A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
A clapperboard is a device used in filmmaking and video production to assist in synchronizing of picture and sound, to designate and mark the various scenes and takes as they are filmed and audio-recorded. Other names include clapper, clacker, slate board, sync slate, time slate, board, smart slate, dumb slate and sound marker; when a movie's sound and picture are out of synchronization, this is known as lip flap. Clapperboards have been essential to filmmaking since the earliest sound films because visual and audio tracks were recorded on separate media by separate equipment; the clapperboard combines a'chalkboard slate' with a'clapstick'. The slate displays the name of the production, the scene and "take" about to be performed, similar information; the shutting of the clapstick is identified on the visual track, the sharp "clap" noise is identified on the separate audio track. And since each take is identified on both the visual and audio tracks, segments of film are matched with segments of audio.
Traditional clapperboards consisted of a wooden slate with a hinged clapstick attached to its top. Modern clapperboards use a pair of wooden sticks atop either a whiteboard or a translucent acrylic glass slate. Smart slates or digislates are electronic SMPTE time code versions with digitally displayed information; the clapsticks traditionally have diagonally interleaved lines of black and white to ensure a clear visual of the clap in most lighting conditions. In recent years sticks with calibrated color stripes have become available. In some productions those created in the digital domain, electronically superimposed versions of a clapperboard have supplanted the real thing; the slate includes the date, the production title, the name of the director, the name of the director of photography and the scene information — which follows two popular systems: American: scene number, camera angle and take number. The European system will include the scene number; this is not as great a concern with short films, however.
The clapper loader is responsible for the maintenance and operation of the clapperboard, while the script supervisor is responsible for determining which system will be used and what numbers a given take should have. While these are fairly obvious once a system has been agreed upon, the script supervisor is considered the final arbiter in the event of an unclear situation. A verbal identification of the numbers, known either as "voice slate" or "announcement", occurs after sound has reached speed. At the same time or shortly thereafter, the camera will start running, the clapperboard is filmed at the start of the'take' and the clapsticks are clapped as soon as the camera has reached sync speed. Specific procedures vary depending on the nature of the production and the dominant camera assisting conventions of the region. Instead of preparing an actual slate, a voice slate will be announced and the actor will clap their hands together, to provide the synchronisation mark. Sometimes a tail slate or end slate is filmed at the end of a take, during which the clapperboard is held upside-down.
This is done when the clapperboard was not captured at the start of the take due to the camera being set up for the shot in such a way that the board cannot be captured, for example when a specific focus or frame is set up and cannot be altered until the take is complete. Tail slates are commonly used when the director makes the decision that clapping a slate at the beginning of the scene would be distracting to the actor, such as when filming a emotional performance. A clapper board is used to identify all takes on a production takes that do not require synchronization, such as MOS takes; when a slate is used to mark an MOS take, the slate is held half open, with a hand blocking the sticks, or closed, with a hand over the sticks. The clapper was invented by F. W. Thring, head of Efftee Studios in Melbourne, Australia; some mention. However, the date of Efftee's founding does not assume the start of F. W. Thring's involvement in the industry. Consider the start of the Australian film industry with 1906's The Story of the Kelly Gang, the first feature length narrative film in the world.
The director of this film, Charles Tait, was associated with J. C. Williamson; the former's production company, J. & N. Tait, merged with the J. C. Williamson Film Company. F. W. Thring was managing director of J. C. Williamson Films in 1918; the clapboard with both the sticks and slate together was refined by Leon M. Leon a pioneer sound engineer; the Two Frank Thrings - Peter Fitzpatrick —
The Hand That Feeds
"The Hand That Feeds" is a song by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, released as the lead single from their fourth studio album, With Teeth. It is the highest charting song by Nine Inch Nails on all charts except for US Modern Rock Tracks, where it stayed at number one for five weeks, because the single that followed, "Only", stayed at number one for two more weeks, the Billboard Hot 100 peaking at number 31, bested only by the group's 1999 single "The Day the World Went Away", which peaked at number 17 but did not chart anywhere else in the US and never had any popular success, making it one of their less popular singles, it is, to date, Nine Inch Nails' only single to hit the top 10 of the UK Singles Chart, as well as their highest-charting single on the US Mainstream Rock Tracks chart, peaking at number two. It was a crossover hit, crossing over to pop radio as their first top 40 radio hit since "Closer" and "Hurt" in 1994 and 1995 peaking at number 31 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.
