Thoresby Hall is a grade I listed 19th-century country house in Budby, some 2 miles north of Ollerton. It is one of four neighbouring country houses and estates in the Dukeries in north Nottinghamshire all occupied by dukes at one time during their history; the hall is constructed of rock-faced ashlar with ashlar dressings. It is built in four storeys with a square floor plan surrounding a central courtyard, nine bays wide and eight bays deep. Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull acquired the Thoresby lands in 1633, but was killed in the Civil War in 1643, his son Henry Pierrepont, the 2nd Earl, built the first grand house, attributed to the architect Talman, about 1670. The house was remodelled for William Pierrepont, the 4th Earl, during 1685–87 by Benjamin Jackson, after the earl had been granted the right in 1683 to create the park by enclosure from Sherwood Forest; the house was the birthplace of Lady Mary Pierrepont, wife of Edward Wortley Montagu, in 1689. The estate passed to Evelyn Pierrepont, 2nd Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull, who fought at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 and during whose ownership the house was destroyed by fire that same year.
Twenty years the architect John Carr during 1767–1772 built a new house on the same site. Humphry Repton landscaped the park at the same time; when the 2nd Duke died in 1773 he left the estate to his wife, Elizabeth Chudleigh, the former wife of the Earl of Bristol. After a public court case, she was declared married bigamously to the duke and obliged to surrender the property on her death in 1786 to the duke's nephew, Charles Medows, a Royal Navy officer, he adopted the name Pierrepont and became the 1st Earl Manvers. In 1868, Sydney Pierrepont, the 3rd Earl Manvers, commissioned the celebrated country house architect Anthony Salvin to demolish the house after just a hundred years and replace it with the present house, erected 500 metres to the north. Completed in 1871, it measures 55 metres on its east and south fronts and 48 metres on its west front; the impressive Great Hall, with minstrels' gallery at the west end, is 19 metres long and 14 metres high. The house descended to Gervas Pierrepont, 6th Earl Manvers who died in 1955 without a male heir and the title thereby became extinct.
The house remained with his wife, Countess Manvers, her family. To minimise a perceived threat from coal mining subsidence the buildings were sold to the National Coal Board in 1979 and sold on the open market ten years later; the core of the Thoresby furniture collection was retained by the family, while the remainder was sold at auction by Sotheby's in 1989. After a number of owners it was acquired by Warner Leisure Hotels; the 8,400-square-metre Salvin house had a new bedroom wing added before opening as a 200-room country house hotel with spa facilities in 2000. The Queen's Royal Lancers and Nottinghamshire Yeomanry Museum occupies part of the courtyard. History from Worksop Heritage Trail A short history from nottshistory.org A longer history from the same site The official Warner website about the hotel
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal was an English peer and politician. He was the son of Mary Elizabeth Savile. Upon the death of his uncle Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, he inherited the titles of 17th Baron Furnivall and 8th Duke of Norfolk, he married Maria Shireburn, daughter of Sir Nicholas Shireburn, 1st and last Bt. of Stonyhurst Hall, on 26 May 1709, when she was age 16 and a half, with a fortune of more than £30,000. At the time of the Jacobite Rising of 1715 he used his influence to secure the acquittal of his brother Edward on the charge of high treason; the Duke himself was arrested on 29 October 1722 under suspicion of involvement in a Jacobite plot, was imprisoned in the Tower of London. His wife, refused permission to visit, prevailed upon the Earl of Carlisle to act as surety for his bail in May 1723. Howard was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England from 1729-30, his marriage is said to have been unhappy, his wife, a staunch Catholic and Jacobite, separated from him when he—in her words—"truckled to the Usurper".
