Representative from Indiana, great-grandfather of Charles Marion LaFollette. Born in Albig, Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, Heilman immigrated to the United States in 1843 and settled on a farm in Vanderburg County, after moving to Evansville, Indiana, he worked for a manufacturing company and subsequently became president of a cotton mill. In 1847, he founded a machine shop for the manufacture of drills and he served as member of the city council 1852-1865, as member of the Indiana House of Representatives 1870-1876 and as delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1876. He served in the Indiana State Senate from 1876 until March 3,1879, Heilman was elected as a Republican to the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Congresses. He was a candidate for reelection in 1882 to the Forty-eighth Congress. He resumed his business activities. He died in Evansville, September 22,1890 and he was interred in Oak Hill Cemetery. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Alvin Peterson Hovey
Alvin Peterson Hovey was a Union general during the American Civil War, an Indiana Supreme Court justice and the 21st Governor of Indiana from 1889 to 1891. During the war he played an important role in the Western theatre, earning high approval from Grant, as governor, he launched several legal challenges to the Indiana General Assemblys removal of his powers, but was mostly unsuccessful. He successfully advocated election reform before he died in office, Alvin Peterson Hovey was born in Mount Vernon, Indiana on September 6,1821 to Abiel and Francis Hovey. His mother died while he was a boy, and his father died when he was fifteen leaving him orphaned. His youth was spent in poverty, and after being sent to an orphanage following his fathers death, he received a basic education before being turned out at age eighteen. Hovey wanted to become a lawyer, and went work as a bricklayer by day, and studied law at night in the office of John Pitcher, after over three years of study in the office, he was admitted to bar in 1843 and opened his own law office.
Hovey was propelled into the spotlight in 1849 when he was appointed to oversee the estate of the deceased William McClure. McClure was a wealthy idealist who was one of the co-founders of the utopian settlement of New Harmony. In his will, he ordered that his estate be sold and his two siblings had already seized much of his estate, sold it, and made off with the funds. Posey filed over sixty lawsuits to reclaim the assets of the estate, the estate successfully funded the opening of 160 libraries in Indiana and Illinois. The case gained considerable press coverage around Indiana, and Hovey gained considerable popularity from his success and he met and married his wife Mary Ann in 1844, and the couple had five children. Only two of the children survived infancy, Hovey was elected as a Democrat to serve as a delegate in 1850 to help create a new constitution for the state of Indiana. Hovey supported the educational and governmental reforms to the constitution, as well as being a force in some of the more controversial aspects of the constitution.
He opposed the extension of suffrage to women and blacks, and his proposal was accepted because it was viewed as a punishment to the southern states, who would be required to care for the free blacks. He opposed the reforms, saying that it would grant too much protection from creditors. The constitution was approved by the public, but the portions were ruled unconstitutional by the U. S. Supreme Court two years later. In 1854, Hovey was appointed by Governor Joseph A. Wright to fill a vacancy on the Indiana Supreme Court until an election could be held, at the time of his appointment, he was 34, making him the youngest justice in the history of the court. It made him the only delegate to become the interpreter of a document which he himself had helped write
Born in Flehingen, Lieb immigrated to the United States in 1868 and settled in Rockport, Indiana. He attended the schools, the Rockport Collegiate Institute, and Bryant and Strattons Business College, Louisville. He was employed as a bookkeeper and accountant and he served as a member of the Rockport City Council 1879-1884. He engaged in the business and as a contractor in 1882. He served as a member of the State house of representatives 1907-1913, Lieb was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-third and Sixty-fourth Congresses. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1916, but served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1916 and he served as president and director of the Farmers Bank, Rockport and engaged in agricultural pursuits. He died in Rockport, September 1,1928 and was interred in Sunset Hill Cemetery, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http, //bioguide. congress. gov
Noble J. Johnson
Noble Jacob Johnson was a U. S. Representative from Indiana and a judge of the United States Court of Customs, born in Terre Haute, Johnson attended public schools. After reading law to be admitted to the bar in 1911 and he was a deputy prosecuting attorney for the forty-third judicial circuit of Indiana in 1917 and 1918. He served as prosecuting attorney for the judicial circuit from 1921 to 1924. Johnson was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-ninth, Seventieth and he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1930 to the Seventy-second Congress, and for election in 1936 to the Seventy-fifth Congress. However, he was elected to the Seventy-sixth and to the four succeeding Congresses and served from January 3,1939, until his resignation on July 1,1948. Nominated by President Harry S. Truman to the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, Johnson received his commission on June 10,1948 and he served as chief judge from July 20,1956, until his retirement August 7,1958. He continued to serve in senior status until his death and he was interred in Bethesda Cemetery, West Terre Haute, Indiana.
Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, federal Judicial Center entry on Noble J. Johnson This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http, //bioguide. congress. gov
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.
James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
Time is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by Henry Luce, a European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong, the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney, Australia. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition, Time has the worlds largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million,20 million of which are based in the United States. As of 2012, it had a circulation of 3.3 million making it the eleventh most circulated magazine in the United States reception room circuit, as of 2015, its circulation was 3,036,602. Richard Stengel was the editor from May 2006 to October 2013. Nancy Gibbs has been the editor since October 2013. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, the two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor respectively of the Yale Daily News.
They first called the proposed magazine Facts and they wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man could read it in an hour. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan Take Time–Its Brief and it set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the magazines cover depicted a single person. More recently, Time has incorporated People of the Year issues which grew in popularity over the years, notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, Matej Turk, etc. The first issue of Time was published on March 3,1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover, a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28,1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazines 15th anniversary. The cover price was 15¢ On Haddens death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time, the Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941.
In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director, J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers W. A. Harriman & Co. the Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. According to the September 10,1979 issue of The New York Times, after Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests, Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6,1931
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
White House Chief of Staff
The White House Chief of Staff has traditionally been the highest-ranking employee of the White House. With the creation of the new position of White House Chief Strategist by the Trump administration, the Chief of Staffs position is a modern successor to the earlier role of the presidents private secretary. The role was formalized as the assistant to the president in 1946, the Chief of Staff is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the president, it does not require Senate confirmation. Reince Priebus is the current Chief of Staff, the duties of the White House chief of staff vary greatly from one administration to another, and in fact, there is no legal requirement that the president even fill the position. Because of these duties, the chief of staff has at times been labeled The Gatekeeper. Originally, the duties now performed by the chief of staff belonged to the private secretary and were fulfilled by crucial confidants. Cortelyou, Joseph Tumulty, and Louis McHenry Howe to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, the job of gatekeeper and overseeing the presidents schedule was separately delegated to the appointments secretary, as with FDRs aide Edwin Pa Watson.
From 1933 to 1939, as he expanded the scope of the federal governments policies and powers in response to the Great Depression. It was not until 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelts second term in office, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the creation of the Executive Office of the President, which would report directly to the president. In 1946, in response to the growth of the U. S. governments executive branch. Charged with the affairs of the White House, it was the predecessor to the modern chief of staff. It was in 1953, under Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower, assistant to the president became a rank generally shared by the chief of staff with such senior aides as deputy chiefs of staff, the White House counsel, the White House press secretary, and others. This new system did not catch on immediately and this concentration of power in the Nixon and Ford White House led presidential candidate Jimmy Carter to campaign in 1976 with the promise that he would not appoint a chief of staff.
