Pinus longaeva is a long-living species of bristlecone pine tree found in the higher mountains of California and Utah. One member of species, at 5066 years old, is the oldest known living non-clonal organism on Earth. In 1987, the pine was designated one of Nevadas state trees. It is a tree, reaching 5 to 15 m tall. The bark is bright orange-yellow and scaly at the base of the trunk. The needles are in fascicles of five, stout,2.5 to 4 cm long, deep green to blue-green on the outer face, the leaves show the longest persistence of any plant, with some remaining green for 45 years. These ancient trees have a gnarled and stunted appearance, especially found at high altitudes. As the tree ages, much of its vascular cambium layer may die, in very old specimens, often only a narrow strip of living tissue connects the roots to a handful of live branches. The cones open to 4 to 6 cm broad when mature, the seeds are 5 mm long, with a 12 to 22 mm wing, they are mostly dispersed by the wind, but some are dispersed by Clarks nutcrackers.
The Great Basin bristlecone pine differs from the foxtail pine because the cone bristles of the former are over 2 mm long, the green pine needles give the twisted branches a bottle-brush appearance. The name bristlecone pine refers to the dark purple female cones that bear incurved prickles on their surface, the species occurs in Utah and eastern California. In California, it is restricted to the White Mountains, the Inyo Mountains, the tree grows in large open stands, unlike the related foxtail pine, which sometimes form dense forests. Pinus longaeva trees generally dont form closed canopies, usually covering only 15-50%, Pinus longaeva shares habitats with a number of other pine species, including the ponderosa pine, the white fir and, the limber pine, a similarly long-lived high-elevation species. The tree is a primary succession species, growing quickly on new open ground. It is a competitor in good soils, however. Pinus longaeva is often the dominant species in high-elevation dolomite soils and these areas prohibit the cutting or gathering of wood.
Clarks nutcrackers pluck P. longaeva seeds out of the opening cones, the nutcrackers use the seeds as a food resource, storing many for use in the ground, and some of these stored seeds are not used and are able to grow into new plants. An introduced fungal disease known as white pine blister rust is believed to some individuals
C. sempervirens is a medium-sized coniferous evergreen tree to 35 m tall, with a conic crown with level branches and variably loosely hanging branchlets. It is very long-lived, with some reported to be over 1,000 years old. The foliage grows in dense sprays, dark green in colour, the leaves are scale-like, 2–5 mm long, and produced on rounded shoots. The seed cones are ovoid or oblong, 25–40 mm long, with 10-14 scales, green at first, the male cones are 3–5 mm long, and release pollen in late winter. It is moderately susceptible to canker, caused by the fungus Seiridium cardinale. The species name comes from the Latin for evergreen. It can be grown successfully in areas with cooler, moister summers, such as the British Isles, New Zealand and it is planted in Florida and parts of the coastal southern United States as an ornamental tree. In some areas, particularly the United States, it is known as Italian or Tuscan cypress, the dark green exclamation mark shape of these trees is a highly characteristic signature of Mediterranean town and village landscapes.
It is known for its durable, scented wood, used most famously for the doors of St. Peters Basilica in the Vatican City. Cypress used to be used in distilleries as staves to hold mash ferments to make alcohol before the invention of stainless steel, commonly seen throughout New Mexico, the Mediterranean Cypress is known as the drama tree because of its tendency to bend with even the slightest of breezes. In cosmetics it is used as astringent, anti-seborrheic, anti-dandruff, anti-aging and it is the traditional wood used for Italian harpsichords. Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, was the first choice for Iranian Gardens, in all of the famous Persian Gardens, such as Fin Garden, Shazdeh Garden, Dowlat-Abad, and others, this tree plays a central role in their design. The oldest living Cypress is the Sarv-e-Abarkooh in Irans Yazd Province and its age is estimated to be approximately 4,000 years. In classical antiquity, the cypress was a symbol of mourning, in the classical tradition, the cypress was associated with death and the underworld because it failed to regenerate when cut back too severely.
Athenian households in mourning were garlanded with boughs of cypress, Cypress was used to fumigate the air during cremations. It was among the plants that were suitable for making wreaths to adorn statues of Pluto, the poet Ovid, who wrote during the reign of Augustus, records the best-known myth that explains the association of the cypress with grief. The handsome boy Cyparissus, a favorite of Apollo, accidentally killed a beloved tame stag and his grief and remorse were so inconsolable that he asked to weep forever. He was transformed into cupressus sempervirens, with the sap as his tears
Ilex /ˈaɪlɛks/, or holly, is a genus of 400 to 600 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only living genus in that family. The species are evergreen or deciduous trees and climbers from tropics to temperate zones worldwide, the genus Ilex is widespread throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world. It includes species of trees and climbers, with evergreen or deciduous foliage and its range was more extended in the Tertiary period and many species are adapted to laurel forest habitat. It occurs from sea level to more than 2,000 metres with high mountain species and it is a genus of small, evergreen trees with smooth, glabrous, or pubescent branchlets. The plants are generally slow-growing with some growing to 25 m tall. The type species is the European holly Ilex aquifolium described by Linnaeus, plants in this genus have simple, alternate glossy leaves, frequently with a spiny leaf margin. The inconspicuous flower is white, with four petals. They are generally dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants, the small fruits of Ilex, although often referred to as berries, are technically drupes.
They range in color from red to brown to black, the bones contain up to ten seeds each. Some species produce fruits parthenogenetically, such as the cultivar Nellie R. Stevens, the fruits ripen in winter and thus provide winter colour contrast between the bright red of the fruits and the glossy green evergreen leaves. Hence the cut branches, especially of I. aquifolium, are used in Christmas decoration. The fruits are slightly toxic to humans, and can cause vomiting. However, they are an important food source for birds and other animals, unfortunately this can have negative impacts as well. It has been placed on the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Boards monitor list, Ilex in Latin means the holm-oak or evergreen oak. The name holly in common speech refers to Ilex aquifolium, specifically stems with berries used in Christmas decoration, by extension, holly is applied to the whole genus. The origin of the holly is considered a reduced form of Old English holen, Middle English Holin. The French word for holly, derives from the Old Low Franconian *hulis, both are related to Old High German hulis, huls, as are Low German/Low Franconian terms like Hülse or hulst.
These Germanic words appear to be related to words for holly in Celtic languages, such as Welsh celyn, Breton kelen, several romance languages use the Latin word acrifolium, so Italian agrifoglio, Occitan grefuèlh, etc
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot, Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in autumn foliage. Although leaves can be seen in different shapes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground. Most leaves have distinctive upper surface and lower surface that differ in colour, broad, flat leaves with complex venation are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants. In others, such as the clubmosses, with different evolutionary origins, some leaves, such as bulb scales are not above ground, and in many aquatic species the leaves are submerged in water. Succulent plants often have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not totally homologous with them.
Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from both in their structure and origin. Many structures of plants, such as the phyllids of mosses and liverworts and even of some foliose lichens. Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants and these are further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as cellulose, the basic structural material in plant cell walls. The plant must therefore bring these three together in the leaf for photosynthesis to take place. Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a tissue called the phloem. The phloem and xylem are parallel to each other but the transport of materials is usually in opposite directions. Within the leaf these vascular systems branch to form veins which supply as much as the leaf as possible and they are arranged on the plant so as to expose their surfaces to light as efficiently as possible without shading each other, but there are many exceptions and complications.
