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Everglades

The Everglades is a natural region of tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U. S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large drainage basin within the neotropic ecozone. The ecosystem it forms is not presently found anywhere else on earth; the system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee. Water leaving the lake in the wet season forms a slow-moving river 60 miles wide and over 100 miles long, flowing southward across a limestone shelf to Florida Bay at the southern end of the state; the Everglades experience a wide range of weather patterns, from frequent flooding in the wet season to drought in the dry season. The Seminole Tribe gave the large body of water the name Okeechobee meaning "River of Grass" to describe the sawgrass marshes, part of a complex system of interdependent ecosystems that include cypress swamps, the estuarine mangrove forests of the Ten Thousand Islands, tropical hardwood hammocks, pine rockland, the marine environment of Florida Bay.

Throughout the 20th century, the Everglades suffered significant loss of habitat and environmental degradation. Human habitation in the southern portion of the Florida peninsula dates to 15,000 years ago. Before European colonization, the region was dominated by the native Tequesta tribes. With Spanish colonization, both tribes declined during the following two centuries; the Seminole, formed from Creek people, warring to the North, assimilated other peoples and created a new culture after being forced from northern Florida into the Everglades during the Seminole Wars of the early 19th century. After adapting to the region, they were able to resist removal by the United States Army. Migrants to the region who wanted to develop plantations first proposed draining the Everglades in 1848, but no work of this type was attempted until 1882. Canals were constructed throughout the first half of the 20th century, spurred the South Florida economy, prompting land development. In 1947, Congress formed the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project, which built 1,400 miles of canals and water control devices.

The Miami metropolitan area grew at this time and Everglades water was diverted to cities. Portions of the Everglades were transformed into farmland. 50 percent of the original Everglades has been developed as agricultural or urban areas. Following this period of rapid development and environmental degradation, the ecosystem began to receive notable attention from conservation groups in the 1970s. Internationally, UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention designated the Everglades a Wetland Area of Global Importance; the construction of a large airport 6 miles north of Everglades National Park was blocked when an environmental study found that it would damage the South Florida ecosystem. With heightened awareness and appreciation of the region, restoration began in the 1980s with the removal of a canal that had straightened the Kissimmee River; however and sustainability concerns have remained pertinent in the region. The deterioration of the Everglades, including poor water quality in Lake Okeechobee, was linked to the diminishing quality of life in South Florida's urban areas.

In 2000 the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan was approved by Congress to combat these problems. To date, it is the most expensive and comprehensive environmental restoration attempt in history, but its implementation has faced political complications; the first written record of the Everglades was on Spanish maps made by cartographers who had not seen the land. They named the unknown area between the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida Laguna del Espíritu Santo; the area was featured on maps for decades without having been explored. Writer John Grant Forbes stated in 1811, "The Indians represent as impenetrable. British surveyor John Gerard de Brahm, who mapped the coast of Florida in 1773, called the area "River Glades". Both Marjory Stoneman Douglas and linguist Wallace McMullen suggest that cartographers substituted "Ever" for "River"; the name "Everglades" first appeared on a map in 1823, although it was spelled as "Ever Glades" as late as 1851. The Seminole call it Pahokee, meaning "Grassy Water."

The region was labeled "Pa-hai-okee" on a U. S. military map from 1839, although it had earlier been called "Ever Glades" throughout the Second Seminole War. A 2007 survey by geographers Ary J. Lamme and Raymond K. Oldakowski found that the "Glades" has emerged as a distinct vernacular region of Florida, it comprises the interior areas and southernmost Gulf Coast of South Florida corresponding to the Everglades itself. It is one of the most sparsely populated areas of the state; the geology of South Florida, together with a warm, subtropical climate, provides conditions well-suited for a large marshland ecosystem. Layers of porous and permeable limestone create water-bearing rock and soil that affect the climate and hydrology of South Florida; the properties of the rock underneath the Everglades can be explained by the geologic history of the state. The crust underneath Florida was at one point part of the African region of the supercontinent Gondwana. About 300 million years ago, North America merged with Africa, connecting Florida with North America.

Volcanic activity centered on the eastern side of Florida covered the prevalent sedimentary rock with igneous rock. Continental rifting began to separate North America from Gondwana about 180 million years ago; when Florida

Nikki Danielle Moore

Nikki Danielle Moore known as Nicole Hayden is an American actress. She is best known for her role, her first on-screen appearance was a small role as Ally in an episode of the comedy television series Even Stevens. In 2004, she joined. In 2010, she became somewhat of an Internet sensation after appearing as "Denise" in Taco Bell commercials, she had guest roles on the television shows C. S. I. How I Met Your Mother, Mad Men and 90210, she had a lead role as Emily in romantic comedy film The Park Bench. The film earned her Jury Award for Best Actress in a Narrative Feature at Queens World Film Festival, she appeared in episodes of Grey's Anatomy. She is now known as Nicole Hayden. One reason she has changed her screen name various times is because the Screen Actors Guild only allows one individual to perform under one name, there were conflicts with her previous screen names. Nikki Danielle Moore on IMDb

Dibromochloromethane

Dibromochloromethane is a colorless to yellow and nonflammable compound with formula CHBr2Cl. It is a trihalomethane; the substance has a sweet odour. Small quantities of dibromochloromethane are produced in ocean by algae. Dibromochloromethane was used as a flame retardant and as an intermediate in chemicals manufacturing. Today it is used only as a laboratory reagent. Dibromochloromethane is a disinfection byproduct, formed by the reaction of chlorine with natural organic matter and bromide ions in the raw water supply; as a result, it is found in chlorinated drinking water. It is able to reduce methane production in ruminants by 79 % Asparagopsis taxiformis Dibromochlormethane in greenfacts.org glossary Dibromochloromethane toxicological review ToxFAQ for bromoform at ATSDR