Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, the primary sector; the service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and affective labor; the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, pest control or entertainment; the goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods, it is sometimes hard to define whether a given company is part and parcel of the secondary or tertiary sector.
And it is not only companies. In order to classify a business as a service, one can use classification systems such as the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification standard, the United States' Standard Industrial Classification code system and its new replacement, the North American Industrial Classification System, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community in the EU and similar systems elsewhere; these governmental classification systems have a first-level hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. For purposes of finance and market research, market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used to classify businesses that participate in the service sector. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries.
The second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced. For the last 100 years, there has been a substantial shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialized countries; this shift is called tertiarisation. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world, is the fastest-growing sector. In examining the growth of the service sector in the early Nineties, the globalist Kenichi Ohmae noted that: "In the United States 70 percent of the workforce works in the service sector; these are not busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category, they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, more.”Economies tend to follow a developmental progression that takes them from a heavy reliance on agriculture and mining, toward the development of manufacturing and toward a more service-based structure. The first economy to follow this path in the modern world was the United Kingdom.
The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time. Manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. However, with dramatic cost reduction and speed and reliability improvements in the transportation of people and the communication of information, the service sector now includes some of the most intensive international competition, despite residual protectionism. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers face. Services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, offer no guarantees of the value for price paid. Since the quality of most services depends on the quality of the individuals providing the services, "people costs" are a high fraction of service costs. Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, the service provider faces an unrelenting pattern of increasing costs.
Product differentiation is difficult. For example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are seen to provide identical services? Charging a premium for services is an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition. Examples of tertiary industries may include: Telecommunication Hospitality industry/tourism Mass media Healthcare/hospitals Public health Pharmacy Information technology Waste disposal Consulting Gambling Retail sales Fast-moving consumer goods Franchising Real estate Education Financial services Banking Insurance Investment management Professional services Accounting Legal services Management consultingTransportation Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2016. Quaternary sector of the economy Indigo Era National Occupational Research Agenda Service Sector Council, USA Media related to Service industries at Wikimedia Commons
Swiss People's Party
The Swiss People's Party known as the Democratic Union of the Centre, is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Albert Rösti, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, with 65 members of the National Council and 5 of the Council of States; the SVP originated in 1971 as a merger of the Party of Farmers and Independents and the Democratic Party, while the BGB in turn had been founded in the context of the emerging local farmers' parties in the late 1910s. The SVP didn't witness any increased support beyond that of the BGB, retaining around 11% of the vote through the 1970s and 1980s; this changed however during the 1990s, when the party underwent deep structural and ideological changes under the influence of Christoph Blocher. In line with the changes fostered by Blocher, the party started to focus on issues such as euroscepticism and opposition to mass immigration; as of 2015 the SVP has 54 seats in the Federal Assembly, its vote share of 28.9% in the 2007 Federal Council election was the highest vote recorded for a single party in Switzerland until 2015, when it surpassed its own record with 29.4%.
When Blocher failed to win re-election as a Federal Councillor in 2007, moderates within the party split off, forming the Conservative Democratic Party. The early origins of the SVP go back to the late 1910s, when numerous cantonal farmers' parties were founded in agrarian, German-speaking parts of Switzerland. While the Free Democratic Party had earlier been a popular party for farmers, this changed during World War I when the party had defended the interests of industrialists and consumer circles; when proportional representation was introduced in 1919, the new farmers' parties won significant electoral support in Zürich and Bern, also gained representation in parliament and government. By 1929, the coalition of farmers' parties had gained enough influence to get one of their leaders, Rudolf Minger, elected to the Federal Council. In 1936, a representative party was founded on the national level, called the Party of Farmers and Independents. During the 1930s, the BGB entered the mainstream of Swiss politics as a right-wing conservative party in the bourgeois bloc.
While the party opposed any kind of socialist ideas such as internationalism and anti-militarism, it sought to represent local Swiss traders and farmers against big business and international capital. The BGB contributed to the establishment of the Swiss national ideology known as the Geistige Landesverteidigung, responsible for the growing Swiss sociocultural and political cohesion from the 1930s. In the party's fight against left-wing ideologies, sections of party officials and farmers voiced understanding, or failed to distance themselves from the emerging fascist movements. After World War II, the BGB contributed to the establishment of the characteristic Swiss post-war consensual politics, social agreements and economic growth policies; the party continued to be a reliable political partner with the Swiss Conservative People's Party and the Free Democratic Party. In 1971, the BGB changed its name to the Swiss People's Party after it merged with the Democratic Party from Glarus and Graubünden.
The Democratic Party had been supported by workers, the SVP sought to expand its electoral base towards these, as the traditional BGB base in the rural population had started to lose its importance in the post-war era. As the Democratic Party had represented centrist, social-liberal positions, the course of the SVP shifted towards the political centre following internal debates; the new party however continued to see its level of support at around 11%, the same as the former BGB throughout the post-war era. Internal debates continued, the 1980s saw growing conflicts between the Bern and Zürich cantonal branches, where the former branch represented the centrist faction, the latter looked to put new issues on the political agenda; when the young entrepreneur Christoph Blocher was elected president of the Zürich SVP in 1977, he declared his intent to oversee significant change in the political line of the Zürich SVP, bringing an end to debates that aimed to open the party up to a wide array of opinions.
Blocher soon consolidated his power in Zürich, began to renew the organisational structures, campaigning style and political agenda of the local branch. The young members of the party was boosted with the establishment of a cantonal Young SVP in 1977, as well as political training courses; the ideology of the Zürich branch was reinforced, the rhetoric hardened, which resulted in the best election result for the Zürich branch in fifty years in the 1979 federal election, with an increase from 11.3% to 14.5%. This was contrasted with the stable level in the other cantons, although the support stagnated in Zürich through the 1980s; the struggle between the SVP's largest branches of Bern and Zürich continued into the early 1990s. While the Bern-oriented faction represented the old moderate style, the Zürich-oriented wing led by Christoph Blocher represented a new radical right-wing populist agenda; the Zürich wing began to politicise asylum issues, the question of European integration started to dominate Swiss political debates.
They adopted more confrontational methods. The Zürich-wing followingly started to gain ground in the party at the expense of the Bern-wing, the party became increasing
Champéry is a municipality in the district of Monthey in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Champéry is first mentioned in 1286 as Champery The Hotel Dent-du-Midi opened in 1857. In 1969, Champéry became one of the founding villages of resort. Champéry has an area, as of 2011, of 39 square kilometers. Of this area, 32.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 33.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 3.6% is settled and 30.3% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in the Val-d'Illiez, on the French border, it consists of the linear village of Champéry, part of the municipality of Val-d'Illiez until 1839 when it became independent. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Quartered Argent issuant from three Mounts Vert as many Pine Trees of the same trunked proper and Azure statant on ground Or a man proper clad of the same troused Argent holding a bag of the same sowing seeds Or from it. Champéry has a population of 1,342; as of 2008, 23.0% of the population are resident foreign nationals.
Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 12.8%. It has changed at a rate of 11.7% due to migration and at a rate of 0% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and English is the third. There are 9 people who speak Italian; as of 2008, the population was 51.9% male and 48.1% female. The population was made up of 504 Swiss men and 158 non-Swiss men. There were 473 Swiss women and 140 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 509 or about 46.0% were born in Champéry and lived there in 2000. There were 168 or 15.2% who were born in the same canton, while 192 or 17.3% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 201 or 18.2% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 22.4% of the population, while adults make up 60% and seniors make up 17.6%. As of 2000, there were 436 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 551 married individuals, 62 widows or widowers and 58 individuals who are divorced.
As of 2000, there were 458 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.3 persons per household. There were 160 households that consist of only one person and 31 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 433 apartments were permanently occupied, while 1,008 apartments were seasonally occupied and 91 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 23.5 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1.68%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 35.76% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SVP and the SP. In the federal election, a total of 464 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 54.0%. In the 2009 Conseil d'Etat/Staatsrat election a total of 393 votes were cast, of which 26 or about 6.6% were invalid. The voter participation was 49.9%, similar to the cantonal average of 54.67%.
In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 446 votes were cast, of which 23 or about 5.2% were invalid. The voter participation was 55.7%, similar to the cantonal average of 59.88%. As of 2010, Champéry had an unemployment rate of 2.8%. As of 2008, there were 36 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 16 businesses involved in this sector. 43 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 14 businesses in this sector. 400 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 69 businesses in this sector. There were 525 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 41.0% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 383; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 29, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 40 of which 15 or were in manufacturing and 13 were in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 314. In the tertiary sector.
In 2000, there were 103 workers who commuted into the municipality and 196 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 1.9 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. About 4.9% of the workforce coming into Champéry are coming from outside Switzerland. Of the working population, 4.2% used public transportation to get to work, 61% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 818 or 73.9% were Roman Catholic, while 103 or 9.3% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 5 members of an Orthodox church, there were 32 individuals who belonged to another Christian church. There were 7 who were Islamic. There were 3 individuals who were 1 individual who belonged to another church. 96 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 55 individuals did not answer the question. In Champéry about 337 or (30.4%
Salvan is a municipality in the district of Saint-Maurice, in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. Salvan is first mentioned in 1018 as cum Silvano. Around 1025-31 it was mentioned as in monte Salvano; the municipality was known by its German name Scharwang, that name is no longer used. On 5 October 1994, 25 people were found dead in three burned-out chalets in Salvan; the chalets were owned by founder of the Order of the Solar Temple. Several victims of the fire were children. Salvan has an area, as of 2011, of 53.5 square kilometers. Of this area, 7.5 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 1.6% is settled and 65.2% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in the Trient valley, it consists of the village of Salvan and several hamlets, including Les Marécottes and until 1912, Vernayaz, Miéville and Gueuroz. Lac d'Emosson is a reservoir located in the municipality; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules on a pile inverted embowed Argent issuant from Coupeaux Vert a Pine Tree of the same trunked proper in chief dexter a Cross Bottony of the second and in sinister a Mullet of Seven of the same.