The Duke died childless on 23 December 1732 at age 49. Upon his death, the title passed to his brother Edward. Dukes of Norfolk family tree
Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton
Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton was a powerful Jacobite politician, was one of the few people in English history, the first since the 15th century, to have been raised to a Dukedom whilst still a minor and not related to the monarch. He was the son of Thomas "Honest Tom" Wharton, the Whig partisan, his second wife Lucy Loftus; when Thomas died in 1715, Philip 16 years old, succeeded him as 2nd Marquess of Wharton and 2nd Marquess of Malmesbury in the Peerage of Great Britain and 2nd Marquess of Catherlough in the Peerage of Ireland. Just a month after he inherited his titles, he eloped with Martha Holmes, the daughter of Major-General Richard Holmes. Wharton did not get control of his father's extensive estate, for it was put in the care of Philip's mother and Thomas's Whig party friends. Thereafter, young Wharton began to travel, he had been raised with an excellent education and prepared for a life as a public speaker, Wharton was eloquent and witty. He travelled to Switzerland with a severe Calvinist tutor whose authority he resented.
He met with James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender" and son of James II, sometimes known in Europe as the rightful James III, or Prince James, the Prince of Wales who created him Jacobite Duke of Northumberland in 1716. Wharton went to Ireland where, at the age of 18, he entered the Irish House of Lords as Marquess Catherlough; when he was 19 years old he was created Duke of Wharton in 1718 by George I in the King's effort to solidify his support. In 1719, Wharton's wife gave birth to a son named Thomas, but the baby died in a smallpox epidemic the next year. From that point on, Wharton had little to do with his wife. Wharton turned Jacobite, he began signing his name "Philip James Wharton" to indicate his allegiance. Because he was a powerful speaker, an elegant writer, a wealthy peer, a man with a title, the new Hanoverians always sought to gain him as an ally, while the old Jacobites were, at least zealous to keep him on their side. Before his losses in the South Sea Bubble stock market crash of 1720, Wharton collected debts.
He was so indebted that he sold his Irish estates and used that money to invest in South Sea Company stock. When the Bubble burst, he lost the staggering sum of £120,000. In response, he held a public funeral for the South Sea Company. Wharton accumulated more debts. In 1719 Wharton is credited with founding the original Hellfire Club. Which performed parodies of religious rites, he became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England in 1723, was active in the House of Lords in opposition to Robert Walpole. In 1723, he wrote and spoke in favour of the exoneration of Francis Atterbury, the accused Jacobite bishop, although Atterbury's Jacobitism was superficial, he published The True Briton as a periodical to oppose the rise of Walpole. He was in favour of the Pretender not for religious or nationalist reasons but, he explained, because he was a true Old Whig like his father, whose principles had been betrayed by Walpole and the new non-native royals, his substantive change to Jacobitism occurred in 1725, when Wharton joined Earl Orrery in attacking the Court.
He made allies among City politicians, valuable to the Jacobites as Jacobitism had been associated with Scotland and disaffected country squires. The City had been a Whig stronghold and any erosion in their support would have powerful consequences. Indeed, although Wharton did not benefit from it, much of this would bear fruit in the emergence of the Patriot Whigs a few years later. At the same time, Wharton was £70,000 in debt. Wharton's debts were impossible for him to overcome, he accepted or sought the position as Jacobite ambassador to the Holy Roman Empire in Vienna in 1725, but the Austrians did not like Wharton, whom they did not consider a satisfactory diplomat. His dissipated lifestyle offended the more severe Austrians, he went to Rome, where James gave him the Order of the Garter, which Wharton wore publicly. He moved on to Madrid. Wharton's wife died in 1726, he married Maria Theresa O'Neill O'Beirne only three months later. Walpole's spies were informed of Wharton's activities and other Jacobites considered him a dangerous person to be near.