Though several stations played a leaked copy of "The Hand That Feeds" in February, official radio play of the song began on March 14, 2005. "The Hand That Feeds" was released for sale on both iTunes and Napster on March 22, 2005. A music video was made for this song, it was released on March 17, 2005 on the NIN official website. A second video for this song was directed by Ian Inaba, but was never completed; the April 15, 2005, update to the NIN website included a link to a multi-track GarageBand file of the song. This file allows anyone with the Macintosh program GarageBand to remix the song. NIN was due to play this song at the 2005 MTV Movie Awards, but dropped out due to conflicts between Trent Reznor and MTV concerning the band's plan to incorporate an image of George W. Bush into the performance. An announcement made by Trent Reznor on the NIN website on May 26 stated: "Nine Inch Nails will not be performing at the MTV Movie Awards as announced. We were set to perform'The Hand That Feeds' with an unmolested, straightforward image of George W. Bush as the backdrop.
The image of our president is as offensive to MTV as it is to me. See you on tour this fall when we return to play in America." The following day, MTV stated, "While we respect Nine Inch Nails' point of view, we were uncomfortable with their performance being built around a partisan political statement. When we discussed our discomfort with the band, their choice was to pull out of the Movie Awards." Nine Inch Nails was replaced by Foo Fighters at the ceremony on June 9. During the performance of The Hand That Feeds in Jacksonville, Florida on October 29, 2008, a photo of George W. Bush was displayed behind the band, as the band played the photo morphed into John McCain, the Republican candidate for the 2008 presidential election; the song was nominated for Best Hard Rock Performance for the 48th Annual Grammy Awards in 2006. The song is included in the videogames Rock Band, Midnight Club 3 and as downloadable content in Guitar Hero: Warriors of Rock and Rock Band 4; the song appears in the trailer to Red Riding Hood and in the TV spot for Underworld: Evolution.
In 2009, it ranked at number 406 in Pitchfork Media's list of The Top 500 Tracks of the 2000s. The music video for the song was directed by Trent Reznor and Rob Sheridan and debuted on the official Nine Inch Nails website; the video features the live band, featuring Aaron North, Jeordie White, Jerome Dillon, Alessandro Cortini, performing the song in close quarters. The video features the use of the pan and scan technique, resulting in video distortion such as pixelization and interlacing. During the final chorus, the band members become intentionally more distorted by additional interlacing; the single for "The Hand That Feeds" was only given a wide release in Europe. The European releases include a 3-track limited edition CD, a 2-track standard CD, a 9" vinyl and a DVD single. In the United States, "The Hand That Feeds" was released on various vinyl formats. A limited edition 10" picture disc and a 7" promotional disc contained the title track and the b-side "Home." Additional 12" remix records, containing mixes by Photek and DFA were available.
Island Records CID888 - CD Island Records CIDV888 - DVD Island Records 9IS888 - 9" vinyl Interscope Records HALO_18 V2 - 10" picture disc Interscope Records INTR-11401-7 - 7" vinyl Interscope Records B0005127-11 - 12" vinyl, Photek remixes Interscope Records B0005129-11 - 12" vinyl, DFA remixes List of anti-war songs "The Hand That Feeds" Official music video on YouTube nin.com The Hand That Feeds at the NinWiki Halo 18 at NINCollector.com discogs.com: The Hand that Feeds discogs.com: The Hand that Feeds discogs.com: The Hand that Feeds discogs.com: The Hand that Feeds discogs.com: The Hand that Feeds discogs.com: The Hand that Feeds
"Survivalism" is a song by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails from their fifth studio album, Year Zero. It was released as the album's lead single; the single was released digitally on the iTunes Store on March 13, 2007, the CD and vinyl singles were released internationally on April 2, 2007. On February 14, 2007, a clip of the chorus to "Survivalism" was first heard by fans calling the telephone number 1-310-295-1040, found by joining discolored numerals on the back of a tour T-shirt. FMQB reported that "Survivalism" would arrive at radio stations on February 27 with an add date of March 6, but 102.1 The Edge in Toronto debuted the song on February 15, on the next day, it was played on radio stations across the United States. It was made available on Nine Inch Nails' Myspace page; as with "The Hand That Feeds" and "Only", the "Survivalism" multi-track GarageBand file was released by the band for fan remixing on March 13. It can be downloaded on the album's website. In July 2012, Canadian house musician deadmau5 produced a remix of the song, included on his 2014 album while.
Nine Inch Nails was scheduled to begin shooting a video for "Survivalism" on February 5, 2007, in the Los Angeles area. It was directed by Alex Lieu, Rob Sheridan, Trent Reznor; the video was circulated on the Internet on March 7, 2007, when Nine Inch Nails played the Carling Academy Brixton in London, England. USB pen drives containing low and high resolution versions of the video were found at different locations in the venue by concert-goers; the video consists of a series of images from a console of secret cameras installed in an apartment block. As the camera moves between the footage, viewers are able to see into the lives of a number of residents, including: A catatonic older couple watching television with a portrait of Jesus behind them. A man looking after his drugged spouse. Two men having sexual intercourse in bed. A topless woman applying make-up in a bathroom. A man sitting at a table staring at his food. Three men in a shop working with stencils. A man in his cubicle surfing the Internet on his Apple laptop computer.