Salvan has a population of 1,374. As of 2008, 7.1% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 0.6%. It has changed at a rate of 7.1% due to migration and at a rate of -3.9% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and Dutch is the third. There are 6 people; as of 2008, the population was 47.4% male and 52.6% female. The population was made up of 495 Swiss men and 33 non-Swiss men. There were 538 Swiss women and 48 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 522 or about 51.2% were born in Salvan and lived there in 2000. There were 159 or 15.6% who were born in the same canton, while 168 or 16.5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 141 or 13.8% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 22.5% of the population, while adults make up 57.4% and seniors make up 20.1%. As of 2000, there were 381 people who were single and never married in the municipality.
There were 500 married individuals, 77 widows or widowers and 62 individuals who are divorced. As of 2000, there were 439 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.2 persons per household. There were 163 households that consist of only one person and 25 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 418 apartments were permanently occupied, while 601 apartments were seasonally occupied and 73 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 8.1 new units per 1000 residents. The historical population is given in the following chart: Les Marécottes, a storage basin for the Swiss Federal Railways, is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance; the entire hamlet of Le Trétien is part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. Salvan is twinned with the towns of St-Jeannet, Nice and Saint-Jeannet, Alpes-Maritimes, France. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SP and the SVP.
In the federal election, a total of 520 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 57.6%. In the 2009 Conseil d'Etat/Staatsrat election a total of 417 votes were cast, of which 35 or about 8.4% were invalid. The voter participation was 47.6%, much less than the cantonal average of 54.67%. In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 501 votes were cast, of which 30 or about 6.0% were invalid. The voter participation was 58.8%, similar to the cantonal average of 59.88%. As of 2010, Salvan had an unemployment rate of 4.6%. As of 2008, there were 15 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 7 businesses involved in this sector. 29 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 11 businesses in this sector. 207 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 38 businesses in this sector. There were 455 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 43.5% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 182.
The number of jobs in the primary sector was 6, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 25 of which 12 or were in manufacturing and 14 were in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 151. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 51 workers who commuted into the municipality and 262 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 5.1 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. Of the working population, 10.8% used public transportation to get to work, 62.6% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 810 or 79.4% were Roman Catholic, while 90 or 8.8% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 9 members of an Orthodox church, there were 5 individuals (or about 0.49% o
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
Dents du Midi
The Dents du Midi are a multi-summited mountain situated in the Chablais Alps in the Swiss canton of Valais. They reach a height of 3257 metres. Highest mountain between Lake Geneva and the Mont Blanc Massif, they dominate the Val-d'Illiez and the Rhône Valley, from Martigny down to the lake. Together with the lower Tour Sallière, they form a cirque around the Lac de Salanfe, an artificial reservoir. Geologically it makes up a part of the massif Haut-Giffre; the "Dents", or "Teeth" are, from east to west: La Cime de l'Est La Forteresse La Cathédrale L'Éperon Dent Jaune Les Doigts or Doigts de Salanfe La Haute Cime On the morning of October 30, 2006, a mass of 1,000,000 m³ of rocks detached themselves from the side of the Haute Cime and fell down the side to an altitude of about 3,000 m The event did not pose any danger for the nearby town of Val-d'Illiez but roads and footpaths were closed as a security measure. According to the geologists of the canton, the landslide was caused by thawing, assisted by the hot summers of the preceding years.
Shortly after midday on Friday 17 August 2012, another significant rockfall occurred below the Cathédrale, amounting to at least 100,000m³ of rock. Twelve hikers were rescued by helicopter, All were unscathed, as was a flock of sheep grazing nearby. Again, the fall was put down to exceptional heat locally. Less serious falls continued over the next few days and hiking trails remained closed; the name "Dents du Midi" is of recent origin, referring to the time of day at which the sun reaches a certain point. The native inhabitants called them the "Dents de Tsallen"; the present Haute Cime was called Dent du Midi, it gave its name to the entire mountain. Each peak, or "tooth", has had several names over the centuries: La Cime de l'Est was called Mont de Novierre before the seventeenth century Mont Saint Michel after the landslides of 1635 and 1636, Dent Noire till the 19th century. Dent Jaune was called the Dent Rouge until 1879. Les Doigts were called Le Doigt de Champéry Le Doigt de Salanfe before just Les Doigts.
La Haute Cime had several names: Dent de l’Ouest, Dent du Midi, Dent de Tsallen, Dent de Challent. Several ruptures in the massif have changed the form of the peaks so much that the names adapted themselves according to the geological evolution. L’Éperon, for example, no longer has two summits, since a landslide in the Middle Ages changed this peak. List of mountains of Valais List of mountains of Switzerland List of most isolated mountains of Switzerland The Dents du Midi on SummitPost Pictures of Dents du Midi