Additionally, his behaviour was growing more offensive with drunkenness, but with inappropriate actions. At the reception for his wedding, he exposed himself to the wedding party to show her "what she was to have that night in her Gutts". Francis Atterbury condemned him. In 1728, Wharton began to help Nathaniel Mist with Mist's Weekly Journal, he wrote the infamous "Persian Letter" that caused the Walpole ministry to respond violently with arrests and the destruction of the presses. The power of Wharton's name and eloquence was such that Walpole offered Wharton a pardon and forgiveness of his debts if he were to agree to leave off writing, he wrote, that year, a powerful piece against the "corruption" of Whig causes under Walpole entitled, "Reasons for Leaving his Native Country." Edward Young modelled "Lorenzo" in Night Thoughts on Wharton. Alexander Pope referred to Wharton as "the scorn and wonder of our days" – a man "Too rash for thought, for action too refined". Wharton was soon stealing food from acquaintances and seeking money anywhere he could get it
Order of the Garter
The Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of England's patron saint. Appointments are made at the Sovereign's sole discretion. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, no more than 24 living members, or Companions; the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are announced on St George's Day, as Saint George is the order's patron saint; the order's emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the order wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne; the traditional year of foundation is given as 1348. However, the Complete Peerage, under "The Founders of the Order of the Garter", states the order was first instituted on 23 April 1344, listing each founding member as knighted in 1344.
The list includes Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed; the King's wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Its original statutes required that each member of the Order be a knight and some of the initial members listed were only knighted that year; the foundation is to have been inspired by the Spanish Order of the Band, established in about 1330. The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch, a chivalric romance written in Catalan by Valencian Joanot Martorell, it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter. At the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St George's Chapel: King Edward III Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Lancaster Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March John de Lisle, 2nd Baron Lisle Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun Sir Hugh de Courtenay Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent John de Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Rotherfield Sir Richard Fitz-Simon Sir Miles Stapleton Sir Thomas Wale Sir Hugh Wrottesley Sir Nele Loring Sir John Chandos Sir James Audley Sir Otho Holand Sir Henry Eam Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt Sir Walter Paveley They are all depicted in individual portraits in the Bruges Garter Book made c.
1431, now in the British Library. Various legends account for the origin of the Order; the most popular involves the "Countess of Salisbury", whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, exclaiming, "Honi soit qui mal y pense!", the phrase that has become the motto of the Order. However, the earliest written version of this story dates from the 1460s, it seems to have been conceived as a retrospective explanation for the adoption of what was seen as an item of female underclothing as the symbol of a band of knights. In fact, at the time of the Order's establishment in the mid-14th century, the garter was predominantly an item of male attire. According to another legend, King Richard I was inspired in the 12th century by St George the Martyr while fighting in the Crusades to tie garters around the legs of his knights, who subsequently won the battle. King Edward recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order.
This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774: In Rastel's Chronicle, I. vi. under the life of Edward III is the following curious passage: "About the 19 yere of this kinge, he made a solempne feest at Wyndesore, a greate justes and turnament, where he devysed, perfyted substanegally, the order of the knyghtes of the garter. And afterwarde they were called the knyghtes of the blew thonge." I am obliged for this passage to Esq.. Hence some affirm, that the origin of the garter is to be dated from Richard I* and that it owes its pomp and splendor to Edward III. *Winstanley, in his Life of Edward III says that the original book of the institution deduces the invention from King Richard the First. The motto in fact refers to Edward's claim to the French throne, the Order of the Garter was created to help pursue this claim; the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used t
Westminster is an area in central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Westminster's concentration of visitor attractions and historic landmarks, one of the highest in London, includes the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral; the area lay within St Margaret's parish, City & Liberty of Westminster, Middlesex. The name Westminster originated from the informal description of the abbey church and royal peculiar of St Peter's West of the City of London; the abbey was part of the royal palace, created here by Edward the Confessor. It has been the home of the permanent institutions of England's government continuously since about 1200, from 1707 the British Government — formally titled Her Majesty's Government. In a government context, Westminster refers to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, located in the UNESCO World Heritage Palace of Westminster — also known as the Houses of Parliament.
The closest tube stations are Westminster and St James's Park, on the Jubilee and District lines. The area is the centre of Her Majesty's Government, with Parliament in the Palace of Westminster and most of the major Government ministries known as Whitehall, itself the site of the royal palace that replaced that at Westminster. Within the area is Westminster School, a major public school which grew out of the Abbey, the University of Westminster, attended by over 20,000 students. Bounding Westminster to the north is Green Park, a Royal Park of London; the area has a substantial residential population. By the 20th Century Westminster has seen rising residential condominiums with wealthy inhabitants. Hotels, large Victorian homes and barracks exist near to Buckingham Palace. For a list of street name etymologies for Westminster see Street names of Westminster The name describes an area no more than 1 mile from Westminster Abbey and the Palace of Westminster to the west of the River Thames; the settlement grew up as a service area for them.
The need for a parish church, St Margaret's Westminster for the servants of the palace and of the abbey who could not worship there indicates that it had a population as large as that of a small village. It became larger and in the Georgian period became connected through urban ribbon development with the City along the Strand, it did not become a viable local government unit created as a civil parish. Henry VIII's Reformation in the early 16th century abolished the Abbey and established a Cathedral - thus the parish ranked as a "City", although it was only a fraction of the size of the City of London and the Borough of Southwark at that time. Indeed, the Cathedral and diocesan status of the church lasted only from 1539 to 1556, but the "city" status remained for a mere parish within Middlesex; as such it is first known to have had two Members of Parliament in 1545 as a new Parliamentary Borough, centuries after the City of London and Southwark were enfranchised. The former Thorney Island, the site of Westminster Abbey, formed the historic core of Westminster.
The abbey became the traditional venue of the coronations of the kings and queens of England from that of Harold Godwinson onwards. From about 1200 the Palace of Westminster, near the abbey, became the principal royal residence, a transition marked by the transfer of royal treasury and financial records to Westminster from Winchester; the palace housed the developing Parliament and England's law courts. Thus London developed two focal points: the City of Westminster; the monarchs moved their principal residence to the Palace of Whitehall to St James's Palace in 1698, to Buckingham Palace and other palaces after 1762. The main law courts moved to the Royal Courts of Justice in the late-19th century. Charles Booth's poverty map showing Westminster in 1889 recorded the full range of income and capital brackets living in adjacent streets within the area. Westminster has shed the abject poverty with the clearance of this slum and with drainage improvement, but there is a typical Central London property distinction within the area, acute, epitomised by grandiose 21st-century developments, architectural high-point listed buildings and nearby social housing buildings of the Peabody Trust founded by philanthropist George Peabody.
The Westminster area formed part of the Liberty of Westminster in Middlesex. The ancient parish was St Margaret; the area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by — but not part of — either parish. Until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John, based at Westminster City Hall in Caxton Street from 1883; the Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses included St Martin in the Fields and several other parishes and places. Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions had jurisdiction
Elizabeth Pierrepont, Duchess of Kingston-upon-Hull
Elizabeth Chudleigh, Duchess of Kingston, sometimes called Countess of Bristol, was an English noble and courtier, known by her contemporaries for her adventurous life style. She was the daughter of Colonel Thomas Chudleigh, was appointed maid of honour to Augusta, Princess of Wales, in 1743 through the good offices of her friend, William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, she was found guilty of bigamy at a trial by her peers at Westminster Hall that attracted 4,000 spectators. Elizabeth Chudleigh was born on 8 March 1721, her father was lieutenant governor of the Royal Chelsea. Chudleigh did not lack admirers, among them James Hamilton, 6th Duke of Hamilton, Augustus Hervey 3rd Earl of Bristol, but, at that time, a younger grandson of the first Earl. On 4 August 1744, she was privately-married to Hervey at Lainston House, a private country house with its parish church, near Winchester; the wedding was held at night to preserve the secrecy. Both husband and wife lacked the financial support they needed, their union was kept secret to enable Chudleigh to retain her post at court, while Hervey, a naval officer, rejoined his ship, returning to England toward the close of 1746.