Nine Inch Nails performing the song in a room. There are cameras directed at hallways and stairs inside the apartment block. After about a minute, these screens show a SWAT team armed with submachine guns assembling outside, they enter in formation, break down a door and enter the apartment where the band is playing. The noise disturbs all the residents, who momentarily stop what they are doing and move off to investigate return to their activities. At this point, a number of cameras have been show static; the band is no longer in their room. It has been torn asunder and a large smear of blood is visible on the floor; the final shot shows a bleeding corpse being dragged around a out of sight. The Bible passage referenced by the door is from the Book of Revelation, a passage describing the fallen city-nation of Babylon and how she has been corrupted by luxury and adultery, how people are being called to leave this whorish nation behind and not share in her immorality to keep from sharing in her judgement.
The time code in the monitor sometimes changes the last digit for a letter. This spells out "THE_TURNEDTO_". In addition, several Bible verses that reference water and blood are shown throughout the video. "Isaiah 15:9" on the graffiti wall, "John 19:34" on the picture of Jesus behind the couple, "II Kings 3:22" and "Exodus 7:21" in the board behind the man with the laptop. This led to the discovery of the Year Zero website, a collage of a hand picking a man up out of the wreckage of a crumbling bridge, claimed to be drawn by a prison inmate. There are various biblical quotations surrounding the drawing, capital letters align to form the word "francesca" once in the first paragraph, twice in the second. Francesca has two documented meanings; the music video is available for download at the album's website. At the end of 2007, Rolling Stone readers voted the video as the best music video of year. "Survivalism" had 501 plays and debuted at number 28 on the Billboard Hot Modern Rock Tracks chart in the week of February 23, 2007.
It climbed to number one for one week, becoming NIN's fourth consecutive number one single, debuted at number 68 on the Billboard Hot 100. Since Linkin Park's enormously more successful "What I've Done" single debuted at number one and replaced "Survivalism"'s position, the song however had fallen drastically after one week at number one dropping off the top 20 of the Hot Modern Rock Tracks chart within just one month; the song dropped from number 7 to number 19 during the week of May 12, 2007, proceeded to fall to number 26 during the week of May 19, 2007 hit number 37 in the week of May 26, 2007, leading the song to stay on the chart for only 13 weeks, a disappointment as a few other notable songs, despite not reaching number one on the chart, stayed in the top 20 for longer, such as Breaking Benjamin's "Breath", Papa Roach's "Forever", Incubus's "Dig", Rise Against's "Prayer of the Refugee". "Survivalism" debuted at number two on the UK Rock Singles Chart and at number 29 on the UK Singles Chart
Francis Lawrence is an American filmmaker and producer. After establishing himself as a director of music videos and commercials, Lawrence made his feature length directorial debut with the supernatural thriller Constantine and has since directed the post-apocalyptic horror film I Am Legend, the romantic drama Water for Elephants, three of the four films in the Hunger Games film series, the spy thriller Red Sparrow. Lawrence was born to American parents in Austria, his father is a Theoretical Physicist who taught at California State University and his mother is V. P. Technology at a PR agency, he moved to Los Angeles at the age of three. Lawrence worked as 2nd assistant camera on the feature Pump Up the Volume directed by Allan Moyle prior to earning his bachelor's degree in film production at Loyola Marymount University Film School, he went on to work as first AD on the feature Marching out of Time directed by Anton Vassil in 1993. Francis Lawrence joined ex-classmate Michael Jason Rosen in co-directing music videos.
Lawrence directed his first music videos for A Western Front. Rosen and Lawrence made the two videos for a total of $3,000 with DP Jeffrey Michael Cutter, another ex-classmate, shooting for them. Lawrence and Cutter made a video for Michael Blakey, president of Atico Records and Tidal Force drummer for that band's single, A Man Rides Through. Soon, Lawrence became known for his original and imaginative music video scripts and visual directing style, he joined a major new production company and his successful career as music video director, having worked with stars like Rihanna, Green Day, Britney Spears, The Black Eyed Peas, Jay-Z, Avril Lavigne, Janet Jackson, Jennifer Lopez, Lady Gaga, Lisa Marie Presley, Destiny's Child, Gwen Stefani, Shakira, En Vogue and Missy Elliott. He has directed numerous commercials for clients such as Coca-Cola, L'Oréal, Calvin Klein, Pepsi-Cola, Kid's Footlocker, Bacardi, McDonald's, GAP, Bud Light, CoverGirl, Backstreet Boys and Disneyland. In 2005, his feature film debut was Constantine based on the Hellblazer comic book, starring Keanu Reeves.
