Judo was created as a physical and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano. It is generally categorized as a martial art which evolved into a combat. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as defenses are a part of judo. A judo practitioner is called a judoka, the philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from koryū. The early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese polymath and educator Kanō Jigorō, Kano was born into a relatively affluent family. His father, was the son of the head priest of the Shinto Hiyoshi shrine in Shiga Prefecture. He married Sadako Kano, daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family and he ultimately became an official in the Shogunal government. Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, shodō, when he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at an English-medium school, Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo.
The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a Jūjutsu dōjō at which to train, early attempts to find a jujutsu teacher who was willing to take him on met with little success. With the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Meiji Restoration of 1868, many of those who had once taught the art had been forced out of teaching or become so disillusioned with it that they had simply given up. Nakai Umenari, an acquaintance of Kanōs father and a soldier, agreed to show him kata. The caretaker of Jirosakus second house, Katagiri Ryuji, knew jujutsu, Another frequent visitor, Imai Genshiro of Kyūshin-ryū school of jujutsu, refused. Several years passed before he found a willing teacher. In 1877, as a student at the Tokyo-Kaisei school, Kano learned that many jujutsu teachers had been forced to pursue alternative careers, frequently opening Seikotsu-in. After inquiring at a number of these, Kano was referred to Fukuda Hachinosuke, a teacher of the Tenjin Shinyō-ryū of jujutsu, Fukuda is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kanos emphasis on randori in judo.
On Fukudas death in 1880, who had become his keenest and most able student in both randori and kata, was given the densho of the Fukuda dojo, Kano chose to continue his studies at another Tenjin Shinyō-ryū school, that of Iso Masatomo. Iso placed more emphasis on the practice of kata, and entrusted randori instruction to assistants, Iso died in June 1881 and Kano went on to study at the dojo of Iikubo Tsunetoshi of Kitō-ryū. Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on randori, with Kitō-ryū having a focus on nage-waza
Defence and Security Equipment International is a defence and security equipment exhibition held every two years in London Docklands, which draws thousands of visitors, both trade and military. It is an important event in the military and national security equipment sales calendar and is organised in association with UK Trade & Investments Defence & Security Organisation. It is the world’s largest fully integrated international defence exhibition featuring land and air products, between 1976 and 1991, the British Army Equipment Exhibition and the Royal Navy Equipment Exhibition were held on alternate years in Aldershot and Portsmouth respectively. Overseas delegations attended by invitation only, despite having been at war with Iran for almost six years, a five-strong delegation from Iraq attended in 1986. In 1993 the two exhibitions were combined and held every year until the British government decided to privatise the exhibition. Exhibitions company Spearhead launched the first DSEI, known as Defence and Systems Equipment International, in 2001 it moved to its current location at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre in London Docklands.
DSEIs name was changed in 2009, replacing the word Systems with Security, in April 2008 DSEI was acquired by Clarion Events, the largest independent event organiser in the UK. At the same time Clarion acquired ITEC - a conference and exhibition dedicated to military simulation and education - and Latin American Aerospace and Defence. It was suggested by CAAT that former owners Reed Exhibitions decision to sell followed substantial criticism both from healthcare professionals and academics, as well as pressure from campaigners, DSEI works closely with UKTI DSO to invite foreign military delegations. However there are guidelines that are made and followed and these come from a number of places including the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, The United Nations, FCO and ECO. The event has attracted attention from activist groups. In 2001,2003, and 2005 were all targets of sizeable protests, former London Mayor Ken Livingstone has been critical of the event and even the Metropolitan Police have spoken out about the cost of policing the event.
In 2013 the London Mayor Boris Johnson supported the exhibition, which caused controversy with activists, at DSEI2003,54 people were arrested around the site. 2,600 security guards and police officers were guarding the site, scotland Yard spent £1m on policing the event. The police were granted permission by David Blunkett, Home Secretary, the grant was criticised by Liberty and opposition politicians. DSEI2005 was held from 13 to 16 September, DSEI2007 was held on 11–14 September at the ExCeL centre. DSEI2009 was held 08-11 September 2009 at the ExCeL centre, DSEI2011 was held 13–16 September 2011 at the ExCeL centre, and was attended for the first time by a Type 45 destroyer, HMS Dauntless. DSEI2013 was held 9–13 September 2013 at the ExCeL centre, and hosted 1500 exhibitors and 30,000 visitors
Star Wars Celebration
Star Wars Celebration is a fan gathering to celebrate the Star Wars franchise. It began in 1999, when Lucasfilm held the Star Wars Celebration in Denver, Colorado to celebrate the release of Star Wars. Subsequent events have taken place to welcome Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith, the eighth such event, the sixth to be held in the United States, took place in August 2012 in Orlando, Florida. The Star Wars Celebration was held from April 30-May 2,1999, at the Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum in Denver, just three weeks before the release of The Phantom Menace. An event for the fans, by the fans, Star Wars Celebration took place in the hometown of the Official Star Wars Fan Club, headed by Dan Madsen. The Fan Club is based here in Denver, says Madsen, from May 3–5,2002, Star Wars Celebration II was held to celebrate the upcoming release of Attack of the Clones. The convention was moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, to use of the larger Indiana Convention Center. Downtown Indianapolis was invaded by multitudes of Star Wars fans, the initial projection of 15-20,000 people per day based on advance ticket sales was well surpassed, and reached critical mass on Saturday.
The estimated final tally was a little over 75,000 people for the three-day event, the two places that received the most traffic were the Fan Club store and the autograph section, specifically for Carrie Fisher. Highlights of the event included the Rick McCallum Spectacular and Saturday nights Star Wars 25th Anniversary Concert, the Star Wars Celebration returned to Indianapolis from April 21–24,2005, to commemorate the release of the final film in the saga, Revenge of the Sith. With over 34,000 fans in attendance over the course of four days, Celebration III brought actor panels, costume contests, fan films, the Lucasfilm archive provided many important props and costumes for display. With approximately 10,000 fans in attendance, Lucas personally answered several dozen fans questions about the saga. On May 26,2006, StarWars. com announced Star Wars Celebration IV to be held May 24–28,2007 to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the first Star Wars film, c4 was located at the Los Angeles Convention Center in Los Angeles.
In addition, there were collector and costuming panels, including sneak peeks of the upcoming Clone Wars animated series, fans were the first to see the footage of this series on Sunday morning as well. An estimated 35,000 people walked through the doors for Celebration IV over the Memorial Day weekend, after the event, Lucasfilm sued the hosting entity, GenCon, for a variety of reasons, forcing GenCon into Chapter 11 bankruptcy. On September 25,2006 StarWars. com announced Star Wars Celebration Europe to be held July 13–15,2007 to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the first Star Wars film, CE was to be located at Earls Court in London. But on November 22,2006 StarWars. com announced due to Advance interest in Celebration Europe the event would be moved to the larger venue located at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre in London. The event had on some of the largest restored Star Wars Arcade collection, estimated at around 30 to 40 machines
He had previously been an MP for the Henley constituency from 2001 to 2008 and was Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson was formerly a historian and journalist. A member of the Conservative Party, Johnson identifies as a conservative and has been associated with both economically and socially liberal policies. Born in New York City to wealthy upper-middle class English parents, Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House School and he studied Classics at Balliol College, where he was elected president of the Oxford Union in 1986. He was assistant editor from 1994 to 1999 before taking the editorship of The Spectator from 1999 to 2005, joining the Conservatives, he was elected MP for Henley in 2001, and under Michael Howard and David Cameron he was in the Shadow Cabinet. Mostly adhering to the Conservatives party line, he adopted a more socially liberal stance on issues like LGBT rights in parliamentary votes. Making regular television appearances, writing books, and remaining active in journalism, selected as Conservative candidate for the London mayoral election of 2008, Johnson defeated Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone and resigned his seat in parliament.
In 2012, he was re-elected mayor, again defeating Livingstone, in 2015 he was elected MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, stepping down as mayor the following year. In 2016, Johnson became a prominent figure in the successful Vote Leave campaign to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union, Johnson is a controversial figure in British politics and journalism. Supporters have praised him as an entertaining and popular figure with appeal beyond traditional Conservative voters, conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, accused of elitism and laziness, and using racist language. Johnson is the subject of biographies and a number of fictionalised portrayals. Johnson was born on 19 June 1964 at a hospital on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City and his birth was registered with both the US authorities and the citys British Consulate and he was granted both American and British citizenship. His father, Stanley Johnson, was studying economics at Columbia University.
Stanleys paternal grandfather was Circassian–Turkish journalist Ali Kemal, while his other ancestry is English and French, Stanley had married Johnsons mother, Charlotte Johnson Wahl, in 1963, before they moved to the United States, she was an artist from a family of liberal intellectuals. She was the granddaughter of Americans Elias Avery Lowe, a palaeographer of Russian Jewish descent, and Helen Tracy Lowe-Porter, in reference to his varied ancestry, Johnson has described himself as a one-man melting pot – with a combination of Muslims and Christians as great-grandparents. Johnson was given his name of Boris after a Russian émigré the couple had once met in Mexico. Johnsons parents were living in an apartment opposite the Chelsea Hotel, although they soon embarked on a tour of Canada. In September 1964, they returned to Britain, enabling Charlotte to study for a degree at the University of Oxford and she lived with her son in Summertown and gave birth to a daughter, Rachel, in 1965
Angelina Jolie Pitt, DCMG is an American actress and humanitarian. She has received an Academy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards, and has cited as Hollywoods highest-paid actress. Jolie made her debut as a child alongside her father, Jon Voight. Her film career began in earnest a decade with the low-budget production Cyborg 2, followed by her first leading role in a major film, Hackers. She starred in the critically acclaimed biographical cable films George Wallace and Gia, Jolies starring role as the video game heroine Lara Croft in Lara Croft, Tomb Raider established her as a leading Hollywood actress. Beginning in the 2010s, she expanded her career into directing and her biggest commercial success came with the fantasy picture Maleficent. Her personal life is the subject of wide publicity, divorced from actors Jonny Lee Miller and Billy Bob Thornton, she separated from her third husband, actor Brad Pitt, in September 2016. They have six children together, three of whom were adopted internationally, born in Los Angeles, Jolie is the daughter of actors Jon Voight and Marcheline Bertrand.
She is the sister of actor James Haven and niece of singer-songwriter Chip Taylor and her godparents are actors Jacqueline Bisset and Maximilian Schell. On her fathers side, Jolie is of German and Slovak descent, and on her mothers side, she is of primarily French Canadian, like her mother, Jolie has stated that she is part Iroquois, although her only known indigenous ancestors were 17th-century Hurons. After her parents separation in 1976, Jolie and her brother lived with their mother, when Jolie was six years old and her live-in partner, filmmaker Bill Day, moved the family to Palisades, New York, they returned to Los Angeles five years later. Jolie decided she wanted to act and enrolled at the Lee Strasberg Theatre Institute, Jolie first attended Beverly Hills High School, where she felt isolated among the children of some of the areas affluent families because her mother survived on a more modest income. She was teased by other students, who targeted her for being extremely thin and her early attempts at modeling, at her mothers insistence, proved unsuccessful.
