Clarence Edward Elwell was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Columbus from 1968 until his death in 1973. Clarence Elwell was born in the Newburgh Heights section of Ohio. After graduating from Holy Name High School, he studied medicine at St. Ignatius College for two years before switching to St. Mary Seminary in Lakeside, where he began his studies for the priesthood, he furthered his studies at the University of Innsbruck in Austria, was ordained a priest there by Bishop Sigismund Waitz on March 17, 1929. Upon his return to the United States, Elwell served as an assistant priest and assistant superintendent of schools in the Diocese of Cleveland, he earned a Master's degree in Education from Western Reserve University in 1934, his doctorate from Harvard University in 1938. When he returned to Cleveland, Elwell was named director of Catholic high schools. In 1946, he was appointed superintendent of the diocesan school system, he was granted the title of Monsignor in 1949.
On November 5, 1962, Elwell was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Cleveland and Titular Bishop of Cone by Pope John XXIII. He received his episcopal consecration on the following December 21 from Archbishop Egidio Vagnozzi, with Bishops Floyd Lawrence Begin and John Francis Whealon serving as co-consecrators, at the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist, he was named the eighth Bishop of Columbus on May 29, 1968, installed at St. Joseph's Cathedral on the following August 22. During his tenure as Bishop, Elwell continued the implementation of the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, initiated under his predecessor, John Carberry. An advocate of Catholic education, he opened Tuscarawas Central Catholic High School, William V. Fisher Catholic High School, Bishop Rosecrans High School, as well as converting the seminary into St. Charles College Preparatory School, he established Resurrection Cemetery in Columbus, St. Peter Parish in Worthington, Diocesan Sisters' Council, Diocesan Pastoral Council, expanded the Diocesan Development Office, the Parish Aid Fund, the diocesan self-insurance program.
Elwell died at his residence in the chancery, aged 69. He is buried at St. Joseph Cemetery in Columbus
Undang-Undang Melaka known as Hukum Kanun Melaka, Undang-Undang Darat Melaka and Risalah Hukum Kanun, was the legal code of Melaka Sultanate. It contains significant provisions that reaffirmed the primacy of Malay customary law or adat, while at the same time accommodating and assimilating Islamic principles; the legal code is believed compiled during the reign of Muhammad Shah, before it was continuously expanded and improved by the succeeding sultans. The Melaka system of justice as enshrined in the Undang-Undang Melaka was the first digest of laws, compiled in the Malay world, it became a legal resource for other major regional sultanates like Johor, Brunei and Aceh, has been regarded as the most important of Malay legal digests. According to Malay Annals, earliest form of justice system had been in existence since the early days of Melaka. Early Melakan rulers promulgated court traditions and enforced the existing adat and religious rules to maintain social order. All rules and customs that have been codified as laws, were in turn collected through oral traditions and memorized by senior ministers of the sultanate.
During the reign of Muhammad Shah, laws were issued and recorded along with provisions for punishments of every offenses. Among notable rules mentioned in the Malay Annals, were the prohibition of using yellow clothes and wearing golden anklets. Under the order of the fifth Sultan, Muzaffar Shah, the legal digest of Muhammad Shah was further refined with the inclusion new laws and regulations, it was continued to be expanded and improved until the reign of the last sultan, Mahmud Shah. As a part of important legacy of Melaka, which throughout its existence had exercised strong influence over Maritime Southeast Asia, the legal code of Melaka was copied and spread to other such sultanates as Johor, Aceh and Pattani, it was made a reference in developing the local jurisprudence, with subsequent revisions and additions were made to its contents, to suit the usage in a particular sultanate. This has contributed to the existence of a variety of hybrid copies of the manuscript in different structures and contents.
In sum, there are 50 known surviving manuscripts of Undang-Undang Melaka, which can be categorized into. Based on the published version of Undang-Undang Melaka, the text consists of six parts dealing among others with maritime and trade law; the six parts are: Intisari Undang-Undang Laut Hukum Perkahwinan Islam Hukum Perdagangan dan Syahadat Undang-Undang Negeri Undang-Undang Johor. Due to continuous additions and revisions since the time of Melaka, the original 19 chapters of the text was expanded to 22, lastly to the longest 44 chapters that we know today. Although elements of customary law with influences from Animistic-Hindu-Buddhist era still prevailed in the text, marks of Islamic influences are strong evidenced with the existence of various terminologies and law of Islamic origin. For example, qadhf or false accusation of zina, robbery, drinking intoxicants, baghy. Qisas and diyya is legislated in section 5:1, 3. Punishment for the abovementioned crimes conform with those of classical Islamic law.
