Euthydemus I

Euthydemus I was a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 or 223 BC according to Polybius. Strabo, on the other hand, correlates his accession with internal Seleucid wars in 223–221 BC, his kingdom seems to have been substantial, including Sogdiana to the north, Margiana and Ariana to the south or east of Bactria. Euthydemus was a native of Magnesia, son of the Greek general Apollodotus, born c. 295 BC, who might have been son of Sophytes, by his marriage to a sister of Diodotus II and daughter of Diodotus I, born c. 250 BC, was the father of Demetrius I according to Strabo and Polybius. For Euthydemus himself was a native of Magnesia, he now, in defending himself to Teleas, said that Antiochus was not justified in attempting to deprive him of his kingdom, as he himself had never revolted against the king, but after others had revolted he had possessed himself of the throne of Bactria by destroying their descendants. Euthydemus sent off his son Demetrius to ratify the agreement. Antiochus, on receiving the young man and judging him from his appearance and dignity of bearing to be worthy of royal rank, in the first place promised to give him one of his daughters in marriage and next gave permission to his father to style himself king.

Little is known of his reign until 208 BC when he was attacked by Antiochus III the Great, whom he tried in vain to resist on the shores of the river Arius, the modern Herirud. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat, he successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra, before Antiochus decided to recognize the new ruler, to offer one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son Demetrius around 206 BC. As part of the peace treaty, Antiochus was given Indian war elephants by Euthydemus. Classical accounts relate that Euthydemus negotiated peace with Antiochus III by suggesting that he deserved credit for overthrowing the descendants of the original rebel Diodotus, that he was protecting Central Asia from nomadic invasions thanks to his defensive efforts: "...for if he did not yield to this demand, neither of them would be safe: seeing that great hords of Nomads were close at hand, who were a danger to both. The war lasted altogether three years and after the Seleucid army left, the kingdom seems to have recovered from the assault.

The death of Euthydemus has been estimated to 200 BC or 195 BC, the last years of his reign saw the beginnings of the Bactrian incursions into Northern India. There exist many coins of Euthydemus, portraying him as a middle-aged and old man, he is featured on no less than three commemorative issues by kings, Antimachus I and one anonymous series. He was succeeded by Demetrius, his coins were imitated by the nomadic tribes of Central Asia for decades after his death. In an inscription found in the Kuliab area of Tadjikistan, in western Greco-Bactria, dated to 200-195 BC, a Greek by the name of Heliodotos, dedicating a fire altar to Hestia, mentions Euthydemus as the greatest of all kings, his son Demetrius I as "Demetrios Kalinikos" "Demetrius the Glorious Conqueror": Coins of Euthydemus "Euthydemus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911


Kottar is a locality and a bazaar area of Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu state, in the southernmost part of Peninsular India. It was an ancient trade center of both Cheras at various times. Palayaaru has an acute bent near the boat harbour and people called it askottam+aaru; the trade centre was established on the banks of the Pahrali River. In the modern day, Kottar is the main market areas of Kanyakumari District; the main railway station of Nagercoil, the Nagercoil Junction is at Kottar. The only Government Ayurveda Medical College in Tamilnadu state is at Kottar; the history of Kottar stretches way back to the sangam period, Thirugnyana sambandhar, who lived in 7th century A. D portrays about the natural beauty, business resources and the specialized art of Kottar in his ‘Thirukkottaaru Padhigam’, a part of ‘Dhevaaram’, he starts it with ‘Suchindrum Thalapuraanam’, which mentions the Kottar name reason. In the literature "Pandi Kovai" of 8th Century, it is mentioned that, Ninraseer nedumaaran, a Pandian king who lived during the period of Thirugnyana Sambandhar invaded Kottar and conquered it.

Thus he was called as ‘Kotaaru Azhitha Kon’. Foreign Sources The Roman naturalist and writer, Pliney the Elder mentions Kottar as a commercial metropolis, having trade links with his contemporaneous Roman merchants. Doctor Galdwell, one of the most authoritative Indologists of modern time's mentions, that Ptolemy, a Greek mathematician and geographer who lived in Alexandria about 130 A. D. referred Kottar as Kottora Metropolis. This will witness to the fact that Kottar, now the part of Nagercoil, was in its own right, a trading emporium prior to the first century A. D. Temple Inscriptions An inscription with the information of Kottar was first found in Kommandaiyamman temple located at Vadasery; this inscription was carved during the 18th ruling year of Rajaraja chozhan, in the year of 1003 A. D. 15 of the 19 inscriptions found in Sozhapuram Sozharaja temple call this city's name as ‘Thiru Kotaaru’ and ‘Kottar’. These inscriptions were of the period of Rajendra chozhan, Kulothunga chozhan, Venaattu mannan, Veerakerala varman and Paraakirama pandiyan.

