A novel is a long work of narrative fiction written in prose form, and, published as a book. The entire genre has been seen as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in classical Greece and Rome, in medieval and early modern romance, in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji has been described as the world's first novel. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty. Parallel European developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel, suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century. Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse.
However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era makes use of a literary prose style; the development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives.
A fictional narrativeFictionality is most cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Throughout the early modern period authors of historical narratives would include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Literary proseWhile prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France those by Chrétien de Troyes, in Middle English. In the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan, Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh, competed with prose novels. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel.
Content: intimate experienceBoth in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct", "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance. LengthThe novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the 17th century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, not possible; the requirement of length has been traditionally connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the "totality of life." Although early forms of the novel are to be found in a number of places, including classical Rome, 10th– and 11th-century Japan, Elizabethan England, the European novel is said to have begun with Don Quixote in 1605.
Early works of extended fictional prose, or novels, include works in Latin like the Satyricon by Petronius, The Golden Ass by Apuleius, works in Ancient Greek such as Daphnis and Chloe by Longus, works in Sanskrit such as the 4th or 5th century Vasavadatta by Subandhu, 6th– or 7th-century Daśakumāracarita and Avantisundarīkathā by Daṇḍin, in the 7th-century Kadambari by Banabhatta, Murasaki Shikibu's 11th-century Japanese work The Tale of Genji, the 12th-century Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, who wrote in Arabic, the 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, another Arabic novelist, Blanquerna, written in Catalan by Ramon Llull, the 14th-century Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Gua
Women's Royal Naval Service
The Women's Royal Naval Service was the women's branch of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy. First formed in 1917 for the First World War, it was disbanded in 1919 revived in 1939 at the beginning of the Second World War, remaining active until integrated into the Royal Navy in 1993. WRNs included cooks, wireless telegraphists, radar plotters, weapons analysts, range assessors and air mechanics; the Wrens were formed in 1917 during the First World War. On 10 October 1918, nineteen-year-old Josephine Carr from Cork, became the first Wren to die on active service, when her ship, the RMS Leinster was torpedoed. By the end of the war the WRNS had 500 of them officers. In addition, about 2,000 members of the WRAF had served with the WRNS supporting the Royal Naval Air Service and were transferred on the creation of the Royal Air Force, it was disbanded in 1919. The WRNS was revived in 1939 at the beginning of the Second World War, with an expanded list of allowable activities, including flying transport planes.
At its peak in 1944 it had 75,000 active servicewomen. During the war there were 100 deaths. One of the slogans used in recruiting posters was "Join the Wrens—free a man for the fleet." In the 1970s it became obvious that equal pay for women and the need to remove sexual discrimination meant that the WRNS and the Royal Navy would become one organisation. The key change was that women would become subject to the Naval Discipline Act 1957. Vonla McBride who had experience in Human resource management became the Director of the WRNS in 1976 and members of the WRNS were subject to the same discipline as men as of 1977; the WRNS remained in existence after the war and was integrated into the regular Royal Navy in 1993 when women were allowed to serve on board navy vessels as full members of the crew. In October 1990, during the Gulf War, HMS Brilliant carried the first women to serve on an operational warship; that same year, Chief Officer Pippa Duncan became the first WRNS officer to command a Royal Navy shore establishment.
Before 1993, all women in the Royal Navy were members of the WRNS except nurses, who joined Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service, medical and dental officers, who were commissioned directly into the Royal Navy, held RN ranks, wore WRNS uniform with gold RN insignia. Female sailors are still known by Jennies in naval slang; the WRNS had its own ranking system, which it retained until amalgamation into the Royal Navy in 1993. Ratings' titles were suffixed with their trade. Wrens in blue instead of gold; the "curls" atop officers' rank stripes were diamond-shaped instead of circular. From 1939, Wren uniform consisted of a double-breasted jacket and skirt, with shirt and tie, for all ranks. Junior Ratings wore hats similar to those of their male counterparts. Senior Ratings and officers wore tricorne hats with a white cover. All insignia, including cap badges and non-substantive badges, were blue. Fletcher, Marjorie H.. The WRNS: A History of the Women's Royal Naval Service. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.
ISBN 9780870219979. Heath, Hacking the Nazis: The secret story of the women who broke Hitler's codes, TechRepublic, March 27, 2015Memoirs Thomas, Lesley. WRNS in Camera. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. Unwin, Vicky. Love and War in the WRNS. Gloucestershire: The History Press. Search and download the WW1 records of those who served in the Women's Royal Naval Service from The National Archives. Wrens Recruitment Poster Wrens Recruitment Poster 2 Women in the Royal Navy today Archived Page Association of Wrens
Less than Angels
Less Than Angels is a novel by Barbara Pym, first published in 1955. The novel is concerned with the activities of a group of anthropologists, is to some extent based on the author's own experiences working at the International African Institute in London, it is set in a period of social change, subtly represented within the novel's plot and setting Catherine Oliphant is a young writer, who lives with anthropologist Tom Mallow. Tom begins a romance with a student, Deirdre Swann, his relationship with Catherine fizzles out. At the same time, she becomes interested in reclusive anthropologist Alaric Lydgate, who has returned from Africa. Tom departs for Africa. Deirdre begins to return Digby's fondness for her, Catherine seems about to begin a relationship with Alaric; the central character, Catherine, is considered by many to represent the author, being a writer of short stories who observes the actions of other characters with an air of detachment. Anne Wyatt-Brown writes, she shares her author’s imagination, her amused reaction to anthropologists, her detachment."
Philip Arthur Larkin was an English poet and librarian. His first book of poetry, The North Ship, was published in 1945, followed by two novels, Jill and A Girl in Winter, he came to prominence in 1955 with the publication of his second collection of poems, The Less Deceived, followed by The Whitsun Weddings and High Windows, he contributed to The Daily Telegraph as its jazz critic from 1961 to 1971, articles gathered in All What Jazz: A Record Diary 1961–71, he edited The Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse. His many honours include the Queen's Gold Medal for Poetry, he was offered, but declined, the position of Poet Laureate in 1984, following the death of Sir John Betjeman. After graduating from Oxford in 1943 with a first in English language and literature, Larkin became a librarian, it was during the thirty years he worked with distinction as university librarian at the Brynmor Jones Library at the University of Hull that he produced the greater part of his published work. His poems are marked by what Andrew Motion calls "a English, glum accuracy” about emotions and relationships, what Donald Davie described as "lowered sights and diminished expectations".
Eric Homberger called him "the saddest heart in the post-war supermarket"—Larkin himself said that deprivation for him was “what daffodils were for Wordsworth”. Influenced by W. H. Auden, W. B. Yeats, Thomas Hardy, his poems are structured but flexible verse forms, they were described by Jean Hartley, the ex-wife of Larkin's publisher George Hartley, as a "piquant mixture of lyricism and discontent", though anthologist Keith Tuma writes that there is more to Larkin's work than its reputation for dour pessimism suggests. Larkin's public persona was that of the no-nonsense, solitary Englishman who disliked fame and had no patience for the trappings of the public literary life; the posthumous publication by Anthony Thwaite in 1992 of his letters triggered controversy about his personal life and political views, described by John Banville as hair-raising, but in places hilarious. Lisa Jardine called him a "casual, habitual racist, an easy misogynist", but the academic John Osborne argued in 2008 that "the worst that anyone has discovered about Larkin are some crass letters and a taste for porn softer than what passes for mainstream entertainment".
Despite the controversy Larkin was chosen in a 2003 Poetry Book Society survey two decades after his death, as Britain's best-loved poet of the previous 50 years, in 2008 The Times named him Britain's greatest post-war writer. In 1973 a Coventry Evening Telegraph reviewer referred to Larkin as "the bard of Coventry", but in 2010, 25 years after his death, it was Larkin's adopted home city, Kingston upon Hull, that commemorated him with the Larkin 25 Festival which culminated in the unveiling of a statue of Larkin by Martin Jennings on 2 December 2010, the 25th anniversary of his death. On 2 December 2016, the 31st anniversary of his death, a floor stone memorial for Larkin was unveiled at Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. Philip Larkin was born on 9 August 1922 at 2, Poultney Road, Coventry, the only son and younger child of Sydney Larkin, who came from Lichfield, his wife, Eva Emily Day of Epping; the family lived in the district of Radford, until Larkin was five years old, before moving to a large three-storey middle-class house complete with servants quarters near Coventry railway station and King Henry VIII School, in Manor Road.