For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows, the flat, or laminar, shape maximises thermal contact with the surrounding air, promoting cooling. Functionally, in addition to photosynthesis the leaf is the site of transpiration and guttation. Many gymnosperms have thin needle-like or scale-like leaves that can be advantageous in cold climates with frequent snow and these are interpreted as reduced from megaphyllous leaves of their Devonian ancestors. For xerophytes the major constraint is not light flux or intensity, some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata are examples of xerophytes. and Bulbine mesembryanthemoides
Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. Growing from 20 to 45 m tall, they are native to much of the temperate northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north. Larches are among the dominant plants in the forests of Siberia. Although they are conifers, larches are deciduous trees lose their needles in the autumn. The leaves are needle-like, 2–5 centimetres long, larches are among the few deciduous conifers, which are mostly evergreen. There are eleven accepted species of larch, Larix czekanowskii Szafer Larix decidua Mill, plains of central and eastern Siberia. Mountains of eastern Himalaya Larix kaempferi Carr, Larix laricina K. Koch Tamarack larch or American larch. Parts of Alaska and throughout Canada and the northern United States from the eastern Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic shore, Mountains of northwest United States and southwest Canada, at very high altitude. Larix mastersiana Rehder & E. H. Wilson Masters larch, Mountains of northwest United States and southwest Canada, at lower altitudes.
Most if not all of the species can be hybridised in cultivation, currently-accepted hybrids are, Larix × lubarskii Sukaczev Larix × maritima Sukaczev Larix × polonica Racib. Larch is used as a plant by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species—see list of Lepidoptera that feed on larches. In Canada, this disease was first detected in 1980 and is harmful to an indigenous species larch. Larches are vulnerable to Phytophthora ramorum, in late 2009 the disease was first found in Japanese larch trees in the English counties of Devon and Somerset, and has since spread to the south-west of Scotland. In August 2010 the disease was found in Japanese larch trees in counties Waterford and Tipperary in Ireland, larch wood is valued for its tough and durable qualities. Top quality knot-free timber is in demand for building yachts and other small boats, for exterior cladding of buildings. The timber is resistant to rot when in contact with the ground, the hybrid Dunkeld larch is widely grown as a timber crop in Northern Europe, valued for its fast growth and disease resistance.
Larch has used in herbal medicine, see Bach flower remedies. In Central Europe larch is viewed as one of the best wood materials for the building of residences, planted on borders with birch, both tree species were used in pagan cremations
Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the pine family Pinaceae. The common name hemlock is derived from a similarity in the smell of its crushed foliage to that of the unrelated plant poison hemlock. Unlike the latter, Tsuga species are not poisonous, eight to ten species are within the genus, with four species occurring in North America and four to six in eastern Asia. They are medium-sized to large trees, ranging from 10–60 m tall, with a conical to irregular crown. The bark is scaly and commonly deeply furrowed, with the colour ranging from grey to brown, the branches stem horizontally from the trunk and are usually arranged in flattened sprays that bend downward towards their tips. Short spur shoots, which are present in gymnosperms, are weakly to moderately developed. The young twigs, as well as the portions of stem, are flexible. The stems are rough due to pulvini that persist after the leaves fall, the winter buds are ovoid or globose, usually rounded at the apex and not resinous. The leaves are flattened to slightly angular and range from 5–35 mm long and they are borne singly and are arranged spirally on the stem, the leaf bases are twisted so the leaves lie flat either side of the stem or more rarely radially.
