Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities; this means a resident will list city on official paperwork. It is named after the British Queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who as the wife of George III was Virginia's last Queen. In 2016, an estimated 46,912 people lived within the city limits; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with Albemarle County for statistical purposes, bringing its population to 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Fluvanna and Nelson counties. Charlottesville was the home of Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. During their terms as Governor of Virginia, they lived in Charlottesville, traveled to and from Richmond, along the 71-mile historic Three Notch'd Road.
Orange, located 26 miles northeast of the city, was the hometown of President James Madison. The University of Virginia, founded by Jefferson and one of the original Public Ivies, straddles the city's southwestern border. Monticello, 3 miles southeast of the city, is, along with the University of Virginia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, attracting thousands of tourists every year. At the time of European encounter, part of the area that became Charlottesville was occupied by a Monacan village called Monasukapanough. An Act of the Assembly of Albemarle County established Charlottesville in 1762. Thomas Walker was named its first trustee, it was situated along a trade route called Three Notched Road, which led from Richmond to the Great Valley. The town took its name from Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who became queen consort of Great Britain when she married King George III in 1761. During the American Revolutionary War, Congress imprisoned the Convention Army in Charlottesville at the Albemarle Barracks between 1779 and 1781.
The Governor and legislators had to temporarily abandon the capitol and on June 4, 1781, Jack Jouett warned the Virginia Legislature meeting at Monticello of an intended raid by Colonel Banastre Tarleton, allowing a narrow escape. Unlike much of Virginia, Charlottesville was spared the brunt of the American Civil War; the only battle to take place in Charlottesville was the skirmish at Rio Hill, an encounter in which George Armstrong Custer engaged local Confederate Home Guards before retreating. The mayor surrendered the city to Custer's men to keep the town from being burned; the Charlottesville Factory, founded c. 1820–30, was accidentally burnt during General Sheridan's 1865 raid through the Shenandoah Valley. The factory had been taken over by the Confederacy and used to manufacture woolen clothing for the soldiers, it caught fire when some coals taken by Union troops to burn the nearby railroad bridge dropped on the floor. The factory was rebuilt and was known as the Woolen Mills until its liquidation in 1962.
After the Civil War, emancipated enslaved persons who stayed in Charlottesville established communities in neighborhoods such as Vinegar Hill. In 1943, there were at least three theaters in Charlottesville: Paramount, La Fayette. In July 1957, the first real estate firm owned and operated by African Americans, opened for business; the company, named Ideal Realty Company, was owned and operated by James N. Fleming, Roy C. Preston, Vassar Tarry, it was located in the Preston Building, 115 Fourth Street, N. W. James Fleming was a graduate of Jefferson High School. After Reconstruction ended, Charlottesville's black population suffered under Jim Crow laws that segregated public places and limited opportunity. Schools were segregated by race and blacks were not served in many local businesses. Public parks were planned separately for the white and black populations: four for the whites, one, built on the site of a former dump, for blacks; the Ku Klux Klan had chapters in the Charlottesville area beginning at least in the early twentieth century, events such as lynchings and cross burnings occurred in the Charlottesville area.
In 1898, Charlottesville resident John Henry James was lynched in the nearby town of Ivy. In August 1950, three white men were observed burning a cross on Cherry Avenue, a street in a African-American neighborhood in Charlottesville, it was speculated that the cross burning might be a reaction to "a white man had been known to socialize with one of the young Negro women in that vicinity." In 1956, crosses were burned outside a progressive church and the home of white integration activist Sarah Patton Boyle. In the fall of 1958, Charlottesville closed its segregated white schools as part of Virginia's strategy of massive resistance to federal court orders requiring integration as part of the implementation of the Supreme Court of the United States decision Brown v. Board of Education; the closures were required by a series of state laws collectively known as the Stanley plan. Negro schools remained open, however; the first African American member of the Charlotteville School Board was Raymond Bell in 1963.