And indeed, for the first two and a years of his presidency, he appointed no one to the post. The average term of service for a White House chief of staff is a little under 2.5 years, john R. Steelman, under Harry S. Truman, was the last chief of staff to serve for an entire presidential administration. Steelman holds the record for longest-serving chief of staff, most White House chiefs of staff are former politicians, and many continue their political careers in other senior roles. Lyndon Johnsons chief of staff W. Marvin Watson became postmaster general in LBJs term, richard Nixons Chief of Staff Alexander Haig became secretary of state under Ronald Reagan. Cheney became a Congressman for Wyoming, secretary of defense under George H. W. Bush and vice president in the George W. Bush administration
James A. Hemenway
James Alexander Hemenway was a United States Representative and Senator from Indiana. Born in Boonville, Indiana, he attended the schools, studied law. While in the House of Representatives, he was chairman of the Committee on Appropriations, while in the Senate he was chairman of the Committee on University of the United States. He resumed the practice of law in Boonville and died in Miami, interment was in Maple Grove Cemetery, Hemenway is the namesake of the community of Hemenway, Missouri. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, james A. Hemenway at Find a Grave
Herbert Clark Hoover was an American politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression. He was defeated in a landslide in 1932 by Democrat Franklin D, a lifelong Quaker, he became a successful mining engineer around the globe and retired in 1912. In the First World War he built a reputation as a humanitarian by leading relief efforts in Belgium during the war. He headed the U. S. Food Administration during World War I and his reputation as a Progressive businessman fighting for efficiency and elimination of waste was built as the Secretary of Commerce 1921-28. Hoover was a leader in the Efficiency Movement, which held that every institution public and they all could be improved by experts who could identify the problems and solve them. He believed in the importance of volunteerism and of the role of individuals in society, in the presidential election of 1928, Hoover easily won the Republican nomination, despite having no elected-office experience.
Although Hoover never raised the issue, some of his supporters did in mobilizing anti-Catholic sentiment against his opponent Al Smith. He reluctantly approved the Smoot–Hawley Tariff of 1930, which sent foreign trade spiralling down and he believed it was essential to balance the budget despite falling tax revenue, so he raised the tax rates. The economy kept falling, and the unemployment rate rose to 25%, with industry, mining. This downward spiral, plus his support for policies that had lost favor, set the stage for Hoovers overwhelming defeat in 1932 by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. Most historians agree that Hoovers defeat in the 1932 election was caused primarily by the downward economic spiral, Hoover became a conservative spokesman for opposition to the domestic and foreign policies of the New Deal. He opposed entry into the Second World War and was not given any role to play, in 1946, President Harry S. Truman liked Hoover and appointed him to survey war-torn Germany which produced a number of reports that changed U. S. occupation policy.
In 1947, Truman appointed Hoover to head the Hoover Commission, by the time of his death, he had rehabilitated his image. Nevertheless, Hoover is often ranked by historians as one of the worst U. S. presidents. Herbert Hoover was born on August 10,1874, in West Branch, Iowa, he would become the only President so far born in that state and the first born west of the Mississippi River. His father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner, of German, German-Swiss, Jesse Hoover and his father Eli had moved to Iowa from Ohio twenty years previously. Hoovers mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was born in Norwich, Canada, both of his parents were Quakers. At about age two he contracted the croup and he was so ill that he was momentarily thought to have died, until he was resuscitated by his uncle, John Minthorn
Oscar Raymond Luhring
Oscar Raymond Luhring was a United States federal judge. Born in Haubstadt, Luhring attended the public schools and he entered private practice in Evansville, Indiana in 1900. He was a member of the Indiana House of Representatives from 1903 to 1904 and he was a Deputy prosecuting attorney of First Judicial Circuit of Indiana from 1904 to 1908. He was a Prosecuting attorney of First Judicial Circuit of Indiana from 1908 to 1912, Luhring was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-sixth and Sixty-seventh Congresses and was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1922 to the Sixty-eighth Congress. He was a Special assistant to U. S. secretary of labor, Washington, D. C. from 1923 to 1925. He was an appointed by Calvin Coolidge as Assistant U. S. attorney general of U. S. Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. in 1925 and served until 1930. On June 23,1930, Luhring was nominated by President Herbert Hoover to a new seat on the United States District Court for the District of Columbia created by 46 Stat.785.
He was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 3,1930, Luhring served in that capacity until his death, in Washington, D. C. He was interred in Abbey Mausoleum in Arlington County, oscar Raymond Luhring at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress