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Evliya Çelebi

Derviş Mehmed Zillî, known as Evliya Çelebi, was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyâhatnâme. The name Çelebi is an honorific title meaning “gentleman” or “man of God”. Evliya Çelebi was born in Istanbul in 1611 to a wealthy family from Kütahya. Both his parents were attached to the Ottoman court, his father, Derviş Mehmed Zilli, as a jeweller, his mother as an Abkhazian relation of the grand vizier Melek Ahmed Pasha. In his book, Evliya Çelebi traces his paternal genealogy back to Khoja Akhmet Yassawi, an early Sufi mystic. Evliya Çelebi received a court education from the Imperial ulama, he may have joined the Gulshani Sufi order, as he shows an intimate knowledge of their khanqah in Cairo, a graffito exists in which he referred to himself as Evliya-yı Gülşenî. A devout Muslim opposed to fanaticism, Evliya could recite the Quran from memory and joked about Islam.

Though employed as clergy and entertainer in the Imperial Court of Sultan Murad IV Evliya refused employment that would keep him from travelling. Çelebi had studied vocal and instrumental music as a pupil of a renowned Khalwati dervish by the name of'Umar Gulshani, his music gifts earned him much favor at the Imperial Palace impressing the chief musician Amir Guna. He was trained in the theory of music called ilm al-musiqi, his journal writing began in Istanbul, taking notes on buildings, markets and culture, in 1640 it was extended with accounts of his travels beyond the confines of the city. The collected notes of his travels form. Departing from the Ottoman literary convention of the time, he wrote in a mixture of vernacular and high Turkish, with the effect that the Seyahatname has remained a popular and accessible reference work about life in the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century, including two chapters on musical instruments. Evliya Çelebi died in 1684, it is unclear whether he was in Cairo at the time.

Evliya Çelebi visited the town of Mostar in Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina. He wrote that the name Mostar means "bridge-keeper", in reference to the town's celebrated bridge, 28 meters long and 20 meters high. Çelebi wrote that it "is like a rainbow arch soaring up to the skies, extending from one cliff to the other.... I, a poor and miserable slave of Allah, have passed through 16 countries, but I have never seen such a high bridge, it is thrown from rock to rock as high as the sky." In 1660 Çelebi went to Kosovo and referred to the central part of the region as Arnavud and noted that in Vučitrn its inhabitants were speakers of Albanian or Turkish and few spoke "Bosnian". The highlands around the Tetovo, Peć and Prizren areas Çelebi considered as being the "mountains of Arnavudluk". Çelebi referred to the "mountains of Peć" as being in Arnavudluk and considered the Ibar river that converged in Mitrovica as forming Kosovo's border with Bosnia. He viewed the "Kılab" or Lab river as having its source in Arnavudluk and by extension the Sitnica as being part of that river.

Çelebi included the central mountains of Kosovo within Arnavudluk. Çelebi travelled three times in Albania in 1670. He visited the cities Gjirokastra, Vlorë, Durrës, Ohër, Përmet and Tepelenë, wrote about them. Çelebi claimed to have encountered Native Americans as a guest in Rotterdam during his visit of 1663. He wrote: " cursed those priests, saying,'Our world used to be peaceful, but it has been filled by greedy people, who make war every year and shorten our lives.'"While visiting Vienna in 1665–66, Çelebi noted some similarities between words in German and Persian, an early observation of the relationship between what would be known as two Indo-European languages. Çelebi visited Crete and in book II describes the fall of Chania to the Sultan. Of oil merchants in Baku Çelebi wrote: "By Allah's decree oil bubbles up out of the ground, but in the manner of hot springs, pools of water are formed with oil congealed on the surface like cream. Merchants wade into these pools and collect the oil in ladles and fill goatskins with it, these oil merchants sell them in different regions.