The inscription from Puravaseri Perumal temple of 12th century A. D and from Pudhukkiramam Azhagiya Manavaala Perumal temple of 14th century A. D calls this city as Kottar; the 12th century inscription found from Thalapathysamuthiram Naaganaadha Swami temple located in the highways of TirunelveliTrivandrum highways remarks this highway as "Kotaaru peruvazhi". 4 of 7 inscriptions found in Vadiveeswaram Azhagamman temple call this city as Kottar. From the inscriptions carved during the 15-16th century in this temple, we come to know that the place where this temple is built was called as Vadiveeswaram; the 14th century inscription found in Pudhukkiraamam Manavaala Perumal temple tells about Kottar and the Palace found there. The 16th century incarnations found in Parakkai and kariyamaanikka puram temples mentions this city as ‘Kotaaraana mummudi chozhapuram’. In 15th century the palm-leaf manuscript of Azhagiyapaandipuram mudhaliyaar points out this city as ‘Kotaaraana chozha keralapuram’. A total of 12 incarnations were found in Nagaraja temple by the archeologists of Tamilnadu.

In which one of the incarnations of 17th century mentions this city as Kottar. Church Inscriptions & Christian Manuscripts St. Francis Xavier, the great Roman Catholic missionary came to Kottar in 1544 A. D and started missionary work in the region keeping Kottar as his base. St. Francis Xavier built a small church at Kottar, today part of the St. Francis Xavier's Cathedral, Nagercoil; the church comes under the Roman Catholic Diocese of Nagercoil. In 18th century A. D, St. Paulinus, a Western Christian religious missionary who stayed in Padmanabhapuram palace had praised the significant specialties of Kottar's business and arts. In his words, the people who lived in Kottar were excellently ameliorated in music and handicrafts. Dr. Caldwell, who wrote the Dravidian languages’ ‘Oppilakkanam’, has included Kottar's greatness in his book. Williams Tobias Ringeltaube, a Protestant Christian Missionary came to Mylaudy in 1806 A. D to continue his missionary work in Travancore. After that Charles Mead came to Mylaudy in December,1817 and continued the work of Williams Tobias Ringeltaube.

As Charles found that he can't continue his missionary work in Mylaudy, he changed to Nagercoil in April 1818. In a letter written on 24 April 1818, Charles Mead mentions Nagercoil; this might be the first record of the newly named city Nagercoil. This letter is included in C. M. Augur's book titled "History of Christians in Travancore". Mary Miller, wife of William Miller who came here to do Missionary work from England stayed here for a period of 5 months and died on 21.01.1828. This information was carved on her grave at the cemetery backside of Nagercoil; this incarnation notifies this city as Nagercoil and this is said to be the first incarnation found representing this city. It has been carved in Tamil languages. Kottar was predominately occupied by Vellalars, Paravars, Chavalakara Padayatchis and Chettis. Romans visited Kottar to trade during 11th century as recorded in various articles and ancient history. India's architectural masterminds gather for the forum spending in researching and evolving the artifacts in and around Kottar.

Kottar includes Kambolam a.k.a Kottar Bazaar, Nagercoil Railway Station, Elankadai, Vatta vizhai, Part of Cape Road Tourist attractions around Kottar include St. Xavier's Cathedral

Playing It My Way

Playing It My Way is the autobiography of former Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar. It was launched on 5 November 2014 in Mumbai; the book summarises Tendulkar's early days, his 24 years of international career and aspects of his life that have not been shared publicly. It entered the Limca Book of Records for being the best selling adult hardback across both fiction and non-fiction categories. In India, it broke the record set by Walter Isaacson's biography of Steve Jobs for being the most pre-ordered biographical book. In the book, Sachin Tendulkar mentioned that just months before the 2007 Cricket World Cup, Greg Chappell the coach of the Indian cricket team, visited Tendulkar at his home and suggested that he should take over the captaincy from Rahul Dravid the team captain. Chappell however denied this, stating that he never contemplated Tendulkar replacing Dravid as captain. Tendulkar mentioned in the book that John Wright "took over as coach of India in 2005", when Wright took over five years earlier, got many scorecards wrong.

Sachin Tendulkar’s autobiography Playing It My Way published by Hachette India was released on Nov 6, 2014 and broke all records for an adult hardback across both fiction and non-fiction categories with 1,50,290 copies confirmed on order subscriptions. The book’s orders, on day one saw it pulling ahead of both pre-order and lifetime sales of the world’s top adult hardbacks, it was entered in the Limca Book of Records for 2016