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Everton Lock-Up

Everton Lock-Up, sometimes referenced by one of its nicknames such as Prince Rupert's Tower or Prince Rupert's Castle is a village lock-up located on Everton Brow in Everton, Liverpool. The 18th-century structure is one of two Georgian lock-ups, it is famous for being the centre-piece of the crest of Everton F. C; the Grade II-listed building, opened in 1787, was an overnight holding place where local drunks and criminals were taken by parish constables. Prisoners would be brought before local Justices of the Peace for trial. Punishments would be similar to community service such as clearing ditches, unblocking drains or removing rubbish; the Friends of Everton Park have included the lock-up in their Everton Park Heritage Trail with information boards displayed near the building. It is sometimes called Prince Rupert's Tower, though it was in fact erected 143 years after Prince Rupert's Royalist Army camped in the area during the English Civil War Siege of Liverpool in 1644, it is the name arose because Everton Brow was where preparations were made to attack the Parliamentarian garrison holding Liverpool Castle.

Prince Rupert, as commander of the Royalist cavalry of Charles I is said to have looked down on the fortress and dismissed it with the words: "It is a crow’s nest that any party of schoolboys could take!" It fell after a week of heavy fighting and the loss of 1,500 of his men. A depiction of the Everton Lock-Up has appeared on the crest of professional football club Everton F. C. since 1938. In 2003, a plaque was added to the building stating the importance of its sporting association. In May 1997 Everton gave £15,000 for renovating the structure and in February 2014 Everton Lock-Up was permanently illuminated blue

Wartime League

The Wartime League was a football league competition held in England during World War II, which replaced the suspended Football League. The exclusion of the FA Cup in these years saw the creation of the Football League War Cup. Throughout the latter 1930s it was becoming inevitable that a Second World War with Germany was coming. On 21 September 1939, the government announced football games would continue but not under the divisions that the game traditionally held season to season; the Football League teams each played. After a fifty-mile travelling limit was established, the football association divided the football league into separate regional leagues with reduced attendance numbers. In the interests of public safety, the number of spectators allowed to attend these games was limited to 8,000; these arrangements were revised, clubs were allowed gates of 15,000 from tickets purchased on the day of the game through the turnstiles. Many footballers during this time left their careers to join the Territorial Army.

Between September 1939 and the end of the war, 784 footballers joined in the war effort. 91 men joined from Wolverhampton Wanderers, 76 from Liverpool, 65 from Huddersfield Town, 63 from Leicester City, 62 from Charlton, 55 from Preston North End, 52 from Burnley, 50 from Sheffield Wednesday, 44 from Chelsea, 41 each from Brentford and Southampton and West Ham United, 1 from Norwich City. Each season saw; the first season of the Wartime League 1939–40 season, saw ten divisions established, two in the north of England, one in the West Midlands, one in the East Midlands, one in the South West and two in the South, which were both played in two sections. Arsenal, Queens Park Rangers, Crystal Palace were all winners of their own South section; the FA Cup was suspended. To substitute for its absence, the Football League War Cup was established. By May 1940 the Phoney War ended, as Hitler ordered his troops to invade France. Fears of Britain's safeties from bombings were increasing, but over 40,000 fans braved the warnings and turned out at Wembley Stadium to see West Ham United lift the Football League War Cup by defeating Blackburn Rovers.

On 19 September 1940, soon after the beginning of the Blitz, the Football Association relaxed their ban on Sunday football to provide recreation for war workers. In 1940–1941, the leagues were reduced in numbers to just two: the North Regional League and the South Regional League. Crystal Palace were champions of the South and Preston North End were the North champions; the London War Cup was introduced. For 1941–1942, these were renamed to League North and League South and the London League was added. From 1942 to 1945 the leagues were continued as three, now established as League North, League South, League West, now a League North Cup as opposed to London; the Football League War Cup continued on in these years. In May 1945, Germany surrendered following the suicide of Adolf Hitler; the Wartime League's structure continued for one more season from 1945–1946 with just the League North and League South. This season however marked the retirement of the Football League War Cup and the return of The FA Cup with a new structure.

In 1946–1947, the league was returned to pre-war four divisions, First Division, Second Division and Division 3 with its north-south split. Centre forward Jackie Milburn made his career debut in the Wartime Football League for Newcastle United in 1943, scoring a total of 38 goals in the next three years of the league's life, going on to become a goal-scoring legend for both club and country thereafter. Welsh winger George Edwards made his professional debut for Birmingham City in the Wartime League 1944–45 football season, winning the Football League South championship and reaching the semi-finals of the FA Cup in the League's final season; the Wartime League produced few memorable moments for fans of clubs who managed to play. The lack of availability for footballers to participate wore down the league's performance. Despite guest players being introduced, many teams still struggled to produce a full squad and resigned many matches. League table points were added up by goal average or appearances as opposed to match results.

The Blitz was still taking place when the 1941 Football League War Cup Final took place at Wembley on 31 May. Preston North End and Arsenal drew 1–1 in front of a 60,000 crowd. Preston won the replay at Blackburn, 2–1. Robert Beattie got both of Preston's goals. Wolves won the Football League War Cup in 1942, beating Sunderland 4–1; the team featured a player named Eric Robinson, killed during a military training exercise soon afterwards. In the 1940–1941 season Preston North End needed to win their last game against Liverpool to win the North Regional League title; the nineteen-year-old Andrew McLaren scored all six goals in the 6–1 victory. The prospect of large gatherings of crowds during the Second World War proved to be controversial. During the first season of The Football Wartime League, Britain had not experienced any bombings or military attack by Germany or its allies. Whilst public attendance was reduced, fears of Britain's safety were moderate. However, despite the Phoney War ending and attacks on Britain and France beginning, the games continued and increases in attendance and match fixtures were introduced during the Blitz.