Revenues from this oil trade are delivered annually directly to the Safavid Shah." Evliya Çelebi remarked on the impact of Cossack raids from Azak upon the territories of the Crimean Khanate, destroying trade routes and depopulating the regions. By the time of Çelebi's arrival, many of the towns visited were affected by the Cossacks, the only place he reported as safe was the Ottoman fortress at Arabat.Çelebi wrote of the slave trade in the Crimea: A man who had not seen this market, had not seen anything in this world. A mother is severed from her son and daughter there, a son—from his father and brother, they are sold amongst lamentations, cries of help and sorrow. Çelebi estimated. In 1667 Çelebi expressed his marvel at the Parthenon's sculptures and described the building as "like some impregnable fortress not made by human agency." He composed a poetic supplication that the Parthenon, as "a work less of human hands than of Heaven itself, should remain standing for all time." In contrast to many European and some Jewish travelogues of Syria and Palestine in the 17th century, Çelebi wrote one of the few detailed travelogues from an Islamic point of view.

Çelebi visited Palestine twice, once in 1649 and once in 1670–1. An English translat

Choir Practice

Choir Practice is a retrospective album by the Choir, released in both LP and CD format. This album was released in 1994 by Sundazed Records as an LP and as a CD; this album was assembled by Jeff Jarema from a variety of sources. Most compilations of music by garage rock bands collect the singles and an unreleased track or two. However, in this case, only their classic "It's Cold Outside" is included on this album. Although the A-side of their fourth single, "When You Were with Me" is among the tracks, this is the original version of the song, before the record label added strings; the second and fifth singles, along with all of the "B" sides are not represented at all on this album. Side one I'd Rather You Leave Me, 2:06 It's Cold Outside, 2:49 When You Were with Me, 2:32 – Unissued Version Don't Change Your Mind, 1:51 Dream of One's Life, 3:27 In Love's Shadow, 2:41 – Demo by the Mods I'm Slippin', 2:52 – Demo by the ModsSide two Treeberry, 2:22 Smile, 2:45 – Demo I Only Did it'Cause I Felt So Lonely, 2:16 Anyway I Can, 3:50 Boris' Lament, 2:51 David Watts, 2:34 If These Are Men, 3:00 I'd Rather You Leave Me It's Cold Outside When You Were with Me Don't Change Your Mind Dream of One's Life In Love's Shadow I'm Slippin' Leave Me Be – CD bonus track I'd Rather You Leave Me – CD bonus track Treeberry Smile A to F – CD bonus track I Only Did It'Cause I Felt So Lonely Don't Change Your Mind – CD bonus track Anyway I Can Boris' Lament David Watts If These Are Men

Elizur Goodrich

Elizur Goodrich was an eighteenth-century American lawyer and politician from Connecticut. He served as a United States Representative from Collector of Customs. Born in Durham, Connecticut, he was the son of Elizur Goodrich, he graduated from Yale College in 1779, was a tutor there from 1781 to 1783, studied law. After his was admitted to the bar in 1783, he began the practice of law in New Haven, he served in the Connecticut House of Representatives from 1795 to 1802 and was its Clerk for six sessions and its Speaker for two. In the 1796 United States presidential election he was a Federalist elector for President, supporting Federalist candidate John Adams against Democratic-Republican Party candidate Thomas Jefferson, he was elected to represent Connecticut At-Large to the Sixth and Seventh Congresses, but only served in the Sixth Congress from March 4, 1799 to March 3, 1801 because President John Adams appointed him collector of customs for the Port of New Haven. After a short time he was removed from the office of collector by Adams' successor, President Thomas Jefferson.

The discussion of this act elicited from Jefferson a letter in which he avowed his approval of removal for political opinions. Goodrich was elected to the Governor's Council in Connecticut in 1803, serving until 1818, he taught law at Yale from 1801 to 1810 and was probate judge from 1802 to 1818. From 1803 to 1822 he was Mayor of New Haven. Goodrich was a member of the Yale Corporation, the University's governing body, from 1809 to 1818 and was its Secretary from 1818 to 1846. Yale conferred the degree of LL. D. on him in 1830. Goodrich died in New Haven on November 1, 1849, is interred in Grove Street Cemetery. Goodrich's son, Chauncey Allen Goodrich, married Noah Webster's daughter, his brother named Chauncey Goodrich, was a member of the United States House of Representatives. Goodrich's wife, Annie Willard Allen Goodrich, was the sister of John Allen, a United States Representative from Connecticut and a member of the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors. United States Congress. "Elizur Goodrich".

Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "Goodrich, Elizur". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. He is the second Elizur in this article; the Political Graveyard:Goodrich, Elizur Elizur Goodrich at Find a Grave

Hege Riise

Hege Riise is a retired female footballer from Norway. Riise started playing football at age six and played in a boys' team until age 14, she won the Norwegian Cup competition with Setskog-Høland in 1992. In late 1995 along with four other Norwegians she joined Nikko Securities Dream Ladies football club in Japan. Nikko won the Japanese league and cup competitions in 1996 and the cup in 1997, after which Riise moved back to Norway to play again with Setskog-Høland, she joined Asker FK, Oslo, in 2000, again won the cup competition with Asker the same year. Drafted by the Carolina Courage in the Women's United Soccer Association 2000 Foreign Draft, Riise was the team's MVP two times and led the Courage to a WUSA Founders Cup title in 2002. In 2003 the Norwegian Football Association named Riise the best female Norwegian footballer ever. Returning to Norway in 2005 Hege Riise joined Team Strømmen of Oslo and became the club's playing assistant trainer in 2006, she played her last top-level match with Team Strømmen on 28 October 2006 aged 37 and retired from football as a player.

Riise made her international debut with the Norwegian national team in 1990. Norway won the UEFA Women's Championship in 1993. Two years with Norway she won the 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup and was awarded the Golden Ball after the competition. Riise's biggest achievement with Norway was winning the gold medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, to become one of only three women in the world to win the Olympics, the World Cup and the European Championship, she retired from international football in September 2004 with 58 goals. Riise retired as a player at the end of the 2006 season with 188 international caps to her credit, the record for all Norwegian footballers. In 2007, she became the chief trainer at Team Strømmen, in the Norwegian women's premier league, the Toppserien. In the 2008 season, Team Strømmen were runners-up in the Cup competitions. On 28 January 2009, Riise was appointed Assistant Trainer to the USA women's national team

Georges Martin (engineer)

Georges Martin was a French engineer, a graduate of the Special School of Public Works, "mechanical-electrical" section. He designed automobile internal combustion engines including the "Poissy engine" that powered various cars from Simca, Chrysler, Talbot and Dodge from 1961 until 1991, more famously, the successful V12 Matra Sports engine for Matra's Formule 1 team. Martin joined Simca in 1959, from 1966 worked at Matra where he designed the V12 Matra Sports engine. In the Simca design office, he designed the famous Poissy engine, in production in various displacements for 30 years, from its first appearance on the Simca 1000 in 1961 to the last production under Peugeot ownership in 1991, where it was fitted to the Peugeot 309; this engine was characterized by its reliability and torque for its limited displacement. It was advanced for its era, having an aluminum head and sump, five main bearings, a reasonably high compression ratio, but was sometimes criticized for having a noisy valve train.

The valve noise was the result of a design decision to prioritize reliability over comfort, resulting in the fitment of a double chain that did not require a tensioner but, noisier. The engine was rallied in the 1970s and appeared in a number of cars from Simca, Chrysler, Peugeot and Dodge. Martin joined Matra at the end of 1966, thanks to his former colleague at Simca, Philippe Guédon, who became CEO of Matra. Arriving at Matra, he did not know what was expected of him, it was Jean-Luc Lagardère who told him that he would work for Formula 1. The objective was to design an engine; the result of Martin's efforts was the V12 Matra Sports engine for Formula 1 which supported Matra in its victories at Le Mans from 1972 to 1974 as well as a number of Formula One Grand Prix victories. Auto Passion, no 69 - juin 1992. L'Auto-Journal" du 15 mars 1990. Georges Martin sur

Eberbach Abbey

Eberbach Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in Eltville in the Rheingau, Germany. On account of its Romanesque and early Gothic buildings it is considered one of the most significant architectural heritage sites in Hesse. In the winter of 1985/86 some of the interior scenes of The Name of the Rose were filmed here; the abbey is a main venue of the annual Rheingau Musik Festival. The first monastic house at the site was founded in 1116 by Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz, as a house of Augustinian canons, it was bestowed by him in 1131 upon the Benedictines. This foundation failed to establish itself, the successor, Kloster Eberbach, was founded in 1136 by Bernard of Clairvaux as the first Cistercian monastery on the east bank of the Rhine. Eberbach soon became one of the largest and most active monasteries of Germany. From it a number of other foundations were made: Schönau Abbey near Heidelberg in 1142. At its height in the 12th and 13th centuries, the population is estimated to have been about 100 monks and over 200 lay brothers.