There are provisions for crimes punishable with tazir, i.e. when the crime lacks the conditions for hudud penalty, kissing between a man and a woman, giving false testimony. Section 25:2 is an example of provisions for Islamic marital jurisprudence, it outlines the conditions for ijab and qabul as well as rulings and conditions for witnesses. Besides that, the rulings on the dissolution rights or khiyar and all the conditions related to it, including the muhallil, are all contained in section 27 and 28:1. An example on provisions related to Islamic economic jurisprudence is section 30, that provides rulings on riba; the same section identify the types of goods allowed in trade as well as those prohibited such as alcoholic drinks, dogs and rice wine. Undang-Undang Melaka absorbed directly several fiqh rulings by referring to texts like Fath al-Qarib from Ibn Al-Qasim al-Ghazi, al-Taqrib from Imam Abu Syuja' and lastly Hasyiyah'ala Fath al-Qarib from Ibrahim al-Bajuri. Thus, based on its references, historians have concluded that Undang-Undang Melaka is more inclined to Shafi'i school of thought.
Songs for the Dead is Bella Morte's third release on Metropolis Records. It is closer to the genres of punk deathrock than their previous albums, it is sometimes referred to as the "Sequel to the Deathrock EP". All I Have The Forgotten Legend The Devil's Eyes Dead Will Walk The Stranger Final Words Untitled Anndy Deane – vocals Gopal Metro – bass guitar Tony Lechmanski – guitar Micah Consylman – synthesizers Jordan Marchini – drums Bella Morte's official website
Assyrian Australians are Australians of Assyrian descent or Assyrians who have Australian citizenship. According to the census, 40,218 persons are Assyrian, 21,166 identified themselves as having Chaldean ancestry. Assyrian people were indigenous to their ancient ancestral Assyrian homeland that corresponds to modern-day northern Iraq, southeast Turkey northwestern fringes of Iran and, much northeast Syria; the majority of Assyrian Australians have immigrated from Iraq, Syria and the Caucasus. Of the 61,418 Assyrians in Australia, 40,218 are members of the Assyrian Church of the East or Ancient Church of the East and 21,172 are members of the Chaldean Catholic Church; the City of Fairfield, in Sydney, has the most Assyrians in Australia, with 75% of Assyrians living in that area. 95% of Fairfield's Iraqi-born population are of Assyrian ancestry. Fairfield LGA has one of the most predominant Assyrian communities in the diaspora, where one in every ten person would be Assyrian. Moreover, in contrast to other migrants, Assyrians have the highest rate of acquiring the Australian citizenship.
During the 1980s war between Iraq and Iran, large numbers of Assyrians fled Iraq and applied for refugee status. In the early 2000s, 5% of Australia's humanitarian immigrants identified as being adherents of Syriac churches. In May 2013, the Assyrian genocide was recognised by the New South Wales state parliament. Assyrian-Australians have established various clubs, social organisation and language schools. Representing only 0.13% of Australia's overall population, Assyrians are considered to be a successful minority group. The first Assyrians arrived in Australia in the 1950s. By 1965, there were around five Assyrian families and a few individuals living in the Sydney suburbs of Randwick. Although around 80% of the arrivals lived in the suburbs of Fairfield LGA in Greater Western Sydney, some Assyrians settled in the eastern suburbs, a region on Sydney's coast. During that period 4,500 Assyrians came from 2,500 from Iran and 1,000 from Syria and Lebanon. According to Dinkha Warda, Fairfield was the most popular settlement among Assyrians for reason as follows: Back in 1966, a small meeting was held between the early settlers to decide the future of Assyrians in this country...
In 1966, Fairfield's developed area went west up to the Cumberland Highway. The majority of those attending the meeting agreed to establish the Assyrian community in Fairfield; the reason was to centralise the development of all the Assyrian social and sporting activities, allowing greater access and participation. If we remained in the Sydney city area, we would have scattered, and so, four or five families purchased fibro houses in Fairfield, a few bought blocks of land. In 1969, following the settlement of Assyrians in the Fairfield area, the Assyrian Australian Association was formed. In the 1970s, a few soccer clubs were established as the Assyrian community began to have a prominence. An Assyrian language school was formed in 1974, thanks to the AAA. In 1980, Nineveh Club, a prominent Assyrian club in Edensor Park, was established. Built with artificial mud brick, the Club was designed after Assyrian royal palace in Nineveh; the entryway features two winged bull statues containing the body of a lion, the head of an Assyrian king and wings of an eagle.
