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Excalibur is the legendary sword of King Arthur, sometimes attributed with magical powers or associated with the rightful sovereignty of Britain. Excalibur and the Sword in the Stone are sometimes said to be the same weapon, but in most versions they are considered separate. Excalibur was associated with the Arthurian legend early on. In Welsh, it is called Caledfwlch; the name Excalibur derives from the Welsh Caledfwlch, a compound of caled "hard" and bwlch "breach, cleft". Caledfwlch appears including the prose tale Culhwch and Olwen; the name was used in Welsh adaptations of foreign material such as the Bruts, which were based on Geoffrey of Monmouth. It is considered to be related to the phonetically similar Caladbolg, a sword borne by several figures from Irish mythology, although a borrowing of Caledfwlch from Irish Caladbolg has been considered unlikely by Rachel Bromwich and D. Simon Evans, they suggest instead that both names "may have arisen at a early date as generic names for a sword".

This sword became the property of Arthur in the British tradition. Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his Historia Regum Britanniae, Latinised the name of Arthur's sword as Caliburnus. Most Celticists consider Geoffrey's Caliburnus to be derivative of a lost Old Welsh text in which bwlch had not yet been lenited to fwlch. In the late 15th/early 16th-century Middle Cornish play Beunans Ke, Arthur's sword is called Calesvol, etymologically an exact Middle Cornish cognate of the Welsh Caledfwlch, it is unclear if the name was borrowed from the Welsh, or represents an early, pan-Brittonic traditional name for Arthur's sword. In Old French sources this became Escalibor and the familiar Excalibur. Geoffrey Gaimar, in his Old French L'Estoire des Engleis, mentions Arthur and his sword: "this Constantine was the nephew of Arthur, who had the sword Caliburc". In Wace's Roman de Brut, an Old French translation and versification of Geoffrey's Historia, the sword is called Calabrum, Callibourc and Calabrun. In Chrétien de Troyes' late 12th-century Old French Perceval, Arthur's knight Gawain carries the sword Escalibor and it is stated, "for at his belt hung Escalibor, the finest sword that there was, which sliced through iron as through wood".

This statement was picked up by the author of the Estoire Merlin, or Vulgate Merlin, where the author asserts that Escalibor "is a Hebrew name which means in French'cuts iron and wood'". It is from this fanciful etymological musing that Thomas Malory got the notion that Excalibur meant "cut steel". In Arthurian romance, a number of explanations are given for Arthur's possession of Excalibur. In Robert de Boron's Merlin, the first tale to mention the "sword in the stone" motif, Arthur obtained the British throne by pulling a sword from an anvil sitting atop a stone that appeared in a churchyard on Christmas Eve. In this account, as foretold by Merlin, the act could not be performed except by "the true king," meaning the divinely appointed king or true heir of Uther Pendragon; as Malory writes: "Whoso pulleth out this sword of this stone and anvil, is rightwise king born." The identity of this sword as Excalibur is made explicit in the Prose Merlin, part of the Lancelot-Grail cycle. However, in the most famous English-language version of the Arthurian tales, Malory's 15th-century Le Morte d'Arthur, early in his reign Arthur breaks the Sword from the Stone while in combat against King Pellinore, is given Excalibur by the Lady of the Lake in exchange for a boon.

In the Post-Vulgate Cycle, Excalibur was given to Arthur by the Lady of the Lake sometime after he began to reign. In the Vulgate Mort Artu, Arthur is at the brink of death and so orders Griflet to throw the sword into the enchanted lake; this tale becomes attached to Bedivere instead of Griflet in the English tradition. Malory records both versions of the legend in his Le Morte d'Arthur, naming both swords as Excalibur. In Welsh legends, Arthur's sword is known as Caledfwlch. In Culhwch and Olwen, it is one of Arthur's most valuable possessions and is used by Arthur's warrior Llenlleawg the Irishman to kill the Irish king Diwrnach while stealing his magical cauldron. Irish mythology mentions a weapon Caladbolg, the sword of Fergus mac Róich, known for its incredible power and was carried by some of Ireland's greatest heroe

Pijao people

The Pijao are an indigenous people of Colombia. The Pijao or Pijaos formed a loose federation of Amerindians and were living in the present-day department of Tolima, Colombia. In pre-Columbian times, they inhabited the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes, they did not create an empire. The chiefdom was based on an extended family clan with ancestral lineage; the people did not live in separate households gathered in villages. They used bonfires to communicate with smoke signs, these were used to convene different community events. Like many ancient peoples, they relied on waterways for routes of transportation, they called their best navigators boha. Their boats were called kanoha, were carved from a single piece of Saman wood; the Pijao were experts in manufacturing gold articles and clothing. Their work has been seen in gold artifacts from the Tolima, Quimbaya and Cauca cultures, they used techniques such as "lost wax" casting, rolled gold and other methods to make their balacas and other items for ceremonial use, such as the poporos.