In 1963 than many southern cities, civil rights activists in Charlottesville began protesting segregated restaurants with sit-ins, such as one that occurred at Buddy's Restaurant near the University of Virginia. In the summer of 1940 the first Field Day event was held in Washington Park. In 1947 Charlottesville organized a local NAACP branch. In 2001, the Charlottesville and Albemarle Branches of the NAACP merged to form the Albemarle-Charlottesvi
Angel's Ladies was a 5,000-square-foot legal brothel situated on a 70-acre ranch, located three miles north of Beatty, Nevada. It was known as Fran's Star Ranch until it was renamed Angel's Ladies in 1997 after being purchased by Mack and Angel Moore, it has been closed since August 2014. Prior to the 1970s, the brothel had been known variously as Vickie's Star Ranch. In 1978 an accident during a promotional stunt on the property resulted in the crash of a twin-engined light aircraft; the wreck has been located next to the brothel's billboard since, used as a spectacle to attract customers from the road. Mack Moore attempted to sell Angel’s Ladies in 2007, but ended up taking it over again two years as a result of foreclosure, he subsequently sold the business again in 2010, this time for $1.8 million, continued to run it as a leaseholder. On 10 August 2014 he closed the business. A documentary film called Angel's Ladies was released in 2000 featuring the brothel, its owners and its staff; the brothel appears in the 2011 photography book Nevada Rose by Marc McAndrews as part of a project about the brothels of rural Nevada.
During the last days that the brothel was open the band Disappointment #1 performed there and recorded interviews. They released an album Live at Brothel Angel's Ladies in October 2015. Prostitution in Nevada List of brothels in Nevada Angel's Ladies http://www.louisianamusicfactory.com/shop/compact-disc/disappointment-1-live/
Garson Kanin was an American writer and director of plays and films. Garson Kanin began his show business career as a jazz musician, burlesque comedian, actor, he graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City and made his Broadway debut in Little Ol' Boy. In 1935, Kanin soon became Abbott's assistant. Kanin made his Broadway debut as a director in 1936, at the age of twenty-four, with Hitch Your Wagon. In 1945, Kanin directed Spencer Tracy in Tracy's first play in 15 years. Tracy had been through a dark patch personally—culminating with a stay in hospital—and Katharine Hepburn felt that a play would help restore his focus. Tracy told a journalist in April, "I'm coming back to Broadway to see if I can still act." The play was The Rugged Path by Robert E. Sherwood, which first previewed in Providence, Rhode Island on September 28, to a sold-out crowd and tepid response; the Rugged Path was a difficult production, with Kanin writing, "In the ten days prior to the New York opening all the important relationships had deteriorated.
Spencer was tense and unbending, could not, or would not, take direction". Tracy considered leaving the show before it opened on Broadway, lasted there just six weeks before announcing his intention to close the show, it closed on January 1946, after 81 performances. Tracy explained to a friend: "I couldn't say those goddamn lines over and over and over again every night... At least every day is a new day for me in films... But this thing—every day, every day and over again."Kanin's 1946 play Born Yesterday, which he directed, ran for 1,642 performances. Kanin worked, uncredited, on the screenplay of the 1950 film adaptation, his other stage work includes directing The Diary of Anne Frank, which ran for 717 performances, the musical Funny Girl, which ran for 1,348 performances. Kanin wrote and directed his last play, Peccadillo, in 1985, the same year he was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame, his first film as a director was A Man to Remember, which The New York Times considered one of the ten best films of 1938.
Kanin was twenty-six at the time. Other directing credits include The Great Man Votes, My Favorite Wife, They Knew What They Wanted and Tom and Harry. Kanin's Hollywood career was interrupted by the draft, he served in the United States Army from 1941 to 1945. During this time Kanin, with Carol Reed, co-directed General Dwight D. Eisenhower's official record of the Allied Invasion, the Academy-award-winning documentary The True Glory. During this time, he began writing. Kanin's best-remembered screenplays, were written in collaboration with his wife, actress Ruth Gordon, whom he married in 1942. Together, they wrote the Spencer Tracy/Katharine Hepburn film comedies Adam's Rib and Pat and Mike, as well as A Double Life, starring Ronald Colman, all directed by George Cukor. In the 1950s through the 1980s, Kanin adapted several of his stories and plays for television, most notably Mr. Broadway, Moviola. Kanin's best-selling novel Smash, about the pre-Broadway tryout of a musical comedy, has been adapted into the television series Smash.
