Everts Air Cargo
Everts Air Cargo is an American Part 121 airline based in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. It operates D. O. D, scheduled and charter airline cargo within Alaska, Canada and continental US Its Maintenance base is Fairbanks International Airport with its major cargo hub at Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport. Everts Air Cargo is the sister company of Everts Air Fuel, that specializes in fuel transport throughout the state of Alaska and into Canada. See Everts Air destinations. Anchorage, Bethel, Emmonak, Galena, King Salmon, Nome, St. Mary's, Togiak As of July 2016, the active Everts Air Cargo fleet includes eighteen aircraft: 11 Douglas DC-6 2 Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando 3 Douglas DC-9 2 McDonnell Douglas MD-80 A further twelve aircraft are inactive or in storage. Since Northern Air Cargo abandoned their regular service with the Douglas DC-6, Everts Air Cargo is the last airline in the USA to operate scheduled flights with a rather large fleet of 60-year-old piston-powered aircraft. In a 2007 video interview, the Anchorage Station Manager stated that the DC-6 was still considered to be a valuable aircraft for operations in the harsh conditions of Alaska, with excellent landing and takeoff performance on gravel runways.
The downside is the difficulty to find the maintenance labor cost. Everts Air Cargo estimates a ratio of 12 hours of maintenance for every single flying hour. Spare parts could be a problem but Everts Air Cargo anticipates they will have enough in stock to keep the last DC-6 flying beyond 2020. Everts Air Cargo 1- "FAA Flight Standards Service Civil Aviation Registry"
Allakaket is a second class city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area of the Unorganized Borough of the U. S. state of Alaska. The population was 105 at the 2010 census. Several Native groups have lived in the area, including Koyukon Athabascans and Kobuk and Nunamiut Eskimos from the north and northwest; the Koyukon lived in several camps throughout the year, moving as the seasons changed, following the wild game and fish. The various bands established joint settlements after 1851; the old site of Alatna was a traditional trading center for Eskimos. The first mission on the Koyukuk River, St. John's-in-the-Wilderness Episcopal Mission, was established in 1906. A post office was opened in 1925. In 1938, the name of the community was changed to Allakaket, the name Alatna was assumed by the small Eskimo community across the river; the first public school was established in 1957. A flood caused by ice jamming inundated 85% of the community in the Spring of 1964. In 1975, the community incorporated including both settlements of Allakaket and Alatna.
A clinic and airport were built in 1978. A new school and community roads were built in 1979. In September 1994, flood waters destroyed and swept away nearly all of the community's buildings and food caches for the winter. Residents rebuilt near the old City site, but some new homes and facilities are now located outside of the incorporated City boundaries. New Allakaket and Alatna are located outside of the City limits. A federally recognized tribe is located in the community—the Allakaket Village; the population of the community consists of 95.9% Alaska Native or part Native. Allakaket is an Athabascan community. Two separate village councils exist. Traditional potlatches and foot races attract visitors from area villages. Subsistence activities provide the majority of food sources. Sale and possession of alcohol are banned in the village. Allakaket is located at 66°33′48″N 152°38′50″W Allakaket is located in the Fairbanks Recording District. Allakaket is on the south bank of the Koyukuk River, southwest of its junction with the Alatna River 190 miles northwest of Fairbanks and 57 miles upriver from Hughes.
The village of Alatna is located directly across the river. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.3 square miles, of which, 3.6 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. Allakaket has a subarctic climate characterized by mild summers; the average high temperature during July is 70 °F or 21.1 °C. Temperatures in January fall to or below 0 °F or −17.8 °C on all but four mornings, during December and February on all but six per month, whilst extended periods below −40 °F or −40 °C are common: the coldest month on record of January 1971 averaged −44.9 °F. Being further from the Alaska Range than Fairbanks, Allakaket is less influenced by warming chinook winds, so that temperatures have topped freezing in January only six times on record, in December only ten times of record; the highest temperature recorded was 94 °F and the lowest was −75 °F. Average precipitation is 12.41 inches or 315.2 millimetres and annual snowfall is 61.3 inches or 1.56 metres.