In 2007, he directed I Am Legend, with Will Smith. In 2011, he directed Water for Elephants. In 2012, Lawrence directed and executive produced the pilot episode of the Fox paranormal series, Touch, he is signed to DNA Inc. In 2011, he won a Grammy Award for Best Music Video, Short Form for directing Lady Gaga's "Bad Romance" music video. In April 2012, Lionsgate Films announced that Lawrence had been selected to direct the film adaptation of the novel Catching Fire; the book and film were the sequel to the blockbuster hit, The Hunger Games, starring Jennifer Lawrence. This film adaptation of The Hunger Games was directed by Gary Ross, both novels were written by Suzanne Collins. Lawrence was confirmed as the director for the film on May 3, 2012, he returned to direct the two final parts of the series, The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1 and Part 2. Lawrence is working on a film adaptation of the novel Survivor by Chuck Palahnuik, he most directed Red Sparrow, based on a book by Jason Matthews, featuring The Hunger Games star Jennifer Lawrence and Joel Edgerton.
The film was released on March 2, 2018. Francis Lawrence on IMDb Francis Lawrence at the mvdbase.com Biografie of Francis Lawrence at The New York Times
An extended play record referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of The Denver Post said, "EPs—originally extended-play'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of maximum length and no more than four tracks. EPs were released in various sizes in different eras; the earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records, were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records.
By 1949, when the 45 rpm single and 331⁄3 rpm LP were competing formats, seven-inch 45 rpm singles had a maximum playing time of only about four minutes per side. As an attempt to compete with the LP introduced in 1948 by rival Columbia, RCA Victor introduced "Extended Play" 45s during 1952, their narrower grooves, achieved by lowering the cutting levels and sound compression optionally, enabled them to hold up to 7.5 minutes per side—but still be played by a standard 45 rpm phonograph. These were 10-inch LPs split onto two seven-inch EPs or 12-inch LPs split onto three seven-inch EPs, either sold separately or together in gatefold covers; this practice became much less common with the advent of triple-speed-available phonographs. Some classical music albums released at the beginning of the LP era were distributed as EP albums—notably, the seven operas that Arturo Toscanini conducted on radio between 1944 and 1954; these opera EPs broadcast on the NBC Radio network and manufactured by RCA, which owned the NBC network were made available both in 45 rpm and 331⁄3 rpm.
In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact discs. RCA had success in the format with their top money earner, Elvis Presley, issuing 28 Elvis EPs between 1956 and 1967, many of which topped the separate Billboard EP chart during its brief existence. During the 1950s, RCA published several EP albums of Walt Disney movies, containing both the story and the songs; these featured the original casts of actors and actresses. Each album contained two seven-inch records, plus a illustrated booklet containing the text of the recording so that children could follow along by reading; some of the titles included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and what was a recent release, the movie version of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, presented in 1954. The recording and publishing of 20,000 was unusual: it did not employ the movie's cast, years a 12 in 33⅓ rpm album, with a nearly identical script, but another different cast, was sold by Disneyland Records in conjunction with the re-release of the movie in 1963.
Because of the popularity of 7" and other formats, SP records became less popular and the production of SPs in Japan was suspended in 1963. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were compilations of singles or album samplers and were played at 45 rpm on seven-inch discs, with two songs on each side. Other than those published by RCA, EPs were uncommon in the United States and Canada, but they were sold in the United Kingdom, in some other European countries, during the 1950s and 1960s. Record Retailer printed the first EP chart in 1960; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Music Echo and the Record Mirror continued to list EPs on their respective singles charts. The Beatles' Twist and Shout outsold most singles for some weeks in 1963; when the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to compile a chart it was restricted to singles and EPs disappeared from the listings. In the Philippines, seven-inch EPs marketed as "mini-LPs" were introduced in 1970, with tracks selected from an album and packaging resembling the album they were taken from.
This mini-LP format became popular in America in the early 1970s for promotional releases, for use in jukeboxes. Stevie Wonder included a bonus four-song EP with his double LP Songs in the Key of Life in 1976. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was less standardization and EPs were made on seven-inch, 10-inch or 12-inch discs running either 331⁄3 or 45 rpm; some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors, a few of them were picture discs. Alice in Chains was the first band to have an EP reach number one on the Billboard album chart, its EP, Jar of Flies, was released on January 25, 1994. In 2004, Linkin Park and Jay-Z's collaboration EP, Collision Course, was the next to reach the number one spot after Alice in Chains. In 2010, the cast of the television series Glee became the first artist to have two EPs reach number one, with Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna on the week of May 8, 2010, Glee: The Music, Journey to Regionals on the week of June 26, 2010. In 2010, Warner Bros. Records revived the format with their "Six-Pak" offering of six songs on a compact disc.
The first EPs were seven-inch vinyl records with more tracks than a normal single. Although they shared size and speed with singles, they were a recognizably different format than the seven-inch single. Alth