The government claimed these games were recreation for war workers. Many war workers and guest players who played these games however supported the wartime league, claiming it allowed them an outlet from th

10th Armored Division (United States)

The 10th Armored Division was an armored division of the United States Army in World War II. In the European Theater of Operations the 10th Armored Division was part of both the Twelfth United States Army Group and Sixth United States Army Group. Assigned to the Third United States Army under General George S. Patton, it saw action with the Seventh United States Army under General Alexander Patch near the conclusion of the war; the 10th Armored Division was inactivated on 13 October 1945 at Virginia. On 25 February 1953, the division remained inactive; the division was activated on 15 July 1942, at Fort Benning, around a nucleus of the reorganized and redesignated 3rd and 11th Cavalry Regiments. The "Tiger" nickname of the 10th originates from a division-wide contest held while it was training in the United States, symbolizing the division "clawing and mauling" its way through the enemy. Major General Paul Newgarden, the division's first commander selected "Tiger" as the winner because a tiger has soldierly qualities, including being clean and neat and the ability to maneuver and surprise his prey.

The 10th Armored Division entered France through the port of Cherbourg, 23 September 1944, put in a month of training at Teurtheville, before entering combat, as part of the Third Army under General George S. Patton. Leaving Teurtheville, 25 October, the Division moved to Mars-la-Tour, where it entered combat, 2 November, in support of the XX Corps, containing enemy troops in the area; that month, the 10th participated in the capture of Metz. It was the first time in 1500 years. After fierce fighting, the 10th moved to the Siegfried Line and led the Third Army into Germany on 19 November 1944. Combat Command-B's lead Sherman tanks, tank destroyers and half-tracks entered Bastogne 18 December 1944; these were the first combat troops. CCB's commander, Col. William L. Roberts, split his command to form a crescent-shaped arc facing eastward five miles from the city. A task force commanded by Maj. William R. Desobry went north to Noville, while a similar group under Lt. Col. Henry T. Cherry wheeled east to Longvilly.

Lt. Col. James O'Hara's group shifted southeast to Bras. At the same time, German forces moved westward with increasing momentum. Bastogne, a hub from which seven main roads diverged, was essential to the swift movement of Rundstedt's panzers. Before dawn of 19 December five German divisions attacked CCB. Bazooka-armed American soldiers and a single platoon of tank destroyers fought a column of German Panzer IV tanks on the Houffalize-Noville highway, turning them back. More enemy armor followed and with the road blocked, the battle spilled into the snow-covered fields and woods. For eight hours, CCB alone withstood multiple German attacks before reinforcements arrived from the 101st Airborne Division, which had moved into Bastogne under the screen of the 10th's actions; the Germans still maintained the outnumbered Americans withdrew closer to Bastogne. The Germans sent pincers to the south; the night of 21 December, the pincers closed west of the city. In the surrounded city, the 10th assembled a mobile reserve force to strike in any direction.

CCB endured artillery barrages and bombing while their supplies and ammunition dwindled. Fourth Armored Division tanks broke through on 26 December, but CCB continued to fight until 18 January. After the battle, the 10th Armored Division's 21st Tank Battalion and Combat Command B were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for their actions from 17 to 27 December 1944 Battle of the Bulge; the 101 Airborne Division was honored with the Presidential Unit Citation for their actions at Bastogne. Years after the war, General Anthony McAuliffe said "In my opinion, Combat Command B of the 10th Armored Division was never properly credited with their important role in the Bastogne battle." In early February 1945, the 10th reassembled at Metz and was able to rest after rejoining the XX Corps. On 20 February 1945, the 10th again attacked the German defenses. In one day, they broke the German lines, after 48 hours, the division advanced 85 miles, overran the Saar-Moselle Triangle, reached the Saar River.

The 10th crossed the Saar and captured Trier and a bridge across the Moselle River. The loss of this defended city caused German defenses to collapse. Generals Dwight Eisenhower and Patton visited the 10th Armored Division to congratulate them; the division raced through Kaiserslautern, crossed the Rhine River on 28 March 1945, continued east. The division helped to seize Heilbronn, defended the Crailsheim Salient, moved south to isolate Stuttgart; as part of the VI Corps the 10th crossed the Danube River on 23 April 1945. By 27 April 1945 it was one of several Seventh Army corps headed towards the Alps to seal off passes out of Germany, reaching Innsbruck, Austria by early May. By 9 May 1945, elements of the 10th had reached Mittenwald, where they halted; the 10th occupied southern Bavaria until September 1945. On 3 October 1945, the division sailed from France, it arrived at Newport News, Virginia on 13 October 1945 and was inactivated at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia on the same day. The 10th Armored Division had captured 650 cities along with 56,000 German prisoners.

In one week, the 10th advanced 100 miles and captured 8,000 prisoners from 26 different enemy divisions. After a four-day respite, the 10th was one of several divisions of spearheading the Seventh Army drive under General Alexander Patch into Bavaria. With rapid night movements, the "Tigers" continually surprised the Germans. German dispatches referred to the 10th as the "Gh