Having survived the bombings of the Second World War their former house in Manor Road was demolished in the 1960s to make way for a road modernisation programme, the construction of an inner ring road. His sister Catherine, known as Kitty, was 10 years older, his father, a self-made man who had risen to be Coventry City Treasurer, was a singular individual,'nihilistically disillusioned in middle age', who combined a love of literature with an enthusiasm for Nazism, had attended two Nuremberg rallies during the mid-'30s. He introduced his son to the works of Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, James Joyce and above all D. H. Lawrence, his mother was a nervous and passive woman, "a kind of defective mechanism... Her ideal is ` to be taken care of", dominated by her husband. Larkin's early childhood was in some respects unusual: he was educated at home until the age of eight by his mother and sister, neither friends nor relatives visited the family home, he developed a stammer. Nonetheless, when he joined Coventry's King Henry VIII Junior School he fitted in and made close, long-standing friendships, such as those with James "Jim" Sutton, Colin Gunner and Noel "Josh" Hughes.
Although home life was cold, Larkin enjoyed support from his parents. For example, his deep passion for jazz was supported by the purchase of a drum kit and a saxophone, supplemented by a subscription to Down Beat. From the junior school he progressed to King Henry VIII Senior School, he fared quite poorly when he sat his School Certificate exam at the age of 16. Despite his results, he was allowed to stay on at school. Larkin began at Oxford University in October 1940, a year after the outbreak of Second World War; the old upper class traditions of university life had, at least for the time being and most of the male students were studying for truncated degrees. Due to his poor eyesight, Larkin failed his military medical examination and was able to study for the usual three years. Through his tutorial partner, Norman Iles, he met Kingsley Amis
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Naval history of World War II
In the beginning of World War II the Royal Navy was still the strongest navy in the world, with the largest number of warships built and with naval bases across the globe. Totalling over 15 battleships and battlecruisers, 7 aircraft carriers, 66 cruisers, 164 destroyers and 66 submarines. In the course of the war the United States Navy grew tremendously as the United States was faced with a two-front war on the seas. By the end of World War II the U. S Navy was larger than any other navy in the world; the United States Navy grew during World War II from 1941–45, played a central role in the Pacific theatre in the war against Japan. It played a major supporting role, alongside the Royal Navy, in the European war against Germany; the Imperial Japanese Navy sought naval superiority in the Pacific by sinking the main American battle fleet at Pearl Harbor, built around its battleships. The December 1941 surprise attack on Pearl Harbor did knock out the battle fleet, but it did not touch the aircraft carriers, which became the mainstay of the rebuilt fleet.
Naval doctrine had to be changed overnight. The United States Navy had followed Alfred Thayer Mahan's emphasis on concentrated groups of battleships as the main offensive naval weapons; the loss of the battleships at Pearl Harbor forced Admiral Ernest J. King, the head of the Navy, to place primary emphasis on the small number of aircraft carriers; the U. S. Navy grew tremendously, it achieved notable acclaim in the Pacific War, where it was instrumental to the Allies' successful "island hopping" campaign. The U. S. Navy fought five great battles with the Imperial Japanese Navy: the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the Battle of Okinawa. By war's end in 1945, the United States Navy had added thousands of new ships, including 18 aircraft carriers and 8 battleships, had over 70% of the world's total numbers and total tonnage of naval vessels of 1,000 tons or greater. At its peak, the U. S. Navy was operating 6,768 ships on V-J Day in August 1945, including 28 aircraft carriers, 23 battleships, 71 escort carriers, 72 cruisers, over 232 submarines, 377 destroyers, thousands of amphibious and auxiliary ships.