She dropped out of her classes and aspired to become a funeral director. She struggled with insomnia and an eating disorder, and began experimenting with drugs, by age 20, she had used just about every drug possible, particularly heroin. Jolie suffered episodes of depression and twice planned to commit suicide—at age 19 and again at 22, when she was 24, she experienced a nervous breakdown and was admitted for 72 hours to UCLA Medical Centers psychiatric ward. Two years later, after adopting her first child, Jolie found stability in her life, stating, I knew once I committed to Maddox, I would never be self-destructive again. Jolie has had a dysfunctional relationship with her father, which began when Voight left the family when his daughter was less than a year old
East London is a popularly and informally defined part of London, capital of the United Kingdom, lying east of the ancient City and north of the River Thames. East London comprises the whole of six modern London Boroughs – Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest and Dagenham, Havering –, the East End of London is a subset of East London, consisting of areas close to the ancient City of London. The Eastern Postal District is a different subset of East London, the most recent iteration includes the seven boroughs north of the Thames with the addition of three boroughs south of the river. The East End is the old core of East London and there are differing views about how much of East London should be considered part of core area. Aldgate Pump on the edge of the City is a start of East London – more specifically the East End. Tower Bridge is sometimes described in these terms. This well established, but unofficial, definition takes in six modern London boroughs and most of a seventh, the parts of Hackney within East London are, Shoreditch including those parts – notably Hoxton – outside the E postcode area but usually considered part of the core East End.
An area closely, but not quite exactly, corresponding to the E5, E8 and this takes in Dalston, central Hackney, Hackney Wick and Lower and Upper Clapton. The remaining areas of Hackney are usually considered to be part of north London, as well as extramural parts of the City, East London comprises, The E postcode area was introduced in 1857 to facilitate the distribution of mail. The postcode area is a sub-set of East London, with notable exclusions, Hoxton in Shoreditch which is part of the N postcode area. The eastern suburbs built after the introduction of the E postcode area, London currently has 73 parliamentary constituencies, of which 12 are fully and 4 partially in East London. It is anticipated that after 2018 London’s total will be reduced to 68, the 2011 iteration of the London Plan included an altered ‘East’ region, to be used for planning, resource allocation and progress reporting purposes. As well as seven boroughs north of the river, the ‘East’ sub-region includes three boroughs to the south of it, Greenwich and Lewisham, East London is located in the lower Thames valley.
The marshes along the Thames which once stretched from Wapping to Rainham are almost completely gone. The East End, the old core of modern East London, began with the growth of London beyond the city walls, along the Roman Roads leading from Bishopsgate and Aldgate. Urbanisation accelerated in the 16th century and the area that would become known as the East End began to take shape. The relevance of Strypes reference to the Tower was more than geographical, the East End was the major part of an area called the Tower Division, which owed military service to the Tower of London. Later, as the East End grew and the Tower Division contracted, the westernmost component of the Tower Division was the Ancient Parish of Shoreditch which would become fully urbanised as part of the East End\East London
Sir Robert McAlpine
Sir Robert McAlpine is a private British company headquartered in Hertfordshire. It carries out engineering and construction for the oil and gas, power generation, pharmaceutical, chemical, Sir Robert McAlpine, 1st Baronet who founded the eponymous company was born in 1847 in the Scottish village of Newarthill near Motherwell. From the age of seven he worked in the coal mines. Later, working for an engineer, he progressed to being foreman before starting to work on his own account at the age of 22. He had no other than that he could earn himself. From there, McAlpine enjoyed rapid success, the early contracts centred on his own trade of bricklaying, (It was on one of the housing estates he built that he first experimented with using concrete blocks as well as bricks. With the capital he had acquired, McAlpine determined to build a city at Hamilton. Relying now on the income from his estate, McAlpine’s attention moved away from his contracting business towards self-education. However, the financial panic following the collapse of the City of Glasgow Bank in 1878 virtually wiped out McAlpine financially, his mortgages were called in but his debtors did not pay him.