The marriage was unhappy, for years, the pair did not live together. Married in secret, their marriage did not seem to need to be dissolved. Chudleigh'cut a prominent figure' in Brit society, in 1765 in Berlin, she was mistress to Frederick the Great, she became the mistress of Evelyn Pierrepont, 2nd Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull, married him in 1769. However, before Hervey could succeed his brother as Earl of Bristol, Chudleigh established proof of their marriage by forging an entry in the parish register at Lainston, unbeknownst to him. Hervey wanted to end their marriage by divorce, but Chudleigh wanted to avoid any public acknowledgment of their marriage, she initiated a suit of jactitation against him, requiring him to cease claiming marriage to her unless proved. After Hervey proved incapable of proving the relationship and Chudleigh swore she was unmarried, the consistory court in February 1769 pronounced her a spinster, free to marry. Within a month, she became Elizabeth Pierrepont, Duchess of Kingston-upon-Hull.
He built for her a grand townhouse called Chudleigh House on Knightsbridge in the City of Westminster, London. He died four years leaving her all his property on condition she remain a widow, she travelled abroad. Visiting Rome, she was received with the honor due a duchess by Pope Clement XIV. 1775, her first husband's brother died, Hervey became Earl of Bristol. Chudleigh's marriage to Hervey was legitimate, despite her denials, she was therefore Countess of Bristol; the Duchess / Countess was forced to return to England after her late husband's nephew, Evelyn Medows, brought a charge of bigamy against her in hopes of establishing a legal rationale for challenging Kingston's will. She attempted unsuccessfully to have the charge set aside in December 1775 by reason of the previous judgment in her favour, she was tried as a peer in Westminster Hall in 1776, found guilty by 116 peers without dissent. Absconding with her fortune, she hurriedly-left England to avoid further-proceedings on the part of the Medows family.
She lived for a time in Calais, became mistress to Stefano Zannowich. 1777, after her acceptance by Russian royalty, the two had a boat built made a spectacular entrance sailing into Kronstadt, the port of Saint Petersburg. In the Governorate of Estonia, she bought 3 properties: Toila and Fockenhoff, consolidating them into an estate she named "Chudleigh", she planned to create a'model Brit estate', imported spaniels and pointers and a collection of plants. She lived there in a clifftop house with a view of the Baltic Sea.1777, Hervey gained legal recognition his marriage to Chudleigh was legitimate, but he did not pursue divorce proceedings because of his involvement with the suit of jactitation. Chudleigh continued to parade as Duchess of Kingston, residing in her Paris estate in Montmartre and elsewhere, died at her estate at St. Assise near Paris on 26 August 1788, still Countess of Bristol; the Duchess / Countess was said to be coarse and licentious, was ridiculed as the character Kitty Crocodile by the comedian Samuel Foote in a play A Trip to Calais, however, he was not allowed to produce.
She is rumored to be the idea behind the character of William Makepeace Thackeray's character Beatrix Esmond, Baroness Bernstein in The History of Henry Esmond and The Virginians. Chudleigh appears as a character in T. H. White's non-fiction The Age of Scandal and in Theodore Sturgeon's historical romance I, Libertine, she appears as a non-speaking character in the play Mr Foote's Other Leg, in which the controversy surrounding her and Foote is portrayed as central to the latter's fall. Heppenstal, Tales from the Newgate Calendar: True stories of crime and punishment, Futura 1983 Jesse, John Heneage, Memoirs of the Court of England 1688-1760, vol. iv. Gervat, Elizabeth: The Scandalous Life of an Eighteenth-Century Duchess This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Kingston, Duchess of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 819
Bradford-on-Avon is a town and civil parish in west Wiltshire, with a population of 9,402 at the 2011 census. The town's canal, historic buildings, shops and restaurants make it popular with tourists; the history of the town can be traced back to Roman origins. It has several buildings dating from the 17th century, when the town grew due to the thriving English woollen textile industry; the town lies on the Avon Valley, on the hill that marks the Vale's western edge, eight miles southeast of Bath, in the hilly countryside between the Mendip Hills, Salisbury Plain and the Cotswold Hills. The local area around Bath provides the Jurassic limestone from which the older buildings are constructed; the River Avon runs through the town. The town directly borders Trowbridge to the south east; the town includes the suburbs of Woolley. The Western Wiltshire Green Belt forms the eastern extent of the Avon Green Belt, it surrounds Bradford-on-Avon, helping to maintain the setting and preserve the character of the town, minimising urban sprawl between Bath and other nearby settlements such as Trowbridge and Westwood.