The American war plan was "Rainbow 5" and was completed on 14 May 1941. It assumed that the United States was allied with Britain and France and provided for offensive operations by American forces in Europe, Africa, or both; the assumptions and plans for Rainbow 5 were discussed extensively in the Plan Dog memo, which concluded that the United States would adhere to a Europe first strategy, making the war against Germany a higher priority than the war against Japan. However President Roosevelt did not approve the plan—he wanted to play it by ear; the Navy wanted to make Japan the top target, in 1941-43 the U. S. in effect was fighting a naval war against Japan, in addition to its support for Army landings in North Africa and Italy in 1942-43. U. S. Strategy in 1941 was to deter Japan from further advances toward British, Dutch and American territories to the South; when the Allies cut off sales of oil to Japan, it lost 90% of its fuel supply for airplanes and warships. It had stocks that would last two.
It had to fight to recapture British and Dutch wells to the South. In November 1941, U. S. Army Chief of Staff George Marshall explained the American air war strategy to the press—it was top secret and not for publication: We are preparing for an offensive war against Japan, whereas the Japs believe we are preparing only to defend the Philippines.... We have 35 Flying Fortresses there—the largest concentration anywhere in the world. Twenty more will be added next month, 60 more in January.... If war with the Japanese does come, we'll fight mercilessly. Flying fortresses will be dispatched to set the paper cities of Japan on fire. There wont be any hesitation about bombing civilians—it will be all-out. Marshall was talking about long-range B-17 bombers based in the Philippines, which were within range of Tokyo. After Japan captured the Philippines in early 1942, American strategy refocused on a naval war focusing on the capture of islands close enough for the intensive bombing campaign Marshall spoke about.
In 1944, the Navy captured Saipan and the Mariana Islands, which were within range of the new B-29 bombers. After its Pearl Harbor victory in early December the Imperial Japanese Navy seemed unstoppable because it outnumbered and outgunned the disorganized Allies—US, Netherlands, China. London and Washington both believed in Mahanian doctrine, which stressed the need for a unified fleet. However, in contrast to the cooperation achieved by the armies, the Allied navies failed to combine or coordinate their activities until mid-1942. Tokyo believed in Mahan, who said command of the seas—achieved by great fleet battles—was the key to sea power. Therefore, the IJN kept its main strike force together under Admiral Yamamoto and won a series of stunning victories over the Americans and British in the 90 days after Pearl Harbor. Outgunned at sea, with its big guns lying at the bottom of Pearl Harbor, the American strategy for victory required a slow retreat or holding action against the IJN until the much greater industrial potential of the US could be mobilized to launch a fleet capable of projecting Allied power to the enemy heartland.
The Battle of Midway, together with the Guadalcanal campaign, marked the turning point in the Pacific. Between June 4–7, 1942, the United States Navy decisively defeated a Japanese naval force that had sought to lure the U. S. carrier fleet into a trap at Midway Atoll. The Japanese fleet lost four aircraft carriers
Jane and Prudence
Jane and Prudence is a novel by Barbara Pym, first published in 1953 and, according to the novelist Jilly Cooper, her finest work - "full of wit, plotting and miraculous observation". Jane, a vicar's wife, lives a different kind of life from her friend, the single and independent Prudence; the book details the period in Nicholas and Jane’s life when they take over a new parish in an English village and encounter the widower Fabian Driver, who Jane decides will make an excellent husband for Prudence. Prudence has an imponderable attraction to her older and impervious employer, the head of an unspecified academic foundation. There is, competition for Fabian - Jessie Morrow, another spinster in the parish who seeks escape from her low-paid job as a companion to the domineering Miss Doggett. Miss Morrow and Miss Doggett appear in Pym's posthumously-published novel, Crampton Hodnet, written in the late 1930s. Jane a good hearted Vicar’s wife in her 40th year Nicholas, her mild mannered husband Flora, their despairing teenage daughter Prudence 29 a beautiful and elegant spinster Fabian, a vain and self-obsessed widower Miss Doggett, a tyrannical old lady Miss Morrow, her outwardly meek but calculating companion Jane and Prudence was adapted for radio and first broadcast in 2008.
Penelope Wilton was the narrator, Emma Fielding played Susie Blake Jane. Miss Doggett was played by Elizabeth Spriggs. Http://www.st-gabriels.com http://www.barbara-pym.org