McAlpine’s first large contract was a building for the Singer Manufacturing Company in 1883, almost immediately he faced further financial difficulties. Winning a contract for the Lanarkshire and Ayrshire Railway without the technical knowledge. Undaunted by his experience, McAlpine took on further railway contracts, this time successfully, including the Mallaig Extension Railway. There was a wide range of building and civil engineering contracts. It was argued that this led to a more cautious approach to risk on the part of the sons – if not the father. The inter-war period saw the firm focusing solely on construction. Gray wrote that Sir Robert McAlpine “seemed to have involved in every major building and civil engineering project that ever hit the headlines of the day. ”They included docks, power stations, the Wembley Stadium. The Dorchester was of particular interest, when the client was unable to pay for the construction works, the company took possession of the completed building and operated it on its own account.
In November 1934, Sir Robert died aged 87, two weeks the eldest son, the new Sir Robert, died
2009 G20 London summit
It followed the first G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy, which was held in Washington, D. C. on 14–15 November 2008. Heads of government or heads of state from the G20 attended, due to the extended membership it has been referred to as the London Summit. The policing tactics at the event raised controversy, particularly over the death of Ian Tomlinson. Their actions were sanctioned by the British government and intelligence was passed to British government ministers, as hosts, the British Treasury produced an extended agenda pamphlet proposing the issues to be addressed at the London Summit. The explicit goal was to start the process of reform so as to manage globalisation as a force for good in the medium term, the meeting was organised at the initiative of German Chancellor Angela Merkel. The leaders agreed that markets, financial institutions and the range of financial assets they create. In addition, they called for sanctions against tax havens. They agreed to impose sanctions against countries that intend to undermine their work, they advocated the doubling of funds available to the IMF.
Finance ministers and central bankers of the G20 met in Horsham on 14 March 2009 to prepare for the London Summit, to restore global growth as quickly as possible, the participants decided to approve coordinated and decisive actions to stimulate demand and employment. They pledged to fight against all forms of protectionism and to maintain trade, the members committed themselves to maintain the supply of credit by providing more liquidity and recapitalising the banking system, and to implement rapidly the stimulus plans. As for central bankers, they pledged to maintain low-rates policies as long as necessary, the leaders decided to help emerging and developing countries, through a strengthening of the IMF. They proposed to implement regulation to prevent the risks and to curb business cycles, including the limitation of the leverage effect. They announced new measures to prevent and resolve crises, through the strengthening of the IMF, in the weeks before the London Summit, UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown visited several countries on three continents to try to secure backing for his goals at the London Summit.
During the trip Brown was forced to re-clarify his position on fiscal stimulus after criticism from the Governor of the Bank of England, while speaking at the European Parliament in Strasbourg, France, he was challenged by a Member of the European Parliament over his spending plans. He visited the US, Brazil and Chile, in the weeks leading up to the London Summit, there had been a growing difference of opinions on the question of implementing further fiscal stimulus. On 26 March 2009 the Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolanek strongly criticised the economic policies of US President Barack Obama. G20 leaders began gathering in London on 1 April 2009, at a joint press conference in London and Obama said that suggestions of a rift were exaggerated. On the evening of 1 April the leaders attended a reception at Buckingham Palace hosted by Elizabeth II, during a photograph she lightly rebuked the Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi for shouting too loudly in an effort to attract the attention of President Obama
2012 Summer Olympics
It took place in London and to a lesser extent across the United Kingdom from 25 July to 12 August 2012. The first event, the stage in womens football began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated, London is the first and only city thus far to host the modern Olympic Games three times, having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability, the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London. The Games made use of venues that already existed before the bid, the Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, saudi Arabia and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games.
Womens boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors and these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China, several world and Olympic records were set at the games. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a technical evaluation. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February, throughout the process, Paris was widely seen as the favourite, particularly as this was its third bid in recent years. London was initially seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin and its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between London and Paris, on 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities.
They did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive, London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be very close. Perhaps it will come down to a difference of say ten votes, on 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore. Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New York, the final two contenders were London and Paris
Greenwich Peninsula is an area of south-east London, located in the Royal Borough of Greenwich. The peninsula is bounded on three sides by a loop of the Thames, between the Isle of Dogs to the west and Silvertown to the east, to the south is the rest of Greenwich, to the south-east is Charlton. The peninsula lies within the Royal Borough of Greenwich and this should not be confused with North Greenwich on the Isle of Dogs, at the north side of a former ferry from Greenwich. The peninsulas northernmost point on the riverside is known as Blackwall Point, landmarks include The Dome and the southern end of the Blackwall Tunnel, but the area is now being substantially redeveloped with new homes, schools, a college and parks. The peninsula was drained by Dutch engineers in the 16th century, in the 17th century, Blackwall Point gained notoriety as a location where pirates corpses were hung in cages as a deterrent to other would-be pirates. In the 1690s the Board of Ordnance established a magazine on the west side of the peninsula.
Alongside the magazine was a wharf, a house and accommodation for the resident Storekeeper. By 1771 gunpowder was no longer stored at Greenwich, the peninsula was steadily industrialised from the early 19th century onwards. In 1857 a plan was presented to Parliament for a huge dock occupying much of the peninsula, connected to Greenwich Reach to the west and Bugsbys Reach to the east, but this came to nothing. Early industries included Henry Blakeleys Ordnance Works making heavy guns, with other sites making chemicals, submarine cables, iron boats and steel. Henry Bessemer built a works in the early 1860s to supply the London shipbuilding industry. Later came oil mills, boiler making, manufacture of Portland cement and linoleum, early in the 20th century came bronze manufacturers Delta Metals and works making asbestos and Molassine Meal animal feed. For over 100 years the peninsula was dominated by the gasworks which primarily produced town gas, the gasworks grew to 240 acres, the largest in Europe, producing coke and chemicals as important secondary products.
The site had its own railway system connected to the main railway line near Charlton. There were two huge gas holders, of 8.6 and 12.2 million ft3, originally manufacturing gas from coal, the plant began to manufacture gas from oil in the 1960s. Its peak production of 400 million ft3 per day in the mid 1960s is believed to have been the largest of any site in the world. The discovery of gas reserves in the North Sea soon rendered the complex obsolete. On the eastern shore was Blackwall Point Power Station, the station from the 1890s was replaced in the 1950s by a new station which ceased operation about 1981
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The network has expanded to 11 lines, and in 2015–16 carried 1.34 billion passengers, the 11 lines collectively handle approximately 4.8 million passengers a day. The system has 270 stations and 250 miles of track, despite its name, only 45% of the system is actually underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, the current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares, the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style.
Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, to prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, and was later, in 1861, the worlds first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground inner circle connecting Londons main-line termini. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and this opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells. The Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, the Metropolitan Railway protested about the change of plan, but after arbitration by the Board of Trade, the DC system was adopted.
When the Bakerloo was so named in July 1906, The Railway Magazine called it an undignified gutter title, by 1907 the District and Metropolitan Railways had electrified the underground sections of their lines. In January 1913, the UERL acquired the Central London Railway, the Bakerloo line was extended north to Queens Park to join a new electric line from Euston to Watford, but World War I delayed construction and trains reached Watford Junction in 1917. During air raids in 1915 people used the stations as shelters. An extension of the Central line west to Ealing was delayed by the war, the Metropolitan promoted housing estates near the railway with the Metro-land brand and nine housing estates were built near stations on the line. Electrification was extended north from Harrow to Rickmansworth, and branches opened from Rickmansworth to Watford in 1925, the Piccadilly line was extended north to Cockfosters and took over District line branches to Harrow and Hounslow. In 1933, most of Londons underground railways and bus services were merged to form the London Passenger Transport Board, the Waterloo & City Railway, which was by in the ownership of the main line Southern Railway, remained with its existing owners.
In the same year that the London Passenger Transport Board was formed, in the following years, the outlying lines of the former Metropolitan Railway closed, the Brill Tramway in 1935, and the line from Quainton Road to Verney Junction in 1936