element incorporated into many definitions is that of intentionality – the death must be intended, rather than being accidental, the intent of the action must be a "merciful death". Michael Wreen argued that "the principal thing that distinguishes euthanasia from intentional killing simpliciter is the agent's motive: it must be a good motive insofar as the good of the person killed is concerned." James Field argued that euthanasia entails a sense of compassion towards the patient, in contrast to the diverse non-compassionate motives of serial killers who work in health care professions. Heather Draper speaks to the importance of motive, arguing that "the motive forms a crucial part of arguments for euthanasia, because it must be in the best interests of the person on the receiving end." Definitions such as that offered by the House of Lords Select committee on Medical Ethics take this path, where euthanasia is defined as "a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering."

Beauchamp and Davidson highlight Baruch Brody's "an act of euthanasia is one in which one person... kills another person for the benefit of the second person, who does benefit from being killed". Draper argued that any definition of euthanasia must incorporate four elements: an agent and a subject. Based on this, she offered a definition incorporating those elements, stating that euthanasia "must be defined as death that results from the intention of one person to kill another person, using the most gentle and painless means possible, motivated by the best interests of the person who dies." Prior to Draper and Davidson had offered a definition that includes these elements. Their definition discounts fetuses to distinguish between abortions and euthanasia: In summary, we have argued... that the death of a human being, A, is an instance of euthanasia if and only if A's death is intended by at least one ot

Travis Clardy

Travis Paul Clardy is an attorney from Nacogdoches, the Republican state representative for House District 11, which includes Cherokee and Rusk counties in East Texas. Clardy serves on the House committees on Public Safety. Clardy is a member of the executive board of the East Texas Boy Scouts of America and the Dean's Circle for College of Fine Arts at Stephen F. Austin State University, he is a Paul P. Harris Fellow at the Nacogdoches Rotary International, a sponsor of the Heartbeat Pregnancy Center, is active on the alumni board of his alma mater, Abilene Christian University. In 2012, Clardy narrowly defeated the incumbent Moderate Republican Representative Chuck Hopson, a former Democrat, in the Republican primary election. In the 2013 legislative session, Clardy joined majorities in the House and Texas Senate to support SB5, which banned abortions after twenty weeks of gestation, required abortion providers to meet ambulatory surgical center facilities regulations, required physicians to have admitting privileges at a hospital within thirty miles of their office.

In 2016, the facilities and admitting privileges portions of the bill were ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt. In the Republican primary on March 4, 2014, Clardy won re-nomination to a second term, he received 13,054 to opponent Tony Sevilla. In the general election on November 6, 2018, Clardy defeated Democrat Alec Johnson, 38,694 votes to 13,334. Clardy and his wife, have four sons, he is a member of the Church of Christ. Campaign website State legislative page Travis Clardy at the Texas Tribune

G.I. movement

The term G. I. movement refers to resistance to military involvement in the Vietnam War from active duty soldiers in the United States military. Within the military popular forms of resistance included combat refusals and desertion. By the end of the war at least 600 officers were killed in fraggings, over 300 refused to combat and 50,000 American servicemen deserted. Along with resistance inside the U. S. military civilians opened up various GI Coffeehouses near military bases where civilians could meet with soldiers and could discuss and cooperate in the anti-war movement. The early period of soldier resistance to the Vietnam War involved individual acts of resistance; some well publicized incidents occurred in this period. The first incident was in November 1965 when Lt. Henry H. Howe, Jr was court marshaled for shouting anti-war slogans during a protest in El Paso. Another in 1966 was a case where three soldiers in Fort Hood refused deployment to Vietnam and were reprimanded, gaining the attention of anti-war activists.

Capt. Howard Levy a dermatologist who would be punished for refusing to train green beret medics being sent to Vietnam. In 1968 more collective acts of resistance would take place inside the U. S. military. Many servicemen took sanctuary in various churches and universities. Many veterans and servicemen began involving themselves in anti-war marches, rebellions in military stockades. At the Presidio of San Francisco a protest was staged by servicemen after another soldier was shot for walking away from a work detail. During the protest a group of AWOL soldiers returned to base to join the demonstration, they were arrested and put into the stockade where they convinced other imprisoned troops to stage another protest. Demonstrations inside and outside the army were being conducted by servicemen. More dissident soldiers began to oppose racism felt in the United States, its military, draft policy. By June, 1971, Colonel Robert Heinl declared that the army in Vietnam was "dispirited where not near mutinous." in an article in Armed Forces Journal