In the late 1980s, the Assyrian church was controversially split – The Church of the East in Australia from that time on now has two denominations. As the Assyrian community grew in the late 1980s, the Assyrian Sports and Cultural Club was subsequently opened in 1990, in Fairfield Heights, Sydney; the club acquired gaming licenses. The club co-hosted sports events such as The Assyrian Cup soccer tournaments and held functions and activities for the community, it has supported migrants, who arrived in the 1990s, settle in the country and it encouraged education by aiding achievers in the high school certificate. During the late 1990s, there was an increased level of Assyrian migration to Australia under the family reunion and humanitarian programs. Around 903 Assyrian arrivals were allowed under the Australian Government's Special Humanitarian Program and the Family Reunion Program. In 1997, it was reported that, for the Assyrian youth, lack of English skills was the major impediment for gaining employment, school achievement and becoming manoeuvrable in the Australian society.
This is still an ongoing issue, as conveyed by young people through the surveys. For instance, some Fairfield High School Assyrians wanted to go to university but felt hopeless because of their poor English; as such, several Assyrian churches developed a number of youth programs. For Assyrians with a higher education, the problem was language and unacceptability of overseas qualifications, which prevented them from pursuing their careers; the opening of St Hurmiz Primary School in 2002, in Sydney, was the first time an Assyrian school was established in the international diaspora. In 2006 in Sydney, St. Narsai Assyrian Christian College was established, it was the first Assyrian high school. Sydney's Assyrian community assembled in Fairfield to celebrate Iraq qualifying for the Asian Football Cup finals in 2007. More than 7000 people, including Iraqi Arabs, joined in street celebrations around Fairfield on Sunday 29 July 2007 after Iraq won the Asian Cup finals. On August 2010, a memorial monument for the Assyrian genocide was erected in Bonnyrigg.
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was used in ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures; some noteworthy examples of porticos are the East Portico of the United States Capitol, the portico adorning the Pantheon in Rome and the portico of University College London. Porticos are sometimes topped with pediments. Palladio was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings. In the UK, the temple-front applied to The Vyne, was the first portico applied to an English country house. A pronaos is the inner area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple, situated between the portico's colonnade or walls and the entrance to the cella, or shrine. Roman temples had an open pronaos with only columns and no walls, the pronaos could be as long as the cella; the word pronaos is Greek for "before a temple". In Latin, a pronaos is referred to as an anticum or prodomus.
The different variants of porticos are named by the number of columns. The "style" suffix comes from the Greek στῦλος, "column"; the tetrastyle has four columns. The Romans favoured the four columned portico for their pseudoperipteral temples like the Temple of Portunus, for amphiprostyle temples such as the Temple of Venus and Roma, for the prostyle entrance porticos of large public buildings like the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine. Roman provincial capitals manifested tetrastyle construction, such as the Capitoline Temple in Volubilis; the North Portico of the White House is the most notable four-columned portico in the United States. Hexastyle buildings had six columns and were the standard façade in canonical Greek Doric architecture between the archaic period 600–550 BCE up to the Age of Pericles 450–430 BCE; some well-known examples of classical Doric hexastyle Greek temples: The group at Paestum comprising the Temple of Hera, the Temple of Apollo, the first Temple of Athena and the second Temple of Hera The Temple of Athena Aphaia at Aegina c. 495 BCE Temple E at Selinus dedicated to Hera The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, now a ruin Temple F or the so-called "Temple of Concord" at Agrigentum, one of the best-preserved classical Greek temples, retaining all of its peristyle and entablature.
The "unfinished temple" at Segesta The Hephaesteum below the Acropolis at Athens, long known as the "Theseum" one of the most intact Greek temples surviving from antiquity The Temple of Poseidon on Cape Sunium Hexastyle was applied to Ionic temples, such as the prostyle porch of the sanctuary of Athena on the Erechtheum, at the Acropolis of Athens. With the colonization by the Greeks of Southern Italy, hexastyle was adopted by the Etruscans and subsequently acquired by the ancient Romans. Roman taste favoured narrow pseudoperipteral and amphiprostyle buildings with tall columns, raised on podiums for the added pomp and grandeur conferred by considerable height; the Maison Carrée at Nîmes, France, is the best-preserved Roman hexastyle temple surviving from antiquity. Octastyle buildings had eight columns; the best-known octastyle buildings surviving from antiquity are the Parthenon in Athens, built during the Age of Pericles, the Pantheon in Rome. The destroyed Temple of Divus Augustus in Rome, the centre of the Augustan cult, is shown on Roman coins of the 2nd century CE as having been built in octastyle.
The decastyle has ten columns. The only known Roman decastyle portico is on the Temple of Venus and Roma, built by Hadrian in about 130 CE. Classical architecture List of classical architecture terms Hypostyle Loggia Stoa Porte-cochere "Greek architecture". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1968. Stierlin, Henri. Angelika Taschen. Greece: From Mycenae to the Parthenon. Cologne: Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-1225-0. Stierlin, Henri. Silvia Kinkle; the Roman Empire: From the Etruscans to the Decline of the Roman Empire. Cologne: Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-1778-3