Eberbach Abbey was very successful economically, principally as a result of profits from the cultivation of vineyards and the production of wine. At least 14 members of the family of the Counts of Katzenelnbogen were buried in the church. Among them was Count Johann IV of Katzenelnbogen, the first to plant Riesling vines, in a new vineyard in the nearby village of Rüsselsheim, when the monks of Eberbach were still growing red grapes such as Grobrot, the earliest grape variety recorded in Eberbach. In about 1525 it is said that in the abbey there was an enormous wine barrel with a volume of between c. 50,000 and 100,000 litres, which in the German Peasants' War of 1525 was used by rebels from the Rheingau, who were encamped just below the monastery. During the Thirty Years' War, the abbey was damaged, beginning with an attack by the Swedish army in 1631. Many valuable items from the church and the library were looted, the monks were forced to flee. Only 20 of them returned in 1635 to begin a laborious reconstruction.

The 18th century was a period of great economic success: surviving accounts show that the abbey profits were invested on the Frankfurt money market. The final decline set in with the French Revolution. After the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss the abbey was dissolved on 18 September 1803 and with its assets and territory became the property of Prince Friedrich Augustus of Nassau-Usingen; the lands passed from Nassau-Usingen in 1866 to Prussia, from 1945 have formed part of the State of Hesse. The premises were put to a variety of uses. An asylum was accommodated here until 1912 a prison. Management of the vineyards and wine production has continued in state hands. After considerable structural work Eberbach serves inter alia as a venue for cultural events and displays, as a film location, as for example for Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose. With effect from 1 January 1998 the State of Hesse transferred the entire abbey complex into the ownership of a publicly owned charitable foundation, the Stiftung Kloster Eberbach, which has the goal of conserving the architectural and cultural monument by overseeing its appropriate and sustainable use as well as of maintaining the historical tradition of wine production.

The buildings date from the Romanesque and Baroque periods. A list of goods, the Oculus Memoriae, survives from as early as the year 1211, giving information on the possessions and premises of the abbey complex; the buildings include: The abbey church, a three-aisled Romanesque basilica with transept, containing the tombs of some of the Archbishops of Mainz The cloisters, the south side of, Gothic, the north side Gothic and Romanesque, the remainder a 19th-century restoration The chapter room, a late Gothic square room with a central pillar, restored with ceiling and wall paintings The Fraternei, an early Gothic room with heavy vaulting, used since the Middle Ages as a wine cellar. It is known as the Cabinetkeller, the origin of the use of the term Kabinett as a quality description of German wine; the Dormitorium, an early Gothic room about 70 metres long containing vaulting and short columns with sculptured capitals, one of the few such rooms of this size and quality remaining in Europe The north wing, refurbished in the 18th century and containing the refectory, with a Baroque stucco ceiling by Daniel Schenk.

It replaced the earlier Gothic refectory to the north The west wing, accommodating the library, where the abbey museum was set up in 1995. This contains inter alia the oldest surviving Cistercian glass window in Germany, the original capitals from the cloisters, now replaced by modern replicas, various sculptures, portraits of Bernard of Clairvaux and Baroque furnishings In a separate building to the west of the monastic quarters, the "converts' building" or "lay-brothers' building", containing the lay-brothers' refectory and the Laiendormitorium, attached to it a Romanesque wine-cellar and various small domestic buildings from the 17th century Outside of the inner monastic precinct to the east, the hospital, service buildings and 18th and 19th century wine cellars The vineyards of Eberbach Abbey were, at 300 hectares, the largest in medieval Europe. Most of them are now the property of the state of Hesse and are run by the Hessische Staatsweingüter GmbH Kloster Eberbach, which manages the largest