The earliest evidence of habitation is fragments of Roman settlements above the town. In particular, archaeological digs have revealed the remains of a large Roman villa with a well-preserved mosaic on the playing fields of St Laurence School; the centre of the town grew up around the ford across the river Avon, hence the origin of the town's name. This was supplemented in Norman times by the stone bridge; the Norman side is upstream, has pointed arches. The Town Bridge and Chapel is a grade, it was a packhorse bridge, but widened in the 17th century by rebuilding the western side. On 2 July 1643 the town was the site of a skirmish in the English Civil War, when Royalists seized control of the bridge on their way to the Battle of Lansdowne. On the bridge stands a small building, a chapel but was used as a town lockup; the weather vane on top takes the form of a gudgeon, hence the local saying "under the fish and over the water". Widbrook Grange is a Georgian manor house on the edge of the town, it was built as a model farm on Earl Manvers' estate.
The river provided power for the wool mills. The town has 17th-century buildings dating from the most successful period of the local textile industry; the best examples of weavers' cottages are on Middle Rank and Tory Terraces. Daniel Defoe visited Bradford-on-Avon in the early 18th century and commented: "They told me at Bradford that it was no extra-ordinary thing to have clothiers in that country worth, from ten thousand, to forty thousand pounds a man, many of the great families, who now pass for gentry in those counties, have been raised from, built up by this noble manufacture."With improving mechanisation in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, the wool weaving industry moved from cottages to purpose-built woollen mills adjacent to the river, where they used water and steam to power the looms. Around thirty such mills were built in Bradford-on-Avon alone, these prospered further until the English woollen industry shifted its centre of power to Yorkshire in the late 19th century.
The last local mill closed in 1905. Many have since stood empty and some became derelict. A notable feature of Bradford-on-Avon is the large Grade II* listed tithe barn, known as the Saxon Tithe Barn, 180 feet long and 30 feet wide, constructed in the 14th century and is now part of Barton Farm Country Park; the barn would have been used for collecting taxes, in the form of goods, to fund the church. There are several notable buildings around the town centre. Many of the old textile factories have been converted into modern apartments. One of the few is a public house and hotel set in the centre of town. Records show. In 1998 the Wiltshire Music Centre was opened in Bradford-on-Avon, on the grounds of St Laurence School. In 2000, the millennium sculpture nicknamed "Millie" was unveiled. On 8 October 2003, Bradford-on-Avon was granted Fairtrade Town status; the Saxon church dedicated to Saint Lawrence may have been founded by Saint Aldhelm around 705, could have been a temporary burial site for King Edward the Martyr.
It was rediscovered by Canon William Frampton in 1856. In his research Canon Frampton, who had an interest in archaeology, found reference to the church in the writings of William of Malmesbury, it is suggested that some of the building, containing the blind arcades at a higher level, may belong to a period while a leaflet available at the church, February 2012, seems to prefer the period 950–1050 for the whole building. The elaborate ornamentation of the exterior consists of pilaster-strips, a broad frieze of two plain string-courses between, a blind arcade of round-headed arches whose short vertical pilasters have trapezoidal capitals and bases, while on the eastern gable and the corners adjacent there is a series of mouldings as vertical triple semicylinders. Inside the church, high in the wall above a small chancel arch, are the carved figures of two