Towards the base, the leaves narrow abruptly to a set on a forward-angled pulvinus. The petiole is twisted at the base so it is almost parallel with the stem, the leaf apex is either notched, rounded, or acute. The undersides have two white stomatal bands separated by an elevated midvein, the upper surface of the leaves lack stomata, except in T. mertensiana. They have one resin canal that is present beneath the single vascular bundle, the pollen cones grow solitary from lateral buds. They are 3–5 mm long, globose, or ellipsoid, and yellowish-white to pale purple, the pollen itself has a saccate, ring-like structure at its distal pole, and rarely this structure can be more or less doubly saccate. Maturation occurs in 5–8 months, and the seeds are shed shortly thereafter, the seed scales are thin and persistent. They vary in shape and lack an apophysis and an umbo, the bracts are included and small. The seeds are small, from 2 to 4 mm long and they contain small adaxial resin vesicles. Seed germination is epigeal, the seedlings have four to six cotyledons, mountain hemlock, T. mertensiana, is unusual in the genus in several respects
Thuja plicata is among the most widespread trees in the Pacific Northwest. It is associated with Douglas-fir and western hemlock in most places where it grows and it is found at the elevation range of sea level to a maximum of 2,290 m above sea level at Crater Lake in Oregon. In addition to growing in forests and mountainsides, western redcedar is a riparian tree, growing in many forested swamps. The tree is shade-tolerant and able to reproduce under dense shade and it has been introduced to other temperate zones, including western Europe, New Zealand, the eastern United States, and higher elevations of Hawaii. The species is naturalized in Britain, Thuja plicata is a large to very large tree, ranging up to 65 to 70 m tall and 3 to 4 m in trunk diameter, exceptionally even larger. Trees growing in the open may have a crown that reaches the ground, whereas trees densely spaced together will exhibit a crown only at the top and it is long-lived, some individuals can live well over a thousand years, with the oldest verified being 1460 years.
The foliage forms flat sprays with scale-like leaves in opposite pairs, the foliage sprays are green above and green marked with whitish stomatal bands below, they are strongly aromatic, with a scent reminiscent of pineapple when crushed. The individual leaves are 1 to 4 mm long and 1 to 2 mm broad on most foliage sprays, the cones are slender,10 to 18 mm long, and 4 to 5 mm broad, with 8 to 12 thin, overlapping scales. They are green to yellow-green, ripening brown in fall about six months after pollination, the seeds are 4 to 5 mm long and 1 mm broad, with a narrow papery wing down each side. The pollen cones are 3 to 4 mm long, red or purple at first, Thuja plicata is one of two Thuja species native to North America, the other being Thuja occidentalis. The species name derives from the Latin word plicare, meaning folded in plaits or braided. In the American horticultural trade, it is known as the giant arborvitae. Other names include giant redcedar, Pacific redcedar, British Columbia cedar, canoe cedar, arborvitae comes from the Latin for tree of life, Native Americans of the West coast address the species as long life maker.
The Quinault Lake Redcedar was the largest known western redcedar in the world, the Quinault Lake Redcedar was 174 feet tall with a diameter of 19.5 feet at breast height. The Quinault Lake Red Cedar was destroyed by a series of storms in 2014 and 2016 and is now only a glorified stump, the second largest is the Cheewhat Lake Cedar, in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve on Vancouver Island, at 15,870 cubic feet. The tallest known individual is the Willaby Creek Tree south of Lake Quinault,195 feet in height, the fifth known largest was the Kalaloch Cedar in the Olympic National Park, at 12,370 cubic feet, until it was destroyed by storm in March 2014. A redcedar over 71 m tall,4.5 m in diameter and that tree now lies in Giants Grave, a self dug grave created by the force of its own impact. The soft red-brown timber has a tight, straight grain and few knots and it is valued for its distinct appearance and its high natural resistance to decay, being extensively used for outdoor construction in the form of posts, decking and siding
The Pinophyta, known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single class, Pinopsida. They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants, all extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs, examples include cedars, Douglas firs, firs, kauri, pines, redwoods and yews. As of 1998, the division Pinophyta was estimated to contain eight families,68 genera, although the total number of species is relatively small, conifers are ecologically important. They are the dominant plants over large areas of land, most notably the taiga of the Northern Hemisphere, boreal conifers have many wintertime adaptations. The narrow conical shape of northern conifers, and their downward-drooping limbs, many of them seasonally alter their biochemistry to make them more resistant to freezing. While tropical rainforests have more biodiversity and turnover, the conifer forests of the world represent the largest terrestrial carbon sink.