The Koyukuk River is ice-free from June through October. Allakaket first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated native village. In 1930, it and neighboring Alatna were combined for a total of 131. Allakaket formally incorporated in 1975; as of the census of 2000, there were 97 people, 41 households, 18 families residing in the city. The population density was 27.0 people per square mile. There were 59 housing units at an average density of 16.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.12% White, 95.88% Native American. There were 41 households out of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.7% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 53.7% were non-families. 53.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.68. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 23.7% under the age of 18, 19.6% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 142.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 155.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $16,563, the median income for a family was $33,125. Males had a median income of $13,750 versus $35,417 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,912. There were 11.8% of families and 12.9% of the population living below the poverty line, including 12.5% of under eighteens and none of those over 64. Most public facilities were damaged in the 1994 Koyukuk River flood. Major components have been replaced—a new washeteria and treatment plant, 100,000 US gallons water storage tank, sewage lagoon, force main have been completed; the lagoon is connected to the school. Residents carry treated wate
Northern Air Cargo
Northern Air Cargo is an American cargo airline based in Anchorage, Alaska, USA. It operates services within Alaska and to Canada and mainland USA, its main base is Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, with a hub at Fairbanks International Airport. The airline was established in 1956 as a charter freight service by Bobby Sholton and Morrie Carlson, it was Alaska's first scheduled all-cargo airline. Ownership passed to the Sholton family, its wholly owned subsidiary, NAC Link, is a freight forwarding company. In February 2006 the airline and its subsidiaries were wholly acquired by Seattle-based Saltchuk Resources, it has 289 employees. As of July 2017, Northern Air Cargo operates scheduled freight services to the following Alaskan domestic destinations:; the company offers charter services. Alaska Anchorage Aniak Barrow Bethel Dillingham Fairbanks King Salmon Kotzebue McGrath Nome Deadhorse Red Dog Mine St. Mary's Unalakleet As of November 2018 the Northern Air Cargo fleet includes: Northern Air Cargo has operated the following aircraft: Northern Air Cargo is contracted to handle passenger services for the following: ConocoPhillips On July 20, 1996, Northern Air Cargo Flight 33, a Douglas DC-6 was flying from when it crashed as it attempted an emergency landing at Russian Mission.
The emergency landing was due to the #3 engine catching fire. As the plane made its approach and when it was turning to final, its right wing was seen folded up; the plane slammed into the ground. All 4 on board were killed, including a jump seat passenger, Robert West, a Bush Pilot employed by Grant Aviation; the cause of the crash was determined to be the fatigue on the engine and improper procedures, during an emergency by the pilots on board. On September 25, 2001, the left wing broke off of a Northern Air Cargo Douglas DC-6BF, registration N867TA, while landing on Alpine Airstrip, AK, on a cargo flight from Deadhorse Airport. Subsequently, the aircraft veered off the left side of the runway and was destroyed in a post-crash fire. All 3 crewmembers on board survived; the aircraft was written off. Northern Air Cargo
Fairbanks is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska. 2016 estimates put the population of the city proper at 32,751, the population of the Fairbanks North Star Borough at 97,121, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Alaska. The Metropolitan Statistical Area encompasses all of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and is the northernmost Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States, located 196 driving miles south of the Arctic Circle. Fairbanks is home to the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the founding campus of the University of Alaska system. Though, as of yet, there is not a known permanent Alaska Native settlement at the site of Fairbanks, Athabascan peoples have used the area for thousands of years. An archaeological site excavated on the grounds of the University of Alaska Fairbanks uncovered a Native camp about 3,500 years old, with older remains found at deeper levels.
From evidence gathered at the site, archaeologists surmise that Native activities in the area were limited to seasonal hunting and fishing as fridge temperatures precluded berry gathering. In addition, archeological sites on the grounds of nearby Fort Wainwright date back well over 10,000 years. Arrowheads excavated from the University of Alaska Fairbanks site matched similar items found in Asia, providing some of the first evidence that humans arrived in North America via the Bering Strait land bridge in deep antiquity. Captain E. T. Barnette founded Fairbanks in August 1901 while headed to Tanacross, where he intended to set up a trading post; the steamboat on which Barnette was a passenger, the Lavelle Young, ran aground while attempting to negotiate shallow water. Barnette, along with his party and supplies, were deposited along the banks of the Chena River 7 miles upstream from its confluence with the Tanana River; the sight of smoke from the steamer's engines caught the attention of gold prospectors working in the hills to the north, most notably an Italian immigrant named Felice Pedroni and his partner Tom Gilmore.
The two met Barnette where he convinced him of the potential of the area. Barnette set up his trading post at the site, still intending to make it to Tanacross. Teams of gold prospectors soon congregated around the newly founded Fairbanks. After some urging by James Wickersham, who moved the seat of the Third Division court from Eagle to Fairbanks, the settlement was named after Charles W. Fairbanks, a Republican senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States, serving under Theodore Roosevelt during his second term. In these early years of settlement, the Tanana Valley was an important agricultural center for Alaska until the establishment of the Matanuska Valley Colonization Project and the town of Palmer in 1935. Agricultural activity still occurs today in the Tanana Valley, but to the southeast of Fairbanks in the communities of Salcha and Delta Junction. During the early days of Fairbanks, its vicinity was a major producer of agricultural goods. What is now the northern reaches of South Fairbanks was the farm of Paul J. Rickert, who came from nearby Chena in 1904 and operated a large farm until his death in 1938.
Farmers Loop Road and Badger Road, loop roads north and east of Fairbanks, were home to major farming activity. Badger Road is named for Harry Markley Badger, an early resident of Fairbanks who established a farm along the road and became known as "the Strawberry King". Ballaine and McGrath Roads, side roads of Farmers Loop Road, were named for prominent local farmers, whose farms were in the immediate vicinity of their respective namesake roads. Despite early efforts by the Alaska Loyal League, the Tanana Valley Agriculture Association and William Fentress Thompson, the editor-publisher of the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, to encourage food production, agriculture in the area was never able to support the population, although it came close in the 1920s; the construction of Ladd Army Airfield starting in 1939, part of a larger effort by the federal government during the New Deal and World War II to install major infrastructure in the territory for the first time, fostered an economic and population boom in Fairbanks which extended beyond the end of the war.
In the 1940s the Canol pipeline extended north from Whitehorse for a few years. The Haines - Fairbanks 626 mile long 8" petroleum products pipeline was constructed during the period 1953-55; the presence of the U. S. military has remained strong in Fairbanks. Ladd became Fort Wainwright in 1960. Fairbanks suffered from several floods in its first seven decades, whether from ice jams during spring breakup or heavy rainfall; the first bridge crossing the Chena River, a wooden structure built in 1904 to extend Turner Street northward to connect with the wagon roads leading to the gold mining camps washed out before a permanent bridge was constructed at Cushman Street in 1917 by the Alaska Road Commission. On August 14, 1967, after record rainfall upstream, the Chena began to surge over its banks, flooding the entire town of Fairbanks overnight; this disaster led to the creation of the Chena River Lakes Flood Control Project, which built and operates the 50-foot-high Moose Creek Dam in the Chena River and accompanying 8-mile-long spillway.
The project was designed to prevent a repetition of the 1967 flood by being able to
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
The Curtiss-Wright Corporation is an American-based, global diversified product manufacturer and service provider for the commercial, industrial and energy markets. Created in 1929 from the consolidation of Curtiss and various supplier companies, by the end of World War II it was the largest aircraft manufacturer in the United States, supplying whole aircraft in large numbers to the U. S. Armed Forces, it has since evolved away from final assembly of finished aircraft, becoming a component manufacturer specializing in actuators, aircraft controls and surface treatment services. It is a supplier to commercial nuclear power, nuclear navy systems, industrial vehicles and to the oil and gas industries. Curtiss-Wright came into existence on July 5, 1929, the result of a merger of 12 companies associated with Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company of Buffalo, New York, Wright Aeronautical of Dayton and was headquartered in Buffalo, New York. With $75 million in capital, it was the largest aviation company in the country.
There were three main divisions: the Curtiss-Wright Airplane Division. After 1929, most engines produced by the new company were known as Wrights, while most aircraft were given the Curtiss name, with a few exceptions. Throughout the 1930s, Curtiss-Wright designed and built aircraft for military and private markets, but it was the Wright engine division and the longstanding relationship with the U. S. military that would help the company through the difficult years of the Great Depression. In 1937, the company developed the P-36 fighter aircraft, resulting in the largest peacetime aircraft order given by the Army Air Corps. Curtiss-Wright sold the P-36 abroad, where they were used in the early days of World War II. During World War II, Curtiss-Wright produced 142,840 aircraft engines, 146,468 electric propellers and 29,269 airplanes. Curtiss-Wright employed 180,000 workers, ranked second among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Aircraft production included 14,000 P-40 fighters, made famous by their use by Claire Chennault's Flying Tigers in China, over 3,000 C-46 Commando transport aircraft, in the war, over 7,000 SB2C Helldivers.
Its most visible success came with the P-40, variously known as the Tomahawk and Warhawk, which were built between 1940 and 1944 at the main production facilities in Buffalo, New York. During the war, a second large plant was added followed by new plants at Columbus, Ohio. Engine and propeller production was at plants in New Jersey and Ohio. In May 1942, the U. S. government assigned Curtiss-Wright a defense production factory for wartime aircraft construction at Louisville, Kentucky, to produce the C-76 Caravan cargo plane, constructed of wood, a non-priority war material. However, after difficulties with the C-76, as well as the realization that sufficient quantities of aluminum aircraft alloys would be available for war production, plans for large-scale C-76 production were rejected; the Louisville plant was converted to C-46 Commando production delivering 438 Commandos to supplement the 2,500 C-46s produced at Buffalo. The C-46 cargo plane was fitted with two powerful radial engines, could carry more cargo at higher altitudes than any other Allied aircraft.
It was used extensively in the China-Burma-India Theater. From 1941 to 1943, the Curtiss Aeronautical plant in Lockland, Ohio produced aircraft engines under wartime contract destined for installation in U. S. Army Air Forces aircraft. Wright officials at Lockland insisted on high engine production levels, resulting in a significant percentage of engines that did not meet Army Air Forces inspection standards; these defective engines were approved by inspectors for shipment and installation in U. S. military aircraft. After investigation, it was revealed that Wright company officials at Lockland had conspired with civilian technical advisers and Army inspection officers to approve substandard or defective aircraft engines for military use. Army Air Forces technical adviser Charles W. Bond was dismissed by the Army in 1943 for "gross irregularities in inspection procedure." Bond would testify that he had been "wined and dined" by Wright company officials. In 1944, three Army officers, Lt. Col. Frank Constantine Greulich of Detroit, former chief inspection officer for the material command, Major Walter A. Ryan of Detroit, former central states inspection officer, Major William Bruckmann, a former Cincinnati brewer and resident Army inspections officer at the Wright plant in Lockland were charged with neglect of duty and giving false testimony in a general court martial.
All three men were convicted of neglect of duty. The story of defective engines had reached investigators working for Sen. Harry Truman's congressional investigative board, the Truman Commission, after several Wright aircraft assembly workers informed on the company. Arthur Miller's play. Curtiss-Wright failed to make the transition to design and production of jet aircraft, despite several attempts. During the war, the company had expended only small amounts on aircraft research and development, inste