Like some other ancient cultures, the Pijao practiced skull modification and facial alterations, as well as a variety of body modifications to identify or distinguish elites. They tied slats on male babies' heads to alter their frontal and occipital regions to give them a look of ferocity, they modified the shape of their upper and lower extremities using adjusted ropes. They changed the appearance of the nose by fracturing the nasal septum, they pierced the nose and the ear lobes to wear gold ornaments and decorations symbolic of their religion. They called; the crowns of the elite were made of several precious materials. They painted their bodies for communal events with a red color powder known as achiote, their assemblies known as Mingas, were held under the broad shade of the Ceiba trees. The Ceiba was considered a symbol of the Great Home of a rich and motherly nature. Here they carried out crowning of chiefs, wedding rituals and other major events. Most were accompanied by dancing to the beat of maracas, fotuto and drums.

Young single women were decorated with flowers. Agriculturalists, the Pijao lived close to the earth in homes made of rammed earth. Due to the tropical climate and excellent soil in the highlands, they were able to grow and cultivate many crops including potatoes, maize, papayas and many other fruits and vegetables, they fished and hunted for meats. They wore, as a custom dress, beautifully decorated golden clothes which did not cover their genitals, they painted their bodies with dyed tops of bija. The Spanish conquerors called them Bipxaus, the same name as one of the Paece chiefdoms, they referred to the people as the Pijao, which came to be considered a pejorative. The Pijao practiced ritual cannibalism of their enemies; the Spanish captain Diego de Bocanegra accused them of having cannibalized up to 100,000 Spaniards in 50 years. Despite driving back the invading Spaniards, the Pijao population kept decreasing and they were pushed further south in the highlands, they began to clash with neighboring tribes such as the Coconuco, Páez, Puruhá, Cana.

By the mid-18th century, the Pijao people had suffered drastic losses due to new infectious diseases, to which they had no immunity. Missionary Christians had taken a toll through conversion and re-education of many natives; the Spanish followed their invasions with colonization of most of the central highlands and the Andes mountain ranges. Through these measures they established the New Kingdom of Granada; the Pijao language has not been classified. It is not listed in Kaufman. Campbell, Lyle. American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1. Gordon Jr. Raymond G.. Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X.. Kaufman, Terrence. "The native languages of South America", in C. Mosley & R. E. Asher, Atlas of the world's languages. London: Routledge. Pijao Ethnologue Pijao at Encyclopædia Britannica

Valentin Plătăreanu

Valentin Plătăreanu was a Romanian actor and drama teacher. From 1958 to 1980, he played more than 30 parts at the Theatre of Youth in Piatra Neamț at the National Theatre Bucharest, has served as their Deputy Director. In 1978–79 he directed Hernani, by Victor Hugo. In 1983, Plătăreanu left Romania and settled in Germany with his wife and his daughter, Alexandra Maria Lara. In 1992, he founded the Charlottenburg Drama School with Henner Oft. Flores · Part: Gabriel Ramos · Director: Felix von Boehm Offset · Part: Mr. Herghelegiu · Director: Didi Danquart Der Fischer und seine Frau · Part: Radu · Director: Doris Dörrie Enemy at the Gates · Part: General Schmidt · Director: Jean-Jacques Annaud Berlin Is in Germany · Part: Victor Valentin · Director: Hannes Stöhr Mulo · Director: Iva Svarcova Zum Beispiel Otto Spalt · Part: Scientist from KGB · Director: René Perraudin Am o idee · Part: Pascu · Director: Alecu Croitoru Războiul independenţei · Part: Prince Lahovary · Director: Sergiu Nicolaescu Oil!

· Part: Ionescu · Director: Mircea Drăgan Schimanski: Asyl · Part: General · Director: Ed. Berger · WDR Tatort: "Der Prügelknabe" · Part: Milic · Director: Thomas Jauch · ARD Für alle Fälle Stefanie · Part: Herr Marquardt · Director: div. · Sat.1 Siebenstein · Director: Hans-Henning Borgelt · ZDF Tatort · Part: Dr. Salewic · Director: Robert Sigl · SWR Ich schenk Dir meinen Mann · Part: Jaruslaw · Director: Karola Hattop · ZDF Die 8. Todsünde · Part: Liwinsky · Director: Stefan Meyer · ARD Victor Klemperer · Part: Natschew · Director: Kai Wessel · ARD Tatort: "Undercover Camping" · Part: Emilio · Director: Jürgen Bretzinger · ARD Liebling Kreuzberg · Part: Episode Lead · ARD Grosse Freiheit · Director: Robert Sigl Todesspiel · Director: Heinrich Breloer · 2-Teiler · ZDF Valentin Plătăreanu on IMDb

Peter Fassbender

Peter Fassbender is a Canadian politician, elected to the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia in the 2013 provincial election after a career at the municipal level. He was elected to represent the electoral district of Surrey-Fleetwood as a member of the British Columbia Liberal Party, he was appointed by Premier Christy Clark as Minister of Education in June 2013 Minister of Community and Cultural Development & Minister Responsible for TransLink in July 2015. Fassbender was born in Germany and emigrated to Canada with his parents in 1952. Since he has lived his whole life in Surrey, he graduated from Queen Elizabeth High School in Surrey and attended the National Broadcasting School in Vancouver. He got a film librarian job at CHAN Television and moved up the ranks to cameraman, producer and director, he worked for advertising agency James Lovick in the early 1970s and became a partner of Frank Palmer at national firm DDB Canada. A major focus of his private sector career focused on social marketing campaigns including smoking cessation projects for Health Canada and international marketing activities for Industry Canada.

In 1996 and 1997 he was reported to have done volunteer public relations work for the evangelical men's organization Promise Keepers. He is a distant cousin of actor Michael Fassbender. After a failed run at a Social Credit nomination, Fassbender served a four-year term during some turbulent years on the Langley school board. During that time, the board pursued a'back-to-basics' approach that considered restoration of corporal punishment and banning the Go Ask Alice novel. Fassbender says. Fassbender was elected for the first time to the city council of Langley in 2002, as mayor in the 2005, 2008 and 2011 civic elections, he advocated for the growing communities south of the Fraser River as co-chair of the municipal advisory council for Fraser Health and as vice-chair of TransLink's mayors council. In November 2012, the provincial government appointed Fassbender as chair of the board for the BC Pavilion Corporation, which operates BC Place Stadium and the Vancouver Convention Centre. In addition to dealing with major renovations, the position dealt with transparency criticism from journalist Bob Mackin.

In the 2013 provincial election, he defeated three-term NDP MLA Jagrup Brar and took leave from his mayoral position. As Minister of Education, one of his priorities was to seek a 10-year labour agreement with the British Columbia Teachers' Federation. In addition to his ministerial duties, Fassbender sits on the Cabinet Committee on Secure Tomorrow

Bootham Park Hospital

Bootham Park Hospital was a psychiatric hospital, located in the Bootham district of York, England. It was managed by the Tees and Wear Valleys Foundation NHS Trust; the main building is a Grade I listed building. In 1772, Robert Hay Drummond, the Archbishop of York, decided along with "twenty-four Yorkshire gentlemen" to establish an asylum, to be known as the "County Lunatic Asylum, York". A committee was established, the architect John Carr was co-opted with a pledge of 25 guineas. Carr's patron, the Marquis of Rockingham, pledged 100 guineas, a total of £2,500 was subscribed. By July 1773, £5,000 had been promised, Carr's scheme to accommodate 54 patients was approved on 25 August; the building was completed in 1777. Following criticism about the handling of inmates at the asylum and the death of Hannah Mills, a Quaker, led the local Quaker community to found a new asylum known as The Retreat in 1790; the asylum became Bootham Park Hospital in 1904 and it joined the National Health Service in 1948.

In late September 2015 the hospital was declared unfit by the Care Quality Commission, ordered to close by the end of the month. Staff were given 5 days notice to close the building; the hospital was closed on 1 October 2015. On the same day Tees and Wear Valleys Foundation NHS Trust replaced Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust as the provider of most mental health services in York. Patients were transferred to other premises, some quite distant. An independent report commissioned by York City Council from John Ransford concluded: The Vale of York Clinical Commissioning Group failed to ensure that the transfer was properly managed. A small unit for those detained under the Mental Health Act re-opened a few days and outpatient clinics were reopened in February 2016. Hospital archives

Greatest Remix Hits (2 Unlimited album)

Greatest Remix Hits is a 2006 remix album and DVD compilation by 2 Unlimited, a Eurodance project founded in 1991 by Belgian producers Jean-Paul DeCoster and Phil Wilde and fronted by Dutch rapper Ray Slijngaard and Dutch vocalist Anita Doth. The Greatest Remix Hits album comes with a DVD featuring their music videos; this compilation has been re-released in several countries around the world since the original Australian release. Some of these countries include South Africa and much of Europe. Get Ready For This Twilight Zone No Limits Tribal Dance Here I Go Real Thing No One Let The Beat Control Your Body Magic Friend Nothing Like The Rain Workaholic Faces Murphy's Megamix No Limit Faces Maximum Overdrive Let the Beat Control Your Body The Real Thing No One The Magic Friend Workaholic Get Ready for This Tribal Dance Nothing Like the Rain Here I Go Jump For Joy Do What's Good for Me Spread Your Love No Limit 2.3 Countdown Special