Conifers are of economic value for softwood lumber and paper production. The earliest conifers in the record date to the late Carboniferous period, possibly arising from Cordaites. Pinophytes and Ginkgophytes all developed at this time, an important adaptation of these gymnosperms was allowing plants to live without being so dependent on water. Other adaptations are pollen and the seed, which allows the embryo to be transported and developed elsewhere, Conifers appear to be one of the taxa that benefited from the Permian–Triassic extinction event, and were the dominant land plants of the Mesozoic. They were overtaken by the plants, which first appeared in the Cretaceous. They were the food of herbivorous dinosaurs, and their resins and poisons would have given protection against herbivores. Reproductive features of modern conifers had evolved by the end of the Mesozoic era, Conifer is a Latin word, a compound of conus and ferre, meaning the one that bears cone. A descriptive name in use for the conifers is Coniferae.
Alternatively, descriptive botanical names may be used at any rank above family and this means that if conifers are considered a division, they may be called Pinophyta or Coniferae. As a class they may be called Pinopsida or Coniferae, as an order they may be called Pinales or Coniferae or Coniferales. Conifers are the largest and economically most important component group of the gymnosperms, the division Pinophyta consists of just one class, which includes both living and fossil taxa
True rainforests are typically found between 10 degrees north and south of the equator, they are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome that occurs roughly within the 28 degree latitudes. Within the World Wildlife Funds biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical moist broadleaf forest that includes the more extensive tropical seasonal forests. Tropical rainforests can be characterized in two words and wet, mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C during all months of the year. Average annual rainfall is no less than 1,680 mm and this high level of precipitation often results in poor soils due to leaching of soluble nutrients in the ground. Tropical rainforests exhibit high levels of biodiversity, around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. Rainforests are home to half of all the animal and plant species on the planet. Two-thirds of all flowering plants can be found in rainforests, a single hectare of rainforest may contain 42,000 different species of insect, up to 807 trees of 313 species and 1,500 species of higher plants.
Tropical rainforests have been called the worlds largest pharmacy, because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered within them and it is likely that there may be many millions of species of plants and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems globally due to large-scale fragmentation as a result of human activity, habitat fragmentation caused by geological processes such as volcanism and climate change occurred in the past, and have been identified as important drivers of speciation. However, fast human driven habitat destruction is suspected to be one of the causes of species extinction. Tropical rain forests have been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance throughout the 20th century, tropical rainforests have existed on earth for hundreds of millions of years. Most tropical rainforests today are on fragments of the Mesozoic era supercontinent of Gondwana, the separation of the landmass resulted in a great loss of amphibian diversity while at the same time the drier climate spurred the diversification of reptiles.
The division left tropical rainforests located in five regions of the world, tropical America, Southeast Asia, Madagascar. However, the specifics of the origin of rainforests remain uncertain due to a fossil record. Several biomes comprise the general term tropical forest, Lowland equatorial evergreen rain forests are forests which receive rainfall throughout the year. These true rainforests occur in a belt around the equator, with the largest areas in the Amazon basin of South America, the Congo Basin of Central Africa, Mindanao and New Guinea. Moist tropical seasonal forests receive high rainfall with a warm summer wet season. Some trees in these forests drop some or all of their leaves during the dry season
The monsoon trough, alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone, plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earths tropical rainforests. Around 40% to 75% of all species are indigenous to the rainforests. It has been estimated there may be many millions of species of plants, insects. Tropical rainforests have been called the jewels of the Earth and the worlds largest pharmacy, the undergrowth in some areas of a rainforest can be restricted by poor penetration of sunlight to ground level. If the leaf canopy is destroyed or thinned, the ground beneath is soon colonized by a dense, tangled growth of vines and small trees, the term jungle is sometimes applied to tropical rainforests generally. Tropical rainforests are characterized by a warm and wet climate with no dry season. Mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C during all months of the year, average annual rainfall is no less than 168 cm and can exceed 1,000 cm although it typically lies between 175 cm and 200 cm.
Many of the tropical forests are associated with the location of the monsoon trough. The broader category of tropical moist forests are located in the zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Tropical forests have been called the Earths lungs, although it is now known that rainforests contribute little net oxygen addition to the atmosphere through photosynthesis, Tropical forests cover a large part of the globe, but temperate rainforests only occur in few regions around the world. Temperate rainforests are rainforests in temperate regions and they occur in North America, in Europe, in East Asia, in South America and in Australia and New Zealand. A tropical rainforest typically has a number of layers, each with different plants, examples include the emergent, canopy and forest floor layers. They need to be able to withstand the hot temperatures and strong winds that occur above the canopy in some areas, butterflies and certain monkeys inhabit this layer. The canopy layer contains the majority of the largest trees, typically 30 metres to 45 metres tall, the densest areas of biodiversity are found in the forest canopy, a more or less continuous cover of foliage formed by adjacent treetops.
The canopy, by some estimates, is home to 50 percent of all plant species, epiphytic plants attach to trunks and branches, and obtain water and minerals from rain and debris that collects on the supporting plants. The fauna is similar to found in the emergent layer. A quarter of all species are believed to exist in the rainforest canopy. Scientists have long suspected the richness of the canopy as a habitat, true exploration of this habitat only began in the 1980s, when scientists developed methods to reach the canopy, such as firing ropes into the trees using crossbows
Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as the clubmosses and firmosses. They have dichotomously branching stems bearing simple leaves without ligules and reproduce by means of spores borne in sporangia at the bases of the leaves and these groups, together with the horsetails are often referred to informally as fern allies. The class Lycopodiopsida as interpreted here contains a single living order, the Lycopodiales, and an extinct order. The classification of this group has been unsettled in recent years, older classifications took a very broad definition of the genus Lycopodium that included virtually all the species of Lycopodiales. Starting from the four genera accepted by Øllgaard, a based on chloroplast DNA produced the cladogram shown below, confirming the monophyly of the four genera. Also included are species of Lycopodiella, such as the bog clubmoss, most of the Lycopodium species favor acidic, upland sites, whereas most of the Lycopodiella favor acidic, boggy sites.
The other major group, the family Huperziaceae, are known as the firmosses and this group includes the genus Huperzia, such as the shining firmoss, Huperzia lucidula, the rock firmoss, Huperzia porophila, and the northern firmoss, Huperzia selago. This group includes the odd, tuberous Australasian plant Phylloglossum, however, as the cladogram above shows, it is closely related to the genus Huperzia. Lycopodium powder, the spores of the common clubmoss, was used in Victorian theater to produce flame-effects. A blown cloud of spores burned rapidly and brightly, but with little heat and it was considered safe by the standards of the time
Live oak or evergreen oak is a general term for a number of unrelated oaks in several different sections of the genus Quercus that share the characteristic of evergreen foliage. The name live oak comes from the fact that evergreen oaks remain green and live throughout winter, evergreen oak species are common in parts of southern Europe and Asia, and are included in this list for the sake of completeness. These species, although not having live in their names in their countries of origin, are colloquially called live oaks when cultivated in North America. The southern live oak is the state tree of Georgia. In Texas, a grove of live oaks is known as a mott. Live oak was used in early American butt shipbuilding. Because of the short height and low-hanging branches, lumber from live oak was specifically used to make curved structural members of the hull. In such cuts of lumber, the line of the grain would fall perpendicularly to lines of stress, Live oaks were not generally used for planking because the curved and often convoluted shape of the tree did not lend itself to be milled to planking of any length.
Live oak lumber is used for furniture due to warping and twisting while drying. Dry southern live oak lumber has a gravity of 0.88. Images of remarkable Southern Live Oaks The 1000 Year Old Big Tree - Goose Island State Park Live Oak in California The William Adkins Live Oak Tree historical marker