He was a colleague of Thornton Wilder, who mentored him, an admirer of the work of Frank Capra. Kanin said "I'd rather be Capra than God, if there is a Capra." Kanin and Katharine Hepburn were the only witnesses to Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh's wedding in California on August 31, 1940. In 1941, he and Katharine Hepburn worked with his brother Michael Kanin and Ring Lardner, Jr. on the early drafts of what would become Woman of the Year right before Garson enlisted in the army. He is quoted as saying, "When your work speaks for itself, don't interrupt." His most famous quote, from his hit play "Born Yesterday," is on a New York City Public Library plaque on a 41st Street sidewalk: "I want everyone to be smart. As smart as they can be. A world of ignorant people is too dangerous to live in." The Academy Film Archive "Salut a La France" by Garson Kanin. Kanin was married to his frequent collaborator, Academy-award-winning actress Ruth Gordon, from 1942 to her death in 1985. In 1990, Kanin married the celebrated stage actress Marian Seldes.
In 1999, Kanin died at age 86 in Manhattan of undisclosed causes. Kanin was Jewish. Remembering Mr. Maugham, with an introduction by Noël Coward, 1966. Hollywood: Stars and Starlets, Moviemakers, Hopefuls, Great Lovers. New York: Viking, 1967. Tracy and Hepburn: An Intimate Memoir. New York: Viking, 1971. Novels Blow Up a Storm Do Re Mi Moviola Smash The Rat Race Where It's At A Thousand SunsPlays Born Yesterday The Smile of the World The Rat Race The Live Wire Come on StrongMusicals Fledermaus Do Re Mi A Man to Remember - director Next Time I Marry - director The Great Man Votes - director Bachelor Mother - director They Knew What They Wanted - director My Favorite Wife - director Tom and Harry - director The More the Merrier - writer The True Glory - director From This Day Forward - writer A Double Life - writer Adam's Rib - writer Pat and Mike - writer The Marrying Kind - writer It Should Happen to You - writer The Girl Can't Help It - original story High Time - original story The Rat Race - writer Some Kind of a Nut - writer, director Where It's At - writer, director Curtis, James.
Spencer Tracy: A Biography. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-178524-3. Garson Kanin on IMDb Garson Kanin at the Internet Bro
Michael "Hinky Dink" Kenna was one of the two aldermen elected in Chicago's First Ward, from 1897 to 1923. At age 10, Kenna began selling newspapers. By age 12, he had borrowed $50 from a barkeeper and purchased a newsstand at the corner of Monroe Street and Dearborn Street, he was so successful. According to legend, it was at this time that Kenna got his nickname from Chicago Tribune publisher Joseph Medill, because of his small stature; as an adult, Kenna stood just 5 foot 1 inch tall. In addition to being an alderman, Kenna ran a saloon, The Workingman's Exchange, located on Clark Street. Kenna doled out meals to the indigent in exchange for votes. Kenna and his partner, fellow First Ward alderman "Bathhouse" John Coughlin, were known as the "Lords of the Levee", a district included in their ward which provided them with the support of prostitutes, tavern-owners and gamblers. Coughlin and Kenna were known for hosting the First Ward Ball, an annual fundraiser which brought together gangsters, prostitutes, businessmen and other types as well.
The event raised more than $50,000 a year for the two men until it was closed down in 1909 by Mayor Fred Busse. By the time it was banned, the ball was so large that it had to be held in the Chicago Coliseum, the city's major convention center. Besides its notoriety in attracting many unsavory characters it ended with the police having to curb disorderly conduct bordering on rioting. In 1923, the number of aldermen per ward was lowered from two to one, Kenna stepped aside to become a Ward Committeeman, leaving the alderman's position of the First Ward to his partner. Aldermen were elected by their constituents and were paid a salary while Committeeman were elected by precinct captains and were paid from the coffers of their political party. Hinky Dink remained First Ward Committeeman until his death from myocarditis and diabetes at age 89 on October 9, 1946. Although he left his heirs an estate worth over one million dollars, an additional thirty-three thousand dollars to be used to erect a mausoleum for his remains to repose in, his heirs took all of the money and bought him an eighty-five dollar tombstone instead.
Michael Kenna at Find a Grave
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Bertrand Goldberg was an American architect and industrial designer, best known for the Marina City complex in Chicago, the tallest reinforced concrete building in the world at the time of completion. Goldberg was born in Chicago, trained at the Cambridge School of Landscape Architecture. At age eighteen, in 1932, he went to Germany to study at the Bauhaus, working in the small office of architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Following civil unrest in Berlin, Goldberg fled to Paris in 1933 and soon returned to Chicago, where he first worked for modernist architects Keck and Keck, Paul Schweikher, Howard T. Fisher. Goldberg opened his own architectural office in Chicago in 1937. Goldberg was known for innovative structural solutions to complex problems for residential and industrial design projects. One of Goldberg's first commissions, in 1938, was for the North Pole chain of ice cream shops, his ingenious design allowed the small shops to be disassembled and reassembled with little effort. Its flat roof was supported by tension wires from a single, illuminated column rising up through the shop's center.
During his career, Goldberg designed a rear-engine automobile, canvas houses, unique furniture, prefabricated houses, mobile vaccine laboratories for the United States government. He collaborated on some projects with his friend and fellow'design scientist' R. Buckminster Fuller, as well as other modernists. Goldberg's experimental plywood boxcars, demountable housing units for military use during and after World War II, led him to seek unconventional forms through mundane materials such as plywood and concrete. In the late 1930s, Goldberg was present at the famous meeting of Frank Lloyd Wright and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe at Taliesin, he was friends with Josef Albers, who taught him at the Bauhaus. In 1946, he married granddaughter of Milton S. Florsheim, his best-known commission, Marina City in Chicago, incorporated many different functions into a mixed use complex of five buildings. The two sixty-story towers are on the river's edge, are well known Chicago features, with striking multi-lobed columnar forms described as "corn cobs".
In addition to the towers, comprising apartments and parking, there was a complex pattern of activities that were incorporated into the original design, including an office building, public pedestrian plaza, an active rail line, a marina, an ice skating rink, a bowling alley. Much of the complex has evolved and changed over time, the pattern of activities has shifted but with only minor changes to Goldberg's design; the office building is now a hotel, the theater is now the Chicago House of Blues. The rail line has since been abandoned, the skating rink has been covered by a addition housing a steakhouse. After the success of Marina City, Goldberg undertook many more large commissions for hospitals with similar structural features, such as Prentice Women's Hospital for Northwestern University and medical complexes for SUNY Stony Brook, Good Samaritan Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona. Other work includes schools and other public institutional buildings such as River City and the Hilliard Homes public housing complex, both in Chicago.
After Marina City, Goldberg moved his work to focus on larger scale social and engineering issues, proposed many progressive urban projects. Goldberg wrote extensively on urban issues and other historical and cultural issues; the Bertrand Goldberg Archive is held by the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. The archive includes photographs, drawings and audiovisual materials. Goldberg's work includes: Dr. Aaron Heimbach House, Blue Island, Illinois, 1939 Levin House, Illinois, 1956 Astor Tower Hotel, Chicago, 1963 West Palm Beach Christian Convention Center, West Palm Beach, Florida, 1965 Hilliard Towers Apartments, Chicago, 1966 Elgin Mental Health Center, Illinois, 1967 St. Joseph Medical Center, Washington, 1969 Prentice Women's Hospital Building, Chicago, 1975 Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, New York, 1976-1980 Good Samaritan Hospital, Arizona, 1982 Providence Hospital, Alabama, 1987 master plan and buildings for the campus of Wilbur Wright College, Chicago, 1993 BibliographyJay Pridmore, George A. Larson, Chicago Architecture and Design: Revised and expanded, Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
New York, 2005. ISBN 0-8109-5892-9. Notes Forgotten Chicago series on Bertrand Goldberg Oral history interview with Bertrand Goldberg Website on Bertrand Goldberg Bertrand